Resources for School of Plant and Environmental Sciences

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per 30 foot of row can reduce cotton yield by 6 to 12%.
Sep 22, 2020 2805-1001 (SPES-266NP)
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Control in Soybeans Mar 20, 2020 2808-1006 (SPES-194NP)
American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) Oct 10, 2018 2901-1033NP
American Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea (prior name C. lutea)) Oct 10, 2018 2901-1034NP
Evergreen Azalea (Rhododendron species) Oct 10, 2018 2901-1035NP
Beautybush (Kolkwitzia amabilis) Oct 12, 2018 2901-1036NP
Cherrylaurel (Prunus laurocerasus `Otto Luyken') Oct 12, 2018 2901-1038NP
Cotoneaster Oct 12, 2018 2901-1039NP
Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) Oct 15, 2018 2901-1040NP
Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum) Oct 15, 2018 2901-1041NP
Drooping Leucothoe (Leucothoe fontanesiana) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1042NP
European White Birch (Betula pendula) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1043NP
Flowering Quince Oct 23, 2018 2901-1044NP
Fraser Photinia, Red Tip Oct 23, 2018 2901-1045NP
Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree Oct 23, 2018 2901-1046NP
Goldenraintree Oct 23, 2018 2901-1047NP
Green Ash Oct 23, 2018 2901-1048NP
Japanese Maple Oct 23, 2018 2901-1049NP
Japanese Barberry Oct 23, 2018 2901-1050NP
Japanese Camillia (Camellia japonica) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1051NP
Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1052NP
Japanese Pagodatree, Sophora Oct 5, 2018 2901-1053NP
Leatherleaf Viburnum (Viburnum rhytidophyllum) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1054NP
Littleleaf Linden (Tilia cordata) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1055NP
Live Oak (Quercus virginiana) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1056NP
London Planetree (Platanus x acerifolia) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1057NP
Nandina, Heavenly Bamboo (Nandina domestica) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1058NP
Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1059
Old Fashioned Weigela (Weigela florida) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1060
Oregon Grape Holly (Mahonia) (Mahonia aquifolium) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1061
Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1062
Privet (Ligustrum species) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1063
Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1064
Evergreen Rhododendron (Rhododendron species) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1065
Rose-of-Sharon, Shrub Althea (Hibiscus syriacus) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1066
Scarlet Firethorn, Pyracantha (Pyracantha coccinea) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1067
Smokebush, Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1068
Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Oct 19, 2018 2901-1069
Southern Waxmyrtle (Myrica cerifera) Oct 19, 2018 2901-1070
Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Oct 19, 2018 2901-1071
Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1072
Thornless Common Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1073
Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1074
Vanhoutte Spirea (Spiraea x vanhouttei) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1075
White Oak (Quercus alba) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1076
Winterberry (Ilex verticillata) Oct 26, 2018 2901-1077
Wintercreeper Euonymus (Eunymus fortunei) Oct 26, 2018 2901-1078
Yaupon Holly Cultivars (Ilex vomitoria ) Oct 26, 2018 2901-1079
Sell Cut Flowers from Perennial Summer-flowering Bulbs Jan 25, 2019 2906-1370 (SPES-101NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Five: Understanding Ammonia Volatilization from Fertilizers
Loss of nitrogen (N) as ammonia gas (NH3) is known as volatilization. While volatilization directly from soil can occur, such loss is generally relatively small compared to the amount that can be lost from fertilizers. Volatilization losses can be significant with granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) sources, but the amount of loss varies greatly depending on placement of the fertilizer, soil pH, soil texture, and climatic conditions after application.
Sep 29, 2020 2908-1404 (SPES-264NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Six - Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Properties Nov 16, 2018 2908-1405 (SPES-78NP)
Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs Nov 16, 2018 2909-1410 (SPES-80NP)
Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn Nov 16, 2018 3002-1438 (SPES-77NP)
Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley Nov 16, 2018 3003-1440 (SPES-79NP)
Austrian Pine, Pinus nigra Oct 26, 2018 3010-1462
Bigleaf Hydrangea, Hydrangea macrophylla Oct 26, 2018 3010-1463
Bradford Callery Pear (and other cultivars) Pyrus calleryana ‘Bradford’ Oct 26, 2018 3010-1464
Cedars, Cedrus spp. Oct 31, 2018 3010-1467
Chastetree, Monk’s Pepper Tree, Vitex agnus-castus Oct 31, 2018 3010-1468
Colorado Spruce, Picea pungens var. glauca Oct 31, 2018 3010-1470
Cornelian Cherry Dogwood, Cornus mas Oct 31, 2018 3010-1472
Creeping Juniper, Juniperus horizontalis Oct 31, 2018 3010-1473
Dawn Redwood, Metasequoia glyptostroboides Oct 31, 2018 3010-1474
Eastern Arborvitae, American Arborvitae, White Cedar, Thuja occidentalis Oct 31, 2018 3010-1476
Eastern Redcedar, Juniperus virginiana Oct 31, 2018 3010-1477
European Hornbeam, Carpinus betulus Nov 6, 2018 3010-1480NP
European Larch, Larix decidua Nov 6, 2018 3010-1481NP
Flowering Crabapple Nov 8, 2018 3010-1483NP
Franklinia Nov 21, 2018 3010-1485NP
Garden Sumacs, Rhus spp. Nov 21, 2018 3010-1486NP
Giant Arborviatae, Western Arborvitae Nov 21, 2018 3010-1487NP
Glossy Abelia Nov 21, 2018 3010-1488NP
Heaths (several species of Erica) and Heathers (Calluna vulgaris) Nov 21, 2018 3010-1489NP
Japanese Garden Juniper Nov 21, 2018 3010-1490NP
Japanese Pachysandra, Japanese Spurge Nov 21, 2018 3010-1491NP
Japanese Pieris Nov 21, 2018 3010-1492NP
Lilacs Nov 21, 2018 3010-1493NP
Mountain-Laurel Nov 21, 2018 3010-1494NP
Mugo Pine, Pinus mugo Sep 17, 2018 3010-1495NP
Oriental Arborvitae, Thuja orientalis (also known as Platycladus orientalis) Sep 18, 2018 3010-1496NP
Red Twig Dogwoods, Tatarian Dogwood (Cornus alba) and Redosier Dogwood (Cornus sericea) Sep 21, 2018 3010-1497NP
Shore Juniper Nov 21, 2018 3010-1498NP
White Fringetree, Old-man’s-beard Nov 22, 2018 3010-1499NP
Yews, Taxus spp. Nov 22, 2018 3010-1500NP
Yuccas, Yucca spp. Nov 23, 2018 3010-1501NP
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Two: Nitrogen Fertilizer Injection in No-Till Systems
Liquid nitrogen fertilizers have typically been surface applied. This method of application places the fertilizer where the urea nitrogen component of the solution is susceptible to volatilization losses.
