Resources by Laurie Fox

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
What Is a Watershed? Aug 29, 2018 426-041 (SPES-2P)
Rain Garden Plants
A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water as it seeps into the ground and evaporates back into the atmosphere. For a rain garden to work, plants must be selected, installed, and maintained properly.
Dec 21, 2018 426-043 (SPES-57P)
Urban Stormwater: Terms and Definitions Jul 14, 2020 426-119 (BSE-268P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 3: Grass Channels Dec 11, 2019 426-122 (BSE-271P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 4: Soil Restoration
Soil restoration (SR) is the technique of enhancing compacted soils to improve their porosity and nutrient retention. It includes biological (worms) and mechanical aeration, mechanical loosening (tilling), planting dense vegetation, and applying soil amendments. Soil amendments involve the spreading and mixing of mature compost into disturbed and compacted urban soils (see Figure 1).
Dec 11, 2019 426-123 (BSE-272P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 5: Vegetated Roofs
A vegetated roof (VR) is a best management practice (BMP) that reduces stormwater runoff and pollution. Vegetation and media create a permeable system on a previously impervious surface. The VR intercepts rainfall and filters runoff while reducing the volume and velocity. Vegetated roofs consist of a waterproofing barrier, drainage system, and engineered growing media. There are two types of VRs: intensive and extensive. Intensive vegetated roofs are deeper and heavier, while extensive vegetated roofs are shallower, lighter, and more common (see Figure 1). The type of VR determines the amount of maintenance necessary to maintain the vegetation.
Dec 11, 2019 426-124 (BSE-273P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 6: Rainwater Harvesting
Rainwater harvesting (RWH), also known as rainwater harvesting systems or cisterns, are devices that intercept, divert, store, and release collected roof runoff from rainfall for later use as an alternative water supply (see figure 1). RWH can also be designed to provide runoff reduction benefits. Therefore, it is classified as a best management practice (BMP) for treatment of urban stormwater. Because of its dual purpose and benefit, RWH is often classified as a sustainable urban BMP.
Dec 11, 2019 426-125 (BSE-274P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 7: Permeable Pavement
Permeable pavement (PP) is a modified form of asphalt or concrete with a top layer that is pervious to water due to voids intentionally created during mixing. PPs include pervious concrete, porous asphalt, and interlocking concrete pavers. These materials are used as stormwater treatment practices in urban areas. They are used in place of traditionally impervious surfaces to allow infiltration and storage, thus reducing runoff (see figure 1).
Jan 22, 2020 426-126 (BSE-275P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 9: Bioretention
A bioretention cell, or rain garden, is a best management practice (BMP) designed to treat stormwater runoff from roofs, driveways, walkways, or lawns. They are a shallow, landscaped depression that receives and treats polluted stormwater with the goal of discharging water of a quality and quantity similar to that of a forested watershed (figure 1).
Jan 27, 2020 426-128 (BSE-277P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 10: Dry Swale
A dry swale (DS) is a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad, vegetated, side slopes. Water flow is slowed by a series of check dams (see figure 1). A DS provides temporary storage, filtration, and infiltration of stormwater runoff. Dry swales function similarly to bioretention, and are comparable to wet swales; however, unlike a wet swale, a DS should remain dry during periods of no rainfall. A DS is an engineered best management practice (BMP) that is designed to reduce pollution through runoff reduction and pollutant removal and is part of a site’s stormwater treatment practice (see figure 2).
Mar 5, 2020 426-129 (BSE-278P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 11: Wet Swale
A wet swale (WS) is an engineered, best management practice (BMP) arranged in a straight line that is designed to reduce stormwater pollution. A WS consists of a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad, vegetated, side slopes and slow flows (see figure 1). Wet swales typically stay wet because the bottom of the swale is below the water table. This is done to encourage the growth of wetland vegetation, providing water quality treatment similar to a natural wetland. This stormwater treatment practice also functions as part of the stormwater conveyance system. Wet swales have a relatively low capital cost; however, maintenance can be is intensive and expensive when compared to other BMPs.
Mar 5, 2020 426-130 (BSE-279P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 12: Filtering Practices
A stormwater filtering practice (FP) treats stormwater runoff by passing it through an engineered filter media consisting of either sand, gravel, organic matter, and/ or a proprietary manufactured product, collecting it in an underdrain, and then discharging the effluent to a stormwater conveyance system. FPs are stormwater treatment practices that are often obtained from the marketplace due to unique proprietary technologies (see figure 1).
Mar 5, 2020 426-131 (BSE-280P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 13: Constructed Wetlands
Constructed wetlands are a series of ponds with varying depths that treat stormwater using wetland processes. In terms of biological activity, wetlands are extremely productive; and thus constructed wetlands can provide significant water quality treatment to urban runoff. This fact sheet describes these benefits, and provides guidance on their design and limitations.
Jan 22, 2020 426-132 (BSE-281P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 14: Wet Ponds
Wet ponds are ponds designed to retain water through storage. They provide treatment through settling and biological uptake. They can also attenuate peak flows and provide flood and streambank protection. This fact sheet describes wet ponds and their benefits and limitations.
Jan 22, 2020 426-133 (BSE-282)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 15: Extended Detention Ponds
Extended detention ponds (EDs) are dry detention ponds that provide 12 to 24 hours of runoff storage during peak runoff events (see figure 1). Releases from the ED ponds are controlled by an outlet structure. During a storm event, as the discharge restriction is reached, water backs up into the ED pond. The pool slows flow velocities and enables particulate pollutants to settle. Peak flows are also reduced. ED ponds have the lowest overall pollutant- removal rate of any stormwater treatment option, so they are often combined with other upstream, lowimpact development (LID) practices to better maximize pollutant-removal rates. Due to their placement at the exit point of the watershed, ED is often the last opportunity to treat stormwater before it is discharged to a stream. Because of its low treatment performance, an ED should be viewed as the treatment option of last resort.
Mar 6, 2020 426-134 (BSE-283P)
Fertilización de árboles y arbustos
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
Feb 18, 2016 430-018S (HORT-165P)
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas May 1, 2009 430-028
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
Apr 8, 2015 430-031 (HORT-111P)
Innovative Best Management Fact Sheet No. 1: Floating Treatment Wetlands Aug 28, 2013 BSE-76P
Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems
Wastewater is a significant source of carbon, sediment, nutrients, pathogens, and other potential pollutants. Reducing the quantity of these contaminants before they are discharged to either groundwater or surface water is essential to preserve or enhance water quality in receiving waters. This is accomplished through the installation of wastewater treatment and collection systems. The form of these systems can vary substantially. In Virginia, they range in size from 5,000 to 50,000 gallons per day; 49 percent are public systems and the remainder are private (Parten 2008).
Jul 10, 2014 BSE-77P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 2: Rain Barrels Jun 25, 2018 SPES-10P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 3: Permeable Pavement Jun 25, 2018 SPES-11P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 4: Grass Swales Jun 25, 2018 SPES-12P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 5: Rain Gardens Jun 26, 2018 SPES-13P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 6: Buffers Jun 26, 2018 SPES-14P
Basic Principles of Watershed Restoration and Stormwater Management in the Chesapeake Bay Region Dec 8, 2020 SPES-195NP
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Redirection (Disconnection) Jun 25, 2018 SPES-9P