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Resources by Alex Niemiera

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana)
The primary and sole attribute of beautyberry, a large loosely branched shrub, is the showy display of magenta fruits in the fall.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1033NP
American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) Oct 10, 2018 2901-1033NP
American Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea (prior name C. lutea))
This vase-shaped medium tree has smooth bark and showy white flowers in the spring. It is also quite drought and alkaline soil tolerant.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1034NP
American Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea (prior name C. lutea)) Oct 10, 2018 2901-1034NP
Evergreen Azalea (Rhododendron species)
There are hundreds of evergreen azalea cultivars which vary in hardiness, size, form, flower color, time of flowering, and foliage. The primary attractive feature of azaleas is the very attractive and showy flower display in spring.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1035NP
Evergreen Azalea (Rhododendron species) Oct 10, 2018 2901-1035NP
Beautybush (Kolkwitzia amabilis)
There are hundreds of evergreen azalea cultivars which vary in hardiness, size, form, flower color, time of flowering, and foliage. The primary attractive feature of azaleas is the very attractive and showy flower display in spring.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1036NP
Beautybush (Kolkwitzia amabilis) Oct 12, 2018 2901-1036NP
Boxwood May 1, 2009 2901-1037
Cherrylaurel (Prunus laurocerasus `Otto Luyken')
The species (Prunus laurocerasus) is generally not sold in the U.S. Cultivars of cherrylaurel are low-growing with handsome glossy foliage and white flowers in spring. This species tolerates shade and is used as a border, hedge, and in mass.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1038NP
Cherrylaurel (Prunus laurocerasus `Otto Luyken') Oct 12, 2018 2901-1038NP
Leaves are small and glossy green. Showy small, white/pink, spring flowers are followed by red or black fruit which cover branches in the fall. The fruit display can be quite showy.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1039NP
Cotoneaster Oct 12, 2018 2901-1039NP
Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)
Glossy, dark green foliage turns yellow, orange, and red in fall. Flowers may be white, pink, red, or purple. Exfoliating bark is ornamental.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1040NP
Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) Oct 15, 2018 2901-1040NP
Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum)
Doublefile viburnum is a large wide spreading shrub with a horizontal branching habit and a spectacular flower display in spring.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1041NP
Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum) Oct 15, 2018 2901-1041NP
Drooping Leucothoe (Leucothoe fontanesiana)
Drooping leucothoe is a beautiful and graceful evergreen medium-sized shrub with lustrous, dark green foliage. White bell-shaped flowers bloom in the spring. Its arching branches give it a fountain-like effect. This plant is not suitable for sunny or dry locations.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1042NP
Drooping Leucothoe (Leucothoe fontanesiana) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1042NP
European White Birch (Betula pendula)
European white birch is a small/medium fast-growing tree with showy white bark and pendulous branch tips (especially when bearing seed). Small, glossy-green summer foliage turns yellow in fall exposing ornamental white bark. This species is considered to be short lived due its susceptibility to pests.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1043NP
European White Birch (Betula pendula) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1043NP
Flowering Quince
Flowering quince is a large fast-growing shrub whose main merit is showy flowers (red, orange, white, pink depending on cultivar) in early spring. Uses of this species include hedge, shrub border, or mass plantings. Plants have thorns and therefore need careful placement.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1044NP
Flowering Quince Oct 23, 2018 2901-1044NP
Fraser Photinia, Red Tip
Red tip is a large evergreen shrub. Newly emerging foliage is red and quite showy for a few weeks after which it changes to glossy, dark green. Clusters of white flowers occur in late spring.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1045NP
Fraser Photinia, Red Tip Oct 23, 2018 2901-1045NP
Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree
Ginkgo is a large shade tree that is tolerant of adverse growing conditions and has a bright yellow fall foliage color. One should only plant male trees since female trees bear fruit that smell like vomit.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1046NP
Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree Oct 23, 2018 2901-1046NP
Goldenraintree is a medium tree with showy yellow flowers in early summer. Flowers are followed by bladder-like fruits that start out light green, turn yellow, and then brown. Fall color can be fair to good depending on the individual tree. This species is quite tolerant of adverse conditions.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1047NP
Goldenraintree Oct 23, 2018 2901-1047NP
Green Ash
This large fast-growing tree is very tolerant of adverse conditions. Its fall foliage color is a yellow.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1048NP
Green Ash Oct 23, 2018 2901-1048NP
Japanese Maple
Japanese maple is a small tree (usually less than 25 feet tall) with a fine texture and year round appeal. The combination of its showy spring, summer and fall foliage, smooth bark, and interesting form make is suitable for specimen tree status.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1049NP
Japanese Maple Oct 23, 2018 2901-1049NP
Japanese Barberry
This medium to large shrub has purple foliage throughout the growing season. Japanese barberry has thorns which may be an advantage (deer proof, pedestrian traffic control) or a liability (injury to pedestrians).