Sep 22, 2020 3011-1516 (SPES-265NP)
Agromyzid Leafminers Mar 1, 2021 3104-1554 (ENTO-437NP)
Choosing Community-Based Services for Older Adults and Their Families May 1, 2019 350-252(FCS-130P)
Virtual Farm to Table: Potatoes Aug 3, 2020 4H-919NP
Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Herbs Aug 19, 2020 4H-920
Virginia Farm to Table: Wine and Lamb Sep 4, 2020 4H-926NP
Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Greenhouse and Nursery Ornamentals Oct 27, 2020 4H-934NP
Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Pumpkins Oct 26, 2020 4H-937NP
Warm-Season Annual Grasses for Summer Forage Apr 1, 2019 418-004 (SPES-88P)
Nitrogen Soil Testing For Corn in Virginia Feb 7, 2019 418-016 (SPES-64P)
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer Aug 30, 2019 418-142
Growing Pears in Virginia
Pears are the second most important deciduous tree fruit after apple, and it has been grown in Europe since prehistoric times. Pears belong to the genus Pyrus and probably originated near the Black and Caspian Seas. French and English colonists brought pears to America and the first record of pears in the North America was in Massachusetts in 1630. Although pear is a popular fruit, it is not grown as widely as apple. Pears can be grown throughout much of North America because they tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions.
Sep 14, 2020 422-017 (SPES-257P)
Growing Cherries in Virginia
Cherries are grown in many parts of the world, but they have never gained the popularity in North America that they have in Europe and the Middle East. Cherries probably originated in the region between the Caspian and Black Seas, where trees still grow in the wild.
Sep 21, 2020 422-018 (SPES-258P)
Growing Peaches and Nectarines in Virginia
An orchard is a long-term investment and careful planning is essential to ensure economic success. Establishing and maintaining a peach planting to bearing age (three years) costs about $3,500 per acre. Mistakes made at planting often cannot be corrected; other mistakes that can be corrected could seriously jeopardize the economic success of the orchard. Because profit margins for commercial fruit plantings are small, orchards should be established only under the most favorable conditions for success.
Aug 17, 2020 422-019 (SPES-232P)
Pruning Peach Trees
Annual pruning is a critical management practice for producing easily harvested, heavy crops of high quality peaches. However, pruning is not a substitute for other orchard practices such as fertilization, irrigation, and pest control. Pruning practices vary slightly in different regions of the United States, but have changed little in the East during the past 70 years. Although pruning may vary slightly for different varieties and localities, certain general practices should be followed. The successful pruner must understand the principles of plant growth, the natural growth habit of the tree, and how the tree will respond to certain types of pruning cuts. Improper pruning will reduce yield and fruit quality.
Jul 15, 2020 422-020 (SPES-221P)
Training and Pruning Apple Trees
Proper training and pruning of trees is a major component of a profitable apple orchard operation. Successful pruning is an art based upon scientific principles of tree growth and physiology and an experienced understanding of tree response to various pruning cuts and practices. Each tree is an individual and should be treated accordingly. Varieties differ in growth characteristics and response to pruning cuts, rootstocks, soil, and growing conditions. It is important that orchard designs, objectives, and goals be clearly defined and that pruning principles are developed accordingly. Mediumto high-density plantings require greater commitment to detailed training and pruning than low-density orchards and should not be attempted unless such a commitment is made.
Jul 15, 2020 422-021(SPES-222P)
Growing Apples in Virginia
Growing apples in the home garden can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience, but consistent production of high quality fruit requires knowledge of tree and fruit growth and a willingness to perform certain practices at the appropriate time. Virginia is on the southern fringe of the U. S. apple producing region. Most apple varieties produce the highest quality fruit when night-time temperatures are cool (less than 60°F) at harvest time. Apples grown under warmer conditions tend to be large, soft, poorly colored, and less flavorful than when grown under cooler conditions. Our warm humid summers are also conducive for infection of many diseases. For these reasons, the best Virginia apples are grown at elevations higher than 800 feet above sea level in the western part of the state. However, even apples grown in eastern Virginia usually have quality superior to apples purchased in the supermarkets.
Aug 17, 2020 422-023 (SPES-233P)
Training and Pruning Apple Trees in Intensive Orchards
Since the mid 1970s in the U. S., the number of apple trees per acre in new orchards has gradually been increasing. Orchard intensification is motivated by the desire to produce fruit early in the life of the orchard to rapidly recover establishment costs. Intensification is possible by using dwarfing rootstocks that control tree size, induce early cropping, and produce large quantities of fruit relative to the amount of wood produced.
Aug 17, 2020 422-024 (SPES-234P)
Physiology of Pruning Fruit Trees
Woody plants are pruned to maintain a desired size and shape and to promote a certain type of growth. Ornamental plants are pruned to improve the aesthetic quality of the plant, but fruit trees are pruned to improve fruit quality by encouraging an appropriate balance between vegetative (wood) and reproductive (fruiting) growth.
Aug 17, 2020 422-025 (SPES-235P)
Peach and Nectarine Varieties for Virginia
Peach and nectarine are both members of the genus and species Prunus persica, and probably differ by only a single gene for skin pubescence (hairs on the fruit surface). One probably originated as a mutation of the other, but we do not know which came first. The species originated in China and was taken by traders from there into Persia, Greece, Italy, and other temperate areas of Europe. Peach and nectarine varieties may have yellow or white flesh. In Virginia different varieties ripen over a wide range of dates, from early June until mid-September. Varieties also differ in fruit size, susceptibility to some diseases and susceptibility to low winter temperatures, chilling requirements, and fruit disorders such as fruit cracking and split-pit. Descriptions of some of these characteristics are included in the next section of this publication.
