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Resources by Michael Goatley

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Low-Maintenance Turfgrass Evaluation, 2008 Report May 1, 2009 2901-1080
Sod Source Selection, Installation, Maintenance, and Producers in Virginia
While high-quality sod is available outside of the VCIA-certified sod program, the consumer is encouraged to be aware of factors that are important in determining sod quality. Quality sod contains excellent turf varieties with good sod strength (i.e., easy to handle for both harvest and installation) and has no serious insect, weed, or disease problems.
Feb 3, 2021 418-040 (CSES-151P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023 Dec 11, 2023 424-100 (SPES-299P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part III. Turfgrass Dec 15, 2023 424-100-C (SPES-299P-C)
Using Compost in Your Landscape Mar 13, 2021 426-704 (SPES-304P)
Summer Lawn Management: Watering the Lawn Apr 1, 2019 430-010 (SPES-126P)
Lawn Fertilization in Virginia Jun 21, 2021 430-011 (SPES-334NP)
Fertilización del Césped en Virginia (Lawn Fertilization in Virginia) Jun 22, 2021 430-011s (CSES-166P)
Urban Nutrient Management Handbook Aug 16, 2019 430-350
Mowing To Recycle Grass Clippings: Let the Clips Fall Where They May! Jul 8, 2021 430-402 (SPES-337P)
Fall Lawn Care
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
Jul 20, 2020 430-520 (SPES-223P)
"Leave" Them Alone: Lawn Leaf Management Jul 10, 2020 430-521 (SPES-212P)
Maintenance Calendar for Warm-Season Lawns in Virginia Sep 25, 2019 430-522 (SPES-161P)
Maintenance Calendar for Cool-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia Sep 25, 2019 430-523 (SPES-162P)
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-532
Soil Testing for the Lawn and Landscape May 1, 2009 430-540
Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose.
Aug 29, 2018 452-014 (SPES-1)
Soil Test Note 14: Athletic Fields, Golf Course Fairways, Sod Production, and Large Industrial/Recreational Lawns Mar 3, 2022 452-244 (SPES-362NP)
Soil Test Note 17: Lawn Fertilization for Cool Season Grasses Mar 16, 2021 452-717 (SPES-306P)
Soil Test Note 18: Lawn Fertilization for Warm Season Grasses Mar 25, 2021 452-718 (SPES-305P)
Powell River Project - Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-mined Land Jul 27, 2023 460-127 (CSES-213P)
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Jan 7, 2021 ANR-48NP (SPES-284NP)
Fertilizer Applicator Certification Training May 16, 2023 ANR-66 (SPES-505NP)
Lawn Care: Hand Tools Safety
Many hand tools such as shovels, hoes, rakes, trimmers, and pruners are widely used in lawn care and landscaping. While these tools appear to be harmless, when used improperly, they can cause injuries that sometimes require medical treatment. In 2006, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported nearly 205,000 cases of injuries and/or illnesses resulting from the use of hand tools.
Jan 30, 2024 BSE-40NP (BSE-98P)
Lawn Care: Powered Hand Tool Safety
In addition to mowers and hand tools, several powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in landscaping work. These machines can be dangerous if they are used improperly. A past study has shown that string trimmers and edgers alone cause more than 4,600 injuries that require emergency room treatment each year. About one-third of these cases are eye injuries.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-41NP (BSE-97P)
Lawn Care: Rotary Mower Safety
Rotary mowers are very useful types of equipment, but they are dangerous, with the potential to cause serious injuries. Their blades rotate at a high speed of 2,000 to 4,000 revolutions per minute. The equivalent speed at the blade tip or the speed of debris thrown by the mower blade may range from 100 to 200 miles per hour. In order to prevent serious injuries, the operator should be able to disengage the blade and turn the engine off quickly.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-42NP (BSE-96P)
Lawn Care: Tractor Safety
Most tractors used in landscaping, lawn care, and golf course maintenance are compact tractors in the 20 to 40 horsepower range. Although these tractors are considerably smaller than farm tractors, they are susceptible to the same types of accidents, with potential for serious injuries or deaths. Causes for such serious accidents are often the same in both cases, and therefore, the steps to take to avoid the accidents are the same.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-43NP (BSE-100P)
Lawn Care: Utility-Type Vehicle Safety
Utility-type vehicles are popular, multipurpose equipment used for different applications in the lawn care industry. Their hauling capability and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-44NP (BSE-99P)
Guidelines for Protecting Youth Workers: Promote Safe Practices and Protect Youth Workers
The goal of this training guide is to reduce the number of accidents and related injuries among the youth workers in the green industry by making workplaces safer. This guide is primarily for employers or supervisors of youth workers in the green industry. In addition to familiarizing the employers/supervisors with the regulations associated with hiring youth workers, the guide discusses the steps they can take to make their work environments safer. It also covers the responsibilities of guardians and youth workers for making workplaces safer.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-46NP (BSE-314P)
Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide
Mowing lawns continues to be one of the most popular summer job opportunities for youth given the affordable cost and ease in operation of most rotary mowers. However, easy access and widespread use of mowers often creates a false sense of security among the users of these machines. Data from a seven-year period (1996-2003) showed the highest rate of hospitalization from lawn mower injuries was for youth workers ages 15 to 19. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that more than 37,000 riding mower injuries occurred from 2003 through 2005 alone. During the same period, there were 95 fatalities due to riding mower tip-over. The purpose of this training guide is to reduce the number of mower accidents and injuries by familiarizing young workers with rotary mowers and their safe operation.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-47P (BSE-315P)
Tractor Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide, Safe Use of Tractors
Tractors are versatile equipment used in a variety of jobs ranging from hauling goods to lawn care to agriculture. While they are extremely versatile, they can be very dangerous unless they are used with care following safe practices. Accidents resulting in fatalities and severe injuries are very common during tractor use. The National Safety Council estimated that approximately 36 percent of all the agricultural fatalities in 1997 involved a tractor. Published data also show that farm accidents cause more than 100 deaths and about 2,600 serious injuries among children annually. Tractors account for about 41 percent of the accidental deaths among children under 15 years of age. In spite of these convincing data, a large number of operators continue to follow unsafe practices that can cause serious accidents.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-48P (BSE-321P)
Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-49P (BSE-264P)
Powered Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide
In addition to rotary mowers, many powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in lawn care. While these devices are very useful in making jobs easier and more efficient, they can be dangerous if used without proper training and care. In 1989 the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that power lawn trimmers and edgers alone have caused about 4,600 injuries annually that required medical attention. About one-third of these were eye-related.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-50P (BSE-322P)
Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide Hand Tool Care and Safe Use
Many hand tools such as rakes, shovels, and pruners are used widely in lawn care operations. While these non-powered tools are not known to cause major injuries, they have the potential for injuries that may require absence from work and/or medical assistance when they are used improperly.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-51P (BSE-323P)
Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone Nov 15, 2017 CSES-200P
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Soil Testing Oct 24, 2019 CSES-34NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Watering The Lawn Oct 24, 2019 CSES-35NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dethatching Your Lawn Oct 24, 2019 CSES-36NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Lawn Composting Oct 14, 2019 CSES-37NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Aerating Your Lawn Oct 14, 2019 CSES-38NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Mowing Your Lawn Oct 14, 2019 CSES-39NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Weeds Oct 14, 2019 CSES-40NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Choosing The Right Grass Oct 14, 2019 CSES-41NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Lawn Pests Oct 14, 2019 CSES-42NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dealing With Lawn Disease Oct 14, 2019 CSES-43NP
2019-20 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations Jul 22, 2019 SPES-154NP
Maintenance Calendar for Bermudagrass Jun 21, 2021 SPES-329NP
Beetlemania Jul 7, 2021 SPES-333NP
Hurricane Preparedness for Turfgrass Systems Jul 20, 2021 SPES-340NP
Cool-Season Turfgrass Sports Field Maintenance Calendar Jul 22, 2021 SPES-341NP
2021-22 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations Jul 21, 2021 SPES-343NP
Driving Homeowners ‘Nuts’: Sedge in the Lawn Jul 23, 2021 SPES-344NP
Selective Bermudagrass Control for Lawns Aug 18, 2021 SPES-350NP
Cool Season Lawn Renovation Sep 16, 2021 SPES-353NP
Managing Fall Armyworms on Lawns Aug 31, 2021 SPES-357NP
A Spreadsheet-Based Soil Test Converter for Turfgrass Professionals and Nutrient Management Planning in Virginia Dec 5, 2023 SPES-60
A Spreadsheet-Based Soil Test Converter for Turfgrass Professionals and Nutrient Management Planning in Virginia - Workbook Dec 5, 2023 SPES-60A
A Spreadsheet-Based Calculator for Lawn Fertilizer and Lime Applications in Virginia Dec 5, 2023 SPES-40P
A Spreadsheet-Based Calculator for Lawn Fertilizer and Lime Applications in Virginia - Workbook Dec 5, 2023 SPES-40A
2022-23 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations Aug 17, 2022 SPES-421NP
“Lost in the Weeds” part 1 Nov 28, 2022 SPES-441NP
“Lost in the Weeds” part 2 Nov 28, 2022 SPES-442NP
“Let the Clips Fall Where they May” Nov 28, 2022 SPES-443NP
"Don't Guess, Do the Test" Nov 28, 2022 SPES-444NP
“Application Without Calibration" Nov 28, 2022 SPES-445NP
"Fungus Among Us" Nov 28, 2022 SPES-446NP
"PPE and Me" Nov 28, 2022 SPES-447NP
"Don't Waste Water" Nov 28, 2022 SPES-448NP
VCE Ag Today: Fall Armyworm: 2021 Recap Feb 7, 2022 VCE-1027-60NP