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1050NP
Japanese Barberry Oct 23, 2018 2901-1050NP
Japanese Camillia (Camellia japonica)
Beeches, both the American and European species, are large stately and noble trees. They have a smooth sensuous dark gray bark that is exceptionally attractive. Unfortunately, this feature often beckons graffiti practitioners to denigrate trees by carving their initials on trunks.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1051NP
Japanese Camillia (Camellia japonica) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1051NP
Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata)
There are numerous cultivars of Japanese holly. Many are compact, mounded forms with small, spineless, dark-green leaves and black fruit. They are primarily used in mass for borders, backgrounds, and foundation plants.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1052NP
Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1052NP
Japanese Pagodatree, Sophora
Japanese pagodatree is a medium/large shade tree with showy flowers in summer. Green seed pods, somewhat ornamental, hang on tree until late in the fall. Flower petals can be messy if tree is used near a house, road, or pathway.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1053NP
Japanese Pagodatree, Sophora Oct 5, 2018 2901-1053NP
Leatherleaf Viburnum (Viburnum rhytidophyllum)
This large shrub has dark green leaves that are large, slender, and wrinkled. This species has showy white flowers in late spring. Clusters of red to black berries form (inconsistently) in late summer.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1054NP
Littleleaf Linden (Tilia cordata)
This medium tree has wonderfully fragrant flowers in June and is tolerant of adverse conditions.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1055NP
Littleleaf Linden (Tilia cordata) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1055NP
Live Oak (Quercus virginiana)
A massive and majestic shade tree with evergreen foliage that is bright olive-green when new and changes to a glossy, dark green when mature.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1056NP
Live Oak (Quercus virginiana) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1056NP
London Planetree (Platanus x acerifolia)
London planetree is a medium/large species that is very tolerant of adverse conditions. It has ornamental which bark flakes off, exposing tan, greenish and creamy white colors.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1057NP
London Planetree (Platanus x acerifolia) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1057NP
Nandina, Heavenly Bamboo (Nandina domestica)
Heavenly bamboo is a medium-large upright shrub. In late spring it bears showy white flowers and in the late fall/winter it has attractive reddish foliage (sun) and large clusters of red berries. This species can tolerate full sun or full shade and is drought tolerant. There are several dwarf cultivars that are suitable for small spaces.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1058NP
Nandina, Heavenly Bamboo (Nandina domestica) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1058NP
Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)
The Virginia Department of Conservation and Resources and the Virginia Native Plant Society have ranked Norway maple as a “moderately invasive species” in the mountain, piedmont, and coastal areas of Virginia.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1059
Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1059
Old Fashioned Weigela (Weigela florida)
Old fashioned weigela is a large shrub with a coarse texture and showy spring flowers. This plant is best suited for a shrub border. There are several new cultivars which are improved versions (dwarf, foliage and flower characteristics) compared to the species.
Mar 6, 2024 2901-1060
Old Fashioned Weigela (Weigela florida) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1060
Oregon Grape Holly (Mahonia) (Mahonia aquifolium)
Oregon grape holly is a slow-growing, medium to large evergreen shrub with lustrous foliage and bright yellow flowers in spring which are followed by robin egg blue fruit in summer.
Mar 5, 2024 2901-1061
Oregon Grape Holly (Mahonia) (Mahonia aquifolium) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1061
Pin Oak (Quercus palustris)
In about the first thirty years, the branching habit of the native pin oak is truly unique. The upper branches are ascending, the middle ones horizontal, and the lower ones drooping.