Aug 17, 2020 422-762 (SPES-236P)
Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia Dec 19, 2018 424-006 (SPES-81P)
Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic Mar 20, 2019 424-022
Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region Mar 20, 2019 424-024
Nitrogen Management for Winter Wheat: Principles and Recommendations Mar 20, 2019 424-026(SPES-82P)
Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilization of Corn Mar 20, 2019 424-027
Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment Jan 24, 2019 424-029
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Mar 20, 2019 424-030
Corn Planting Dates in the Piedmont and Valley Regions of Virginia: How Early is Early? Mar 29, 2019 424-032
Corn Planting Dates in the Virginia Coastal Plain: How early is early? Feb 13, 2019 424-033
Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates Aug 30, 2019 424-035
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials Mar 29, 2019 424-040
Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations Mar 29, 2019 424-053
Understanding Pre-harvest Sprouting of Wheat Mar 29, 2019 424-060
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Nitrogen Fertilization of Winter Barley: Principles and Recommendations Jan 24, 2019 424-801
Plant Propagation from Seed Oct 11, 2019 426-001
Propagation by Cuttings, Layering and Division Oct 11, 2019 426-002
Container and Raised-Bed Gardening Nov 5, 2018 426-020
Rain Garden Plants
A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water as it seeps into the ground and evaporates back into the atmosphere. For a rain garden to work, plants must be selected, installed, and maintained properly.
Dec 21, 2018 426-043 (SPES-57P)
The Effect of Landscape Plants on Perceived Home Value Nov 5, 2018 426-087
Indoor Plant Culture Nov 5, 2018 426-100
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Disconnection Dec 4, 2019 426-120 (BSE-269P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 2: Sheet Flow to Open Space
Sheet flow to open space (SOS) is a group of best management practices (BMPs) designed to disperse concentrated runoff to sheet flow into filter strips or a riparian buffer. An SOS reduces runoff volume and associated sediment and nutrients that are carried with it (see figure 1). It is used as a stormwater treatment practice in both urban and rural areas. This practice is often used after another treatment practice to disperse or eliminate runoff. In a few cases, an SOS can be used as a pretreatment to remove small amounts of sediment via a vegetated filter strip — prior to a bioretention device, for example.
Dec 4, 2019 426-121 (BSE-270P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 3: Grass Channels Dec 11, 2019 426-122 (BSE-271P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 8: Infiltration Practices
Infiltration practices provide temporary surface and/or subsurface storage, allowing infiltration of runoff into soils. In practice, an excavated trench is usually filled with gravel or stone media, where runoff is stored in pore spaces or voids between the stones (see figure 1). These systems can reduce significant quantities of stormwater by enhancing infiltration, as well as provide filtering and adsorption of pollutants within the stone media and soils. Infiltration practices are part of a group of stormwater treatment practices, also known as best management practices (BMPs)
Dec 4, 2019 426-127 (BSE-276P)
Seed For The Garden Apr 8, 2022 426-316 (SPES-392P)
Fertilizing the Vegetable Garden
The amount of fertilizer to apply to a garden depends on the natural fertility of the soil, the amount of organic matter present, the type of fertilizer used, and the crop being grown. The best way to determine fertilizer needs is to have the soil tested. Soil testing is available through your local Extension agent, through private labs, and with soil test kits which can be purchased from garden shops and catalogs.
Jan 14, 2021 426-323 (SPES-295P)
Virginia’s Home Garden Vegetable Planting Guide: Recommended Planting Dates and Amounts to Plant Jan 21, 2020 426-331 (SPES-170P)
Intensive Gardening Methods Nov 5, 2018 426-335
Sprouting Seeds for Food Apr 6, 2022 426-419 (SPES-394P)
Herb Culture and Use Oct 11, 2019 426-420
Selecting Landscape Plants: Rare and Unusual Trees
There are many tree species that can be successfully grown in Virginia, but are rarely seen in our landscapes. Although not ordinarily recommended or readily available, these trees may be useful to carry out a specific landscape theme, to substitute for an exotic type which is not locally adapted, or may be prized for unusual form, flowers, fruits, bark, or foliage.
May 19, 2021 426-604 (SPES-320P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Groundcovers Nov 19, 2018 426-609 (HORT-31P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees May 19, 2021 426-611 (SPES-321P)
Getting Started in the Production of Field-Grown, Specialty Cut Flowers
Specialty cut flowers are one of the most profitable field crops you can grow. Lynn Byczynski, editor of Growing For Market newsletter (see Resources section), estimates a value of $25,000 to $35,000 per acre for field-grown cuts. The most basic requirements are at least half an acre of open, arable land, a rototiller, and, of course, time and effort. This publication is directed to those new to market gardening, but commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Even grain and livestock farmers have increased profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slower, relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.
Nov 13, 2019 426-618 (SPES-171P)
Shrubs: Functions, Planting, and Maintenance Nov 5, 2018 426-701
Using Compost in Your Landscape Mar 13, 2021 426-704 (SPES-304P)
Creating a Water-Wise Landscape Feb 2, 2021 426-713 (HORT-200P)
Diagnosing Plant Problems Nov 6, 2018 426-714
Small Fruit in the Home Garden
As a general rule, plant selection and production area in a home garden should be limited to what you can properly care for. It is better to have a small, welltended planting area rather than a large, neglected one. Small fruits offer certain advantages over fruit trees for home culture because small fruits require less space for the amount of fruit produced, and they bear fruit one or two years after planting. Success with small-fruit planting will depend on the attention given to all phases of production, including crop and variety selection, site selection, soil management, fertilization, pruning, and pest management.