Mar 5, 2024 2901-1062
Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1062
Privet (Ligustrum species)
Small, green, summer foliage. When unpruned, pyramidal clusters of small white flowers produce black berries.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1063
Privet (Ligustrum species) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1063
Red Maple (Acer rubrum)
Red maple is a fast-growing medium/large shade tree species with a spectacular fall foliage color. It has showy red flowers in the spring. There are many cultivars of this species that vary in form, tolerance of wet conditions, and fall color.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1064
Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1064
Evergreen Rhododendron (Rhododendron species) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1065
Evergreen Rhododendron (Rhododendron species) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1065
Rose-of-Sharon, Shrub Althea (Hibiscus syriacus)
Rose-of- Sharon is a large shrub with showy, relatively large single or double flowers, that bloom in summer. Flower colors include white, red, purple, violet, and blue.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1066
Rose-of-Sharon, Shrub Althea (Hibiscus syriacus) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1066
Scarlet Firethorn, Pyracantha (Pyracantha coccinea)
Pyracantha is a large, fast-growing shrub has showy white blooms in spring and a spectacular display of orange/red fruit in the fall. This plant requires pruning since unpruned plants are very rangy looking.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1067
Scarlet Firethorn, Pyracantha (Pyracantha coccinea) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1067
Smokebush, Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria)
Smokebush is a small tree or large shrub depending on how one prunes the plant. Leaves of the species are green. Depending on cultivar; leaves can be purple or yellow during the growing season.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1068
Smokebush, Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1068
Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)
This is a magnificent large evergreen tree with very large, wonderfully fragrant white flowers in late spring and early summer. There are many cultivars with variations in tree shape and size, flower, and foliage characteristics.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1069
Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Oct 19, 2018 2901-1069
Southern Waxmyrtle (Myrica cerifera)
Southern waxmyrtle is a large evergreen shrub or small tree depending on how one prunes it. This species tolerates wet and dry soils and females have a somewhat showy display of gray berries in the fall/winter.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1070
Southern Waxmyrtle (Myrica cerifera) Oct 19, 2018 2901-1070
Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)
Sugar maple is a medium/large shade tree with a no less than spectacular fall foliage display. There are many cultivars; cultivar characteristics include growth rate, form, and fall foliage color.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1071
Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Oct 19, 2018 2901-1071
Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua)
Pyramidal in youth, round to oval at maturity Sweetgum is a medium/large tree with very showy fall foliage colors. It tolerates moist to dry soils. A notable disadvantage is the mess created by the fallen spiny fruit (gum balls).
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1072
Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1072
Thornless Common Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis)
Thornless honeylocust is a large tree that tolerates both wet and dry soils. One should select a cultivar for fruitlessness and pest resistance.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1073
Thornless Common Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1073
Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera)
Tuliptree is a very tall, large tree with a straight trunk. It bears beautiful tulip-shaped flowers in May but generally go unnoticed since they high in the tree.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1074
Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1074
Vanhoutte Spirea (Spiraea x vanhouttei)
Vase-shaped with arching branches Vanhoutte spirea is a large shrub with graceful arching branches. Its main claim to fame is it abundant and showy display of white flowers in spring. This species is best used in a shrub border or in mass.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1075
Vanhoutte Spirea (Spiraea x vanhouttei) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1075
White Oak (Quercus alba)
White oak is a magnificent large spreading tree. This species is somewhat slow growing but is well worth the wait. Do not plant this tree in an area that is apt to be subjected to soil compaction.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1076
White Oak (Quercus alba) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1076
Winterberry (Ilex verticillata)
Winterberry is a large shrub and somewhat informal in character. There are cultivars that are shorter and have a more formal appearance. This native wetland species has very showy bright red fruit (on female plants) in early autumn that persist till February.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1077
Winterberry (Ilex verticillata) Oct 26, 2018 2901-1077
Wintercreeper Euonymus (Eunymus fortunei)
Wintercreeper euonymus is a low-growing evergreen ground cover that will climb when it encounters a vertical surface. There are several cultivars which vary in foliage color and height.
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1078
Wintercreeper Euonymus (Eunymus fortunei) Oct 26, 2018 2901-1078
Yaupon Holly Cultivars (Ilex vomitoria)
This and several other similar cultivars are used in landscapes as border plants or in mass. This species is very tolerant of most adverse landscape conditions. Some female cultivars have stems laden with very showy persistent red fruit. This species is suited to warmer areas of Virginia (zone 7 and higher).