May 5, 2022 426-840 (SPES-399P)
Summer Lawn Management: Watering the Lawn Apr 1, 2019 430-010 (SPES-126P)
Lawn Fertilization in Virginia Jun 21, 2021 430-011 (SPES-334NP)
Fertilización de árboles y arbustos
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
Jul 12, 2021 430-018S (SPES-338P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution Aug 10, 2020 430-022 (HORT-123P)
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
Aug 19, 2021 430-031 (SPES-342P)
Mowing To Recycle Grass Clippings: Let the Clips Fall Where They May! Jul 8, 2021 430-402 (SPES-337P)
Pruning Crapemyrtles Apr 19, 2022 430-451 (SPES-387P)
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Deciduous Tree Pruning Calendar Jun 16, 2021 430-460 (SPES-328P)
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Evergreen Tree Pruning Calendar Jun 16, 2021 430-461 (SPES-324P)
Fall Lawn Care
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
Jul 20, 2020 430-520(SPES-223P)
"Leave" Them Alone: Lawn Leaf Management Jul 10, 2020 430-521 (SPES-212P)
Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans Aug 30, 2019 442-310
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity Oct 11, 2019 445-004
Supermarkets as Alternative Market Outlets for Virginia-Grown Berries Feb 28, 2019 448-508 (SPES-121NP)
Supermarkets as Alternative Market Outlets for Virginia-Grown Berries
Plant Disease Diagnostic Form
Sep 22, 2021 450-097 (SPES-261NP)
Brown Rot on Peach and Other Stone Fruits
Brown rot is one of the most destructive diseases of peach and nectarine in Virginia, and also occurs on other stone fruits such as apricot, cherry, and plum. When environmental conditions favor this disease, crop loss can be devastating.
Mar 18, 2020 450-721 (SPES-24P)
Reducing Pesticide Use in the Home Lawn and Garden
Pesticide use affects the quality of human health, the environment, and nontarget organisms in the ecosystem. Therefore, any pesticide application warrants a careful assessment of the expected benefits and risks. Too often, however, homeowners use pesticides inappropriately or without careful consideration of alternatives. This fact sheet outlines general pest control tactics that can easily be implemented for home lawns and gardens, along with other information that home owners can use to make sound pest management decisions. The intent is to ensure that homeowners are aware of alternative control tactics and pesticide characteristics, and that pesticides are used properly and only when necessary.
Sep 11, 2018 450-725 (SPES-22P)
Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback of Trees and Shrubs in the Landscape
Most trees and shrubs are susceptible to dieback and cankers caused by several species of the fungal genus Botryosphaeria. Botryosphaeria fungi are typically opportunistic pathogens. Opportunistic pathogens only cause disease on plants that are stressed. Therefore, avoiding plant stress, which predisposes plant tissue to infection and colonization by this fungal group, is the best strategy to prevent Botryosphaeria disease problems.
Mar 18, 2020 450-726 (SPES-23P)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Crop Production Sep 24, 2021 452-124 (SPES-356NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Home Lawns, Gardens, Fruits, and Ornamentals May 25, 2021 452-125 (SPES-322NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Greenhouse and Nursery Production Aug 19, 2021 452-126 (SPES-349NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Surface-Mined Areas Aug 12, 2021 452-127 (SPES-347NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial Lawns Aug 19, 2021 452-128 (SPES-346NP)
Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener
This publication explains how to obtain representative soil samples and to submit them for analysis to the Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory.
Feb 6, 2020 452-129 (SPES-176P)
Mid-Atlantic Composting Directory
This directory is intended to provide contact information for service and equipment suppliers, along with sources for information and education. Every attempt has been made to present accurate information. Contents are for informational purposes only and are based on details provided by the organizations and entities listed. Inclusion in this directory does not constitute an endorsement by the publishers of the products or services of any business organization or individual listed herein.
Aug 17, 2021 452-230 (SPES-345NP)
Soil Test Note 14: Athletic Fields, Golf Course Fairways, Sod Production, and Large Industrial/Recreational Lawns Mar 3, 2022 452-244 (SPES-362NP)
Explanation of Soil Tests
The accompanying Soil Test Report will help you assess your plant's need for fertilizer and lime.
Dec 7, 2018 452-701 (SPES-75NP)
Soil Test Note No.3 - Liming and Fertilization of Cool-Season Forage Crops Aug 30, 2019 452-703
Soil Test Note #4 - Trace Elements Dec 7, 2018 452-704 (SPES-76NP)
Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures Aug 30, 2019 452-705
Soil Test Note 17: Lawn Fertilization for Cool Season Grasses Mar 16, 2021 452-717 (SPES-306P)
Soil Test Note 18: Lawn Fertilization for Warm Season Grasses Mar 25, 2021 452-718 (SPES-305P)
Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report) Oct 11, 2019 452-719
Soil Test Note: 20 Home Shrubs and Trees Jun 29, 2021 452-720 (SPES-336P)
Soil Test Note 23: Christmas Tree Crops Jun 16, 2021 452-723 (SPES-331P)
Laboratory Procedures: Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory
The procedures for soil analysis used in the Soil Testing Laboratory were established in the early 1950s A routine test, consisting of eleven separate analyses, is performed on all samples.
Mar 18, 2019 452-881 (SPES-91P)
2022 Pest Management Guide - Home Grounds and Animals
This 2022 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for controlling diseases, insects, and weeds for home grounds and animals. The chemical controls in this guide are based on the latest pesticide label information at the time of writing. Because pesticide labels change, read the label directions carefully before buying and using any pesticide. Regardless of the information provided here, always follow the latest product label instructions when using any pesticide.
Feb 11, 2022 456-018 (ENTO-462P)
2022-2023 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations
This guide lists vegetable varieties that are available and are adapted to the mid-Atlantic region, gives an overview of cultural practices, and list chemicals recommended to manage pests, diseases and weeds in vegetable crops. New varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. While all efforts are made to have comprehensive lists, not all varieties that are adapted will be listed.
Feb 17, 2022 456-420 (SPES-391P)
Overview of Good Aquaculture Practices Feb 22, 2019 600-054 (CNRE-40P)
Getting Acquainted with Amyloodinium ocellatum Feb 22, 2019 600-200 (CNRE-39P)
Dealing with Trichodina and Trichodina-like species Feb 22, 2019 600-205(CNRE-38P)
User Notes for Small-scale Virginia Commercial Hops Production Enterprise Budgets and Financial Statements Feb 26, 2019 AAEC-170NP
Demystifying Food Labels: Labels for Specific Meat Products Feb 28, 2019 AAEC-171NP
One Bite at a Time: Virginia and North Carolina Food as a Business Program Mar 18, 2019 AAEC-172NP
Broadband Internet to Promote Economic Development in Southside Virginia Feb 28, 2019 AAEC-173NP
Taste of Farming: Grazing Math Apr 1, 2022 ALCE-296-11
Taste of Farming: Agroforestry Apr 4, 2022 ALCE-296-13
Taste of Farming: Small Fruit Production Apr 4, 2022 ALCE-296-14
Taste of Farming: Strawberry Production Apr 4, 2022 ALCE-296-15
Taste of Farming: Hydroponic Production Apr 4, 2022 ALCE-296-17
Taste of Farming: Basic Soils Apr 1, 2022 ALCE-296-4
Taste of Farming: Vegetable Production and Food Safety Requirements Apr 1, 2022 ALCE-296-5
Taste of Farming: Getting Started in the Greenhouse Apr 1, 2022 ALCE-296-7
Taste of Farming: Pumpkins Apr 1, 2022 ALCE-296-9
Eldon Farm's Graze 300 VA System Dec 4, 2017 ANR-290NP
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Jan 7, 2021 ANR-48NP (SPES-284NP)
Late Blight of Tomato and Potato Nov 20, 2018 ANR-6 (SPES-72P)
Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Growing Specialized Apple Cultivars for Sale to Commercial Hard Cider Producers
This publication describes a set of associated budget spreadsheets that utilize a systematic means to assess the feasibility of growing specialty apple cultivars for sale to commercial hard cider producers.