Mar 7, 2024 2901-1079
Yaupon Holly Cultivars (Ilex vomitoria ) Oct 26, 2018 2901-1079
Austrian Pine, Pinus nigra
Austrian pine is a medium to large pine tree that is quite dense in its youth (about first 20 years). As most other pines, with age this species loses its lower branches and assumes a flat-topped irregular form.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1462
Bigleaf Hydrangea, Hydrangea macrophylla
Bigleaf hydrangea is a very popular flowering shrub. Flowers are mostly produced in June and July but newer cultivars (that flower on new growth) flower through the summer. Depending on the particular cultivar, bigleaf hydrangeas bear one of two types of flowers.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1463
Bradford Callery Pear (and other cultivars) Pyrus calleryana ‘Bradford’
Bradford callery pear is a medium size fast-growing tree that has an exceptionally showy flower show (March/April), has handsome glossy leaves that turn a brilliant red-orange in fall, has a symmetrical oval to round shape with a neat branching pattern, is resistant to fire blight, and is remarkably tolerant of drought, heat, pollution, and poor soils.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1464
Canadian Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis
Canadian hemlock is a large very beautiful and graceful conifer native to moist forests and stream banks of the Appalachian Mountains. Unlike most other conifers, it is shade tolerant but will tolerate full sun.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1465
Carolina Silverbell, Halesia carolina (formerly H. tetraptera)
Carolina sIlverbell is a medium sized tree with a very showy display of bell- shaped white flowers in April. Brown four-winged fruits are persistent into the fall that are considered aesthetically pleasing by some; at the least they are interesting and an aid in plant identification.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1466
Cedars, Cedrus spp.
True cedars, the genus Cedrus, are large exceptionally beautiful conifers. In youth they are conical trees but mature into grand picturesque specimens. There are three cedar (Cedrus) species in the landscape trade.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1467
Chastetree, Monk’s Pepper Tree, Vitex agnus-castus
Chastetree is a large fast-growing shrub or small tree that produces showy pale violet flowers in June/July through September. This species is quite drought tolerant.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1468
Chinese Juniper, Juniperus chinensis
Chinese juniper, the species, is a medium/large tree, however, only cultivars, ranging from small trees/large shrubs to low-growing shrubs are sold at garden centers.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1469
Colorado Spruce, Picea pungens var. glauca
Colorado spruce is usually a dense conical conifer. Within the species there is a botanical variety called the Glauca Group (var. glauca). The foliage of seedlings from plants in the Glauca Group can vary from green to bright powder blue.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1470
Common Periwinkle, Lesser Periwinkle, Vinca minor
Common Periwinkle is an attractive low-growing broad leaved evergreen ground cover. The plant produces 1-inch blue-violet flowers in early spring that are noticeable upon close inspection. Plants do best in light shade but will tolerate full sun and full shade; full sun plantings often show leaf discoloration.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1471
Cornelian Cherry Dogwood, Cornus mas
Cornelian cherry dogwood is a multi-stem large shrub or small tree depending on how one prunes it. In either case, its main showy characteristic is in February/March at which time it produces numerous small yellow flowers which collectively are quite showy.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1472
Creeping Juniper, Juniperus horizontalis
Creeping juniper, a conifer, is a ground cover species represented by numerous cultivars (more than 60) that vary in height, form, foliage color, and the presence of juniper “berries” (on females).
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1473
Dawn Redwood, Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Dawn redwood is a fast-growing large deciduous conifer with a distinctly conical form. This species is quite majestic; its feather-like foliage confers a fine texture. Fall foliage color is variable but a pleasant brown-orange color is typical.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1474
Dwarf Alberta Spruce, Picea glauca ‘Conica’
Dwarf Alberta Spruce is quite common in the garden center trade. It is a slow- growing densely compact conical conifer with a formal look due to its dense symmetrical form.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1475
Eastern Arborvitae, American Arborvitae, White Cedar, Thuja occidentalis
Eastern arborvitae is a conical conifer that has a stately appearance and useful as a specimen plant (used alone as a focal point), as a border planting, or anywhere a conical evergreen is appropriate.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1476
Eastern Redcedar, Juniperus virginiana
Eastern redcedar is widely distributed throughout the eastern US. It is a pioneer species in that is quickly populates farm fields and other open areas (seeds spread in bird droppings). Its common place presence throughout makes it suffer the stigma of being too familiar.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1477
English Ivy, Hedera helix
English ivy is an attractive evergreen ground cover and vine that grows in full sun or full shade. While very attractive due to its lustrous green foliage and numerous foliage variations found in the cultivars, and being very tolerant of adverse conditions, this species has been documented as an invasive species.