Mar 20, 2019 AREC-46P (SPES-117P)
Soybean Reproductive Development Stages
Remove the soybean plant at ground level to make it easier to stage. Examine each main stem node one at a time to determine the development stage. Focus on the top four nodes that contain fully developed leaves (shown below). A fully developed leaf is one that is located immediately below a node containing a leaf with unrolled or unfolded leaflets (leaflet edges are no longer touching). The soybean crop is considered to be at a particular stage when 50% of the plants reach that stage. Listed with stage description for R1 through R6 are the approximate number of days to R7, or physiological maturity, for full season (FS) soybean planted in May and double crop (DC) soybean planted in June/July.
Jul 25, 2019 AREC-59NP (SPES-156NP)
Soybean Insect Guide
Numerous kinds of insects can be found in soybeans. Most are beneficial or harmless, but some can cause yield loss and even crop failure if not controlled.
Mar 20, 2019 AREC-68NP
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops
The general purpose of a cover crop is to improve the soil, the broader environment, or other crops in rotation, not for direct harvest. Cover crops, depending on which are selected, are capable of providing many diverse assets. This publication provides a short description of these main benefits.
Sep 23, 2020 CSES-120NP (SPES-241NP)
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies
Cover crops increase soil organic matter, reduce erosion, suppress weeds, forage for nutrients, and reduce fertilizer costs (Clark, 2007). Cover crop species vary greatly and provide varied benefits. Performance evaluation of cover crop species and mixtures is needed in Virginia.
Sep 23, 2020 CSES-121NP (SPES-240NP)
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
Apr 20, 2021 CSES-155P
Soil Judging in Virginia Jan 25, 2018 CSES-183
Using a Summer Stockpiling System to Extend the Grazing Season Nov 14, 2017 CSES-201NP
Virginia Soil Judging Scorecard Feb 13, 2019 CSES- 202P(4H-845P)
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Soil Testing Oct 24, 2019 CSES-34NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Watering The Lawn Oct 24, 2019 CSES-35NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dethatching Your Lawn Oct 24, 2019 CSES-36NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Lawn Composting Oct 14, 2019 CSES-37NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Aerating Your Lawn Oct 14, 2019 CSES-38NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Mowing Your Lawn Oct 14, 2019 CSES-39NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Weeds Oct 14, 2019 CSES-40NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Choosing The Right Grass Oct 14, 2019 CSES-41NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Lawn Pests Oct 14, 2019 CSES-42NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dealing With Lawn Disease Oct 14, 2019 CSES-43NP
Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
Feb 21, 2020 CSES-98P(SPES-178P)
Virginia Farm to Table: Healthy Farms and Healthy Food for the Common Wealth and Common Good Aug 29, 2018 CV-3 (SPES-27P)
Kudzu Bug, Megacopta cribraria, a pest of soybeans Jan 28, 2019 ENTO-303NP
Improving Pest Management and Pollination with Farmscaping Aug 30, 2019 ENTO-325NP
What do I need to know to sell REFRIGERATED DIPS, SPREADS, DRESSINGS and SALADS, at the farmers market? Jun 2, 2020 FST-300P (FST-363P)
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19 May 28, 2020 FST-373NP
Assessing On-Farm Produce Safety Risks: General Practices Jan 20, 2022 FST-401NP
Assessing On-Farm Produce Safety Risks: Pre-Plant Stage Jan 20, 2022 FST-402NP
Assessing On-Farm Produce Safety Risks: Harvest Stage Jan 20, 2022 FST-404NP
Assessing On-Farm Produce Safety Risks: Post-Harvest Handling Stage Jan 20, 2022 FST-405NP
Assessing On-Farm Produce Safety Risks: Preparing for GAP Certification Jan 20, 2022 FST-406NP
Goldenchain tree, Laburnum × watereri Sep 20, 2018 HORT-10NP
Hinoki Falsecypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa Sep 20, 2018 HORT-11NP
Japanese Cryptomeria, Cryptomeria japonica Sep 27, 2018 HORT-12NP
Japanese Stewartia, Stewartia pseudocamellia Sep 27, 2018 HORT-13NP
Japanese Zelkova, Zelkova serrata Sep 27, 2018 HORT-14NP
Katsuratree, Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sep 27, 2018 HORT-15NP
Kousa Dogwood, Cornus kousa Oct 1, 2018 HORT-16NP
Lacebark Pine, Pinus bungeana Oct 1, 2018 HORT-17NP
Leyland Cypress, Cupressocyparis leylandii Oct 2, 2018 HORT-18NP
Mimosa (Silk-tree or Albizia), Albizia julibrissin Oct 2, 2018 HORT-19NP
Norway Spruce, Picea abies Oct 2, 2018 HORT-20NP
Paperbark Maple, Acer griseum Oct 8, 2018 HORT-21NP
Red Buckeye, Aesculus pavia Oct 9, 2018 HORT-22NP
Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia May 6, 2022 HORT-226P (SPES-400P)
River Birch, Betula nigra Oct 3, 2018 HORT-23NP
Saucer Magnolia, Magnolia ×soulangeana Oct 3, 2018 HORT-24NP
Sawara Falsecypress (Japanese Falsecypress), Chamaecyparis pisifera Oct 3, 2018 HORT-25NP
Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris Oct 3, 2018 HORT-26NP
Mixed Infection of Strawberry Mottle Virus and Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge Virus in the Southeastern United States Oct 25, 2017 HORT-268P
Sourwood, Oxydendrum arboreum Oct 5, 2018 HORT-27NP
Shoppers Guide for Berry Plants in the Mid-Atlantic and the Carolinas Sep 22, 2017 HORT-270NP
Star Magnolia, Magnolia stellata Oct 5, 2018 HORT-28NP
Umbrella-Pine (Japanese Umbrella-Pine), Sciadopitys verticillata Oct 4, 2018 HORT-29NP
Washington Hawthorn, Crataegus phaenopyrum Oct 4, 2018 HORT-30NP
Selecting and Using Plant Growth Regulators on Floricultural Crops
Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are chemicals that are designed to affect plant growth and/or development (figure 1). They are applied for specific purposes to elicit specific plant responses. Although there is much scientific information on using PGRs in the greenhouse, it is not an exact science. Achieving the best results with PGRs is a combination of art and science — science tempered with a lot of trial and error and a good understanding of plant growth and development. good understanding of plant growth and development.
Nov 15, 2019 HORT-43P (SPES-149P)
American Hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana Oct 4, 2018 HORT-5NP
American (Fagus grandifolia) and European (Fagus sylvatica) Beeches Oct 4, 2018 HORT-6NP
Care Sheet for Sabal minor or “Dwarf Palmetto” in Virginia Landscapes May 29, 2019 HORT-60NP (SPES-137NP)
Chinese Elm (Lacebark Elm), Ulmus parvifolia Oct 9, 2018 HORT-7NP
Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom
Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter? The answer is definitely yes! Many people are familiar with the hourglass-shaped vase filled with water and topped with a hyacinth bulb, or a low bowl filled with several Paper White narcissus, and the popular boxed amaryllis bulb as a welcome winter holiday gift. Most bulbs can be forced but additional planning is required in order to have a successful period of blooms.
Oct 2, 2019 HORT-76NP
Chinese Pistache, Pistacia chinensis Oct 9, 2018 HORT-8NP
Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Showy Flowering Shrubs
This publication features small, medium, and large flowering shrubs (five of each category) with photos. All photos are by the author. There are at least eight shrubs from each category noted in a table (without photos) at the end of this publication. All shrubs — featured or in the table — are landscape worthy and are especially suited to landscapes in Virginia and the Mid-Atlantic States.
Jul 30, 2020 HORT-84P
Douglasfir, Pseudotsuga menziesii Oct 9, 2018 HORT-9NP
Weed Management in Small Fruit Crops Jan 23, 2018 HORT-286NP
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in Virginia Production Nurseries WITH Boxwood Blight
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Feb 16, 2021 PPWS-32NP (PPWS-87NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in Virginia Production Nurseries WITHOUT Boxwood Blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Jan 5, 2021 PPWS-33NP (PPWS-86NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best Management Practices for Virginia Retail Nurseries WITH Boxwood Blight
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Jan 6, 2021 PPWS-34NP (PPWS-89NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management Practices for Virginia Retail Nurseries WITHOUT Boxwood Blight
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Jan 6, 2021 PPWS-35NP (PPWS-88NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Greenery Producers
Best management practices for boxwood blight (also called “box blight”) for greenery producers are practices recommended to avoid the introduction and spread of boxwood blight, caused by the fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum). The recommendations in this document are designed to avoid spread of boxwood blight within a planting or to new locations when pruned tips are collected, sold and/or used for holiday greenery1. These recommendations are relevant to anyone involved in the greenery (“tipping”) industry, including small and large-scale greenery producers, home growers who sell boxwood tips, and people who tip-prune boxwood on other people’s property. Care must be taken at all levels of greenery production to prevent the spread of the boxwood blight pathogen and avoid economic losses associated with this disease.
Jan 6, 2021 PPWS-39NP (PPWS-95NP)
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 2: Rain Barrels Jun 25, 2018 SPES-10P
USDA Edamame Project Feb 15, 2019 SPES-104NP
Results for the 2017 VSU Blueberry Variety Field Trial Mar 20, 2019 SPES-108NP
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 3: Permeable Pavement Jun 25, 2018 SPES-11P
Chemical Blossom Thinning in Virginia Apple Orchards Feb 11, 2019 SPES-110NP
Glyphosate Q & A Sheet Feb 8, 2019 SPES-113NP
Tall Fescue, Endophytes and Alkaloids, and Fescue Toxicosis Apr 12, 2019 SPES-114P
Directions for Establishing One Acre of Blackberries in Virginia Feb 16, 2019 SPES-116NP
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 4: Grass Swales Jun 25, 2018 SPES-12P
Leaching Fraction: A Tool to Schedule Irrigation for Container-Grown Nursery Crops Jun 11, 2019 SPES-128P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 5: Rain Gardens Jun 26, 2018 SPES-13P
Changes to USDA GAP & GHP, Produce Harmonized GAP, and Harmonized GAP Plus+ Audit Billing and Scheduling Jun 17, 2019 SPES-132NP (SPES-147NP)
Crop Load Management in Commercial Apple Orchards: Chemical Fruit Thinning May 31, 2019 SPES-134P
Catastrophic Livestock and Poultry Carcass Disposal Jun 5, 2019 SPES-138NP
On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers Jun 3, 2019 SPES-139NP
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 6: Buffers Jun 26, 2018 SPES-14P
Most Troublesome Pumpkin Diseases in Virginia May 28, 2019 SPES-140NP
Soil Sampling Instructions for the Farm Jun 6, 2019 SPES-141
Visioning a Preferred Future for Virginia's Food System for 2027 Jun 3, 2019 SPES-142NP
Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Control in Soybeans Jun 6, 2019 SPES-143NP
Facilitating Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems Jun 10, 2019 SPES-144NP
Considerations for Producers Seeking Market Access to Schools Jun 11, 2019 SPES-145NP
Considerations for School Nutrition Directors Seeking to Increase Farm to School Purchases Jun 11, 2019 SPES-146NP
Invasive Tree-of-Heaven & Native Look-Alike Identification Photographs Jun 24, 2019 SPES-148NP
A Survey of Strawberry Production Practices in Virginia Aug 12, 2019 SPES-150P
Mortality of Great Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia
Since 2015, Extension specialists from Virginia Tech (VT) have visited and collected plant and soil samples from several large areas of dying great rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia’s mountainous regions. In 2016 VT specialists met with Virginia Department of Forestry, US Forest Service personnel, and other experts to revisit some of these sites. No consistent cause of this mortality has yet been identified. It is possible that a variety of factors are stressing the rhododendrons in these areas to a point where opportunistic pathogens or insects can successfully attack and kill them. The following information summarizes our observations and diagnostic results from four separate great rhododendron mortality sites in Virginia. This information is not equivalent to a research study, which would also include samples taken from healthy great rhododendron for comparison; however, we are confident that we have ruled out two diseases that are frequently mentioned both online and anecdotally as a cause of this mortality, specifically Phytophthora root rot and Botryosphaeria dieback.
Aug 21, 2019 SPES-151P
Small Grains in 2019 Jul 15, 2019 SPES-153NP
Strategies for Managing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue – A Whole-Farm Approach Nov 26, 2019 SPES-163P
Using Cover Crops to Suppress Horseweed Sep 14, 2020 SPES-164P (SPES-202P)
Herbicide Options to Terminate Winter Cover Crops Sep 18, 2019 SPES-167NP
Adaptive Challenges Jan 24, 2020 SPES-183NP
Motivations of Farming: A Soil, Conservation and Place supplement video Aug 12, 2020 SPES-184NP
Drone Use in the Winter Nov 2, 2020 SPES-186NP
Fertilizer: The Many Forms You Can Use Mar 18, 2020 SPES-187NP
Getting Started and Managing Resources Jan 24, 2020 SPES-189NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2019 Feb 12, 2020 SPES-191NP
Converting Pastures to Native Warm Season Grasses: Forage for Drought in Bedford County Mar 31, 2020 SPES-196NP
Foliar Injury: Spring Nitrogen Applications to Small Grains Apr 2, 2020 SPES-197NP
Common Fertilizers Used in Virginia: Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Apr 7, 2020 SPES-199NP
Common Fertilizers Used in Virginia: Secondary and Micronutrients Apr 10, 2020 SPES-200NP
Conversion Factors Needed for Common Fertilizer Calculations Apr 29, 2020 SPES-201NP
Electric Fencing: Installing and Testing a Proper Grounding System Jan 27, 2021 SPES-204NP (SPES-300NP)
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19 - Part 1 Apr 20, 2020 SPES-205NP
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19 - Part 2 Apr 20, 2020 SPES-206NP
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19 - Part 3 Apr 20, 2020 SPES-207NP
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19: Part 4 Apr 20, 2020 SPES-208NP
Floor Management Strategies for Virginia Vineyards Jul 28, 2020 SPES-209P
Sampling Tall Fescue for Endophyte Infection and Ergot Alkaloid Concentration Oct 19, 2018 SPES-21P
Soil, Conservation, and Place -- Janet Aardema and Dan Gagnon of Broadfork Farm Jun 8, 2020 SPES-214NP
Soil, Conservation and Place -- Ira Wallace of Southern Exposure Seed Exchange Jun 8, 2020 SPES-215NP
Soil, Conservation and Place -- C.J. Isbell of Keenbell Farm Jun 8, 2020 SPES-216NP
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19 May 28, 2020 SPES-217NP
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2020 Jul 14, 2020 SPES-224NP
Kitchen Garden Presentation by Henrico Master Gardeners Jul 14, 2020 SPES-225NP
How To Plant A Tree Jul 14, 2020 SPES-226NP
Small Grains in 2020 Jul 28, 2020 SPES-227NP
Best Septic System Management During the Covid-19 Pandemic Aug 5, 2020 SPES-229NP
Fusarium Wilt of Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin) Aug 13, 2020 SPES-230NP
2020-21 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations Feb 25, 2021 SPES-237NP (SPES-301NP)
2020 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots Aug 19, 2020 SPES-238NP
2020 Virginia Tech Eastern Shore AREC Virtual Research Field Day Aug 17, 2020 SPES-239NP(SPES-243NP)
A Virginia Producer-Buyer Networking Event Toolkit: Facilitating Value Chain Connections Aug 19, 2020 SPES-242NP
Identification of Virginia’s Noxious Weeds Sep 21, 2020 SPES-244NP
Biofortification: Creating a Healthier Food Supply Nov 23, 2020 SPES-267P
Virginia Corn Silage Hybrid Trials in 2020 Nov 11, 2020 SPES-270NP
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2020 Nov 11, 2020 SPES-271NP
Strawberry Variety Evaluation, Opportunities, and Challenges of High Tunnel Production Feb 9, 2021 SPES-273P
The Right Answer: How to Find Unbiased, Research-Based Answers Horticultural Questions Feb 19, 2021 SPES-275P
Managing Phosphorus Balance on Virginia Dairy Farms Mar 15, 2021 SPES-278NP
Stockpile Grazing in Autumn Jun 20, 2018 SPES-29P
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research 2020 Jan 18, 2021 SPES-294NP
Lime: Common Soil Additives to Raise Soil pH in Virginia Feb 16, 2021 SPES-298NP
Using Grazing Charts Jun 20, 2018 SPES-30P
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2020 Feb 19, 2021 SPES-303NP
Converting pastures to native warm season grasses: Summer forage and wildlife habitat in Caroline County Mar 5, 2021 SPES-308NP
Stockpile Grazing with Horses Jun 20, 2018 SPES-31P
2021 Virtual Eastern Shore Agricultural Conference and Trade Show Mar 12, 2021 SPES-312NP
How to Evaluate a Tree May 19, 2021 SPES-313P
Fungicide Spray Guidelines for Non-bearing Vineyards Jul 14, 2021 SPES-315NP
Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Edible Landscape Species - Trees Oct 1, 2021 SPES-316P
Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Edible Landscape Species - Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers Oct 8, 2021 SPES-317P
Does Land Application of Biosolids Pose Health Concerns for Grazing Livestock? Aug 3, 2021 SPES-318P
Assessing On-Farm Risks and Documenting Food Safety Practices to Meet Farm to School Requirements May 7, 2021 SPES-319NP
Benefits of a Dry Lot for Horses Jun 21, 2018 SPES-32P
Maintenance Calendar for Bermudagrass Jun 21, 2021 SPES-329NP
Using a Grazing Muzzle Jun 21, 2018 SPES-33P
Beetlemania Jul 7, 2021 SPES-333NP
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2021 Jun 28, 2021 SPES-335NP
4 The Soil Live Kickoff Jul 23, 2021 SPES-339NP
Grazing Through Snow Jun 21, 2018 SPES-34P
Hurricane Preparedness for Turfgrass Systems Jul 20, 2021 SPES-340NP
Cool-Season Turfgrass Sports Field Maintenance Calendar Jul 22, 2021 SPES-341NP
2021-22 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations Jul 21, 2021 SPES-343NP
Driving Homeowners ‘Nuts’: Sedge in the Lawn Jul 23, 2021 SPES-344NP
Small Grains in 2021 Aug 3, 2021 SPES-348NP
Grazing Summer Annuals Jun 21, 2018 SPES-35P
2021 Virginia On-farm Wheat Test Plots Sep 8, 2021 SPES-352NP
Cool Season Lawn Renovation Sep 16, 2021 SPES-353NP
Protective Agriculture Production Series: Fundamentals Sep 16, 2021 SPES-355NP
Managing Fall Armyworms on Lawns Aug 31, 2021 SPES-357NP
2021 Eastern Shore AREC Interactive Research Field Day Oct 8, 2021 SPES-359NP
Measuring Forage with a Falling Plate Meter Jun 21, 2018 SPES-36P
Specialty Small Grains in 2021 Sep 24, 2021 SPES-360NP
Virginia Corn Silage Hybrid Trials in 2021 Dec 16, 2021 SPES-364NP
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2021 Dec 17, 2021 SPES-365NP
2022 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 11, 2022 SPES-367NP
2021 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research Jan 28, 2022 SPES-377NP
Caring for Our Communities and Land: A Story of Healthy Relationships and Trust Feb 15, 2022 SPES-381NP
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results I. Agronomic and Grade Data Feb 18, 2022 SPES-382NP
2021 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Feb 18, 2022 SPES-383NP
2021 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Feb 17, 2022 SPES-385NP
2021 Virginia Soybean Performance Tests Feb 21, 2022 SPES-386NP
Consider Your Whole System: Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia Jun 25, 2018 SPES-39NP
Fresh Hops Harvesting and Handling Tips Jun 29, 2018 SPES-43NP
Giant Hogweed: Identification and Control Sep 21, 2020 SPES-48NP (SPES-245NP)
Frost/Freeze Protection in Strawberry Aug 27, 2018 SPES-56NP
Control of Common Grassy Weeds in Pastures and Hayfields
Grassy weeds in pastures and hayfields compete with desired forage species and reduce the productivity of forage systems. Lack of selective herbicides makes grassy weed species, such as Johnsongrass, Japanese stiltgrass, broomsedge, and foxtail species difficult to control. Proper soil fertility, grazing management, and correct timing and placement of herbicide application can effectively control these species.
Nov 6, 2018 SPES-58P
Fescue Toxicosis and Some Strategies to Mitigate Alkaloids May 9, 2018 SPES-6
A Spreadsheet-Based Soil Test Converter for Turfgrass Professionals and Nutrient Management Planning in Virginia Nov 19, 2018 SPES-60
A Spreadsheet-Based Soil Test Converter for Turfgrass Professionals and Nutrient Management Planning in Virginia - Workbook Nov 19, 2018 SPES-60A
Animal Performance on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer Sep 19, 2018 SPES-62NP
Glyphosate: Health Controversy, Benefits and Continuing Debate Sep 20, 2018 SPES-63NP
Warm-Season Annual Grasses for Summer Forage Apr 5, 2019 SPES-88P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Redirection (Disconnection) Jun 25, 2018 SPES-9P
For the Love of the Chip Jan 23, 2020 SPES-179NP
Specialty Small Grains in 2019 Jan 21, 2020 SPES-185NP
The Story of the Food Value Chain Jan 23, 2020 SPES-188NP
Small Scale Perennial Production Using Iris as an Example Crop Apr 20, 2022 SPES-354P
Blackberry Fruit: Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits Mar 16, 2022 SPES-366P
What Happens If My Septic System Fails? Apr 29, 2022 SPES-379P
Septic System Best Management Practices Apr 29, 2022 SPES-380P
Your Soil Test Report Simplified A Guide for Homeowners Mar 10, 2022 SPES-384NP
Gardening for Health: Benefits for Adults May 11, 2022 SPES-389NP
2021 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Quality Data Mar 24, 2022 SPES-395NP
Chemical Options for Defruting Young Apple Trees Apr 14, 2022 SPES-396NP
Fertilizing Landscape Trees and Shrubs - Basic May 12, 2022 SPES-397P
Rootstock Effects on Tree Growth and Yield of ‘Honeycrisp’ Apple under Virginia State Climatic Conditions May 4, 2022 SPES-398NP
A Spreadsheet-Based Calculator for Lawn Fertilizer and Lime Applications in Virginia Nov 19, 2018 SPES-40P
How to develop a planting plan for vegetables in Virginia: A sample spreadsheet May 11, 2022 SPES-401NP
A Spreadsheet-Based Calculator for Lawn Fertilizer and Lime Applications in Virginia - Workbook Nov 19, 2018 SPES-40A
No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes May 6, 2019 SPES-92P
VCE AG Today: Soybean pest update Feb 13, 2022 VCE-1027-57NP
VCE AG Today: Small Grain Preplant Considerations Feb 11, 2022 VCE-1027-58NP
VCE AG Today: Soybean Variety Selection Tool Feb 10, 2022 VCE-1027-59NP
VCE AG Today: Tips For Starting the Vegetable Season off Right Feb 10, 2022 VCE-1027-62NP
VCE Ag Today: Soil Amendments —Poultry Litter Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-29NP
VCE Ag Today: Small Grains Update May 7, 2021 VCE-1027-41NP
VCE Ag Today: Grow Award - Winning Hay May 5, 2021 VCE-1027-47NP
VCE Ag Today: Virginia Pesticide Collection Programs Nov 10, 2021 VCE-1027-52NP
VCE Ag Today: Weed Control in Pastures Nov 10, 2021 VCE-1027-55NP
VCE Ag Today: Post-plant Strawberry Disease Management in Fall and Winter Nov 10, 2021 VCE-1027-56NP
VCE Ag Today: Vineyard Update Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-9NP