Mar 7, 2024 3010-1478NP
European Cranberrybush Viburnum (Guelder Rose), Viburnum opulus Nov 6, 2023 3010-1479NP
European Hornbeam, Carpinus betulus Nov 6, 2023 3010-1480NP
European Larch, Larix decidua Nov 6, 2023 3010-1481NP
Evergreen Hollies, (Ilex spp.) Nov 6, 2023 3010-1482NP
Flowering Crabapple Nov 6, 2023 3010-1483NP
Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida Nov 6, 2023 3010-1484NP
Franklinia Nov 6, 2023 3010-1485NP
Garden Sumacs, Rhus spp. Nov 6, 2023 3010-1486NP
Giant Arborviatae, Western Arborvitae Nov 6, 2023 3010-1487NP
Glossy Abelia May 1, 2023 3010-1488NP
Heaths (several species of Erica) and Heathers (Calluna vulgaris) Nov 6, 2023 3010-1489NP
Japanese Garden Juniper Nov 6, 2023 3010-1490NP
Japanese Pachysandra, Japanese Spurge Nov 6, 2023 3010-1491NP
Japanese Pieris Nov 6, 2023 3010-1492NP
Lilacs Nov 6, 2023 3010-1493NP
Mountain-Laurel Nov 6, 2023 3010-1494NP
Mugo Pine, Pinus mugo
Main Features: Generally only dwarf forms of mugo pine are sold at garden centers; the species (non-dwarf) is a multi-stem medium to large tree. Dwarf forms vary in their growth rate from 1 to 8 inches per year, and in their form (mounded to upright oval). Hence, cultivar selection is important to match the cultivar to the available garden/landscape space.
Feb 1, 2024 3010-1495NP
Oriental Arborvitae, Thuja orientalis (also known as Platycladus orientalis)
Foliage: Flat scale-like foliage without a sweet fragrance when crushed; branches are held in a flat vertical plane; evergreen Height: About 20 feet Spread: About 15 feet
Feb 1, 2024 3010-1496NP
Red Twig Dogwoods, Tatarian Dogwood (Cornus alba) and Redosier Dogwood (Cornus sericea)
There are two species of dogwoods that have showy red stems in the winter, Tatarian dogwood (Cornus alba) and redosier dogwood (C. sericea). Both are deciduous medium to large shrubs and have similar flowering and fruit characteristics, as well as cultural aspects. Thus, the general information (Summary, Plant Needs, Functions, and Care) will be presented for both species). Each species has several cultivars that vary in stem color and foliage variegation; cultivar information will be presented for each species in the Additional Information section.
Feb 1, 2024 3010-1497NP
Shore Juniper Nov 6, 2023 3010-1498NP
White Fringetree, Old-man’s-beard Nov 6, 2023 3010-1499NP
Yews, Taxus spp. Nov 6, 2023 3010-1500NP
Yuccas, Yucca spp. Nov 6, 2023 3010-1501NP
Container and Raised-Bed Gardening Nov 5, 2018 426-020
Jardinería en macetas y camas elevadas (Container and Raised Bed Gardening)
La jardinería en macetas le permite tener y disfrutar de muchas plantas ornamentales y cuando no puede cultivarlas directamente en la tierra. Puede utilizar plantas cultivadas en macetas en entradas, patios, terrazas, azoteas, jardines, interiores o en cualquier lugar donde necesite añadir un componente vivo para mejorar el atractivo de una zona. Cada maceta plantada tendrá su propia personalidad; puede crear un paisaje en cada maceta. Pueden ser impresionantes o sutiles, grandes o pequeñas. Las plantas y las macetas ofrecen combinaciones ilimitadas de tamaño, color, forma y textura que pueden dar a su entorno interior y exterior un aspecto más agradable desde el punto de vista estético.
Nov 6, 2023 426-020s (SPES-428P)
The Effect of Landscape Plants on Perceived Home Value
The value of an attractive landscape to a home’s perceived value has often been stated at 15 percent. Is this figure reliable, and what landscape features do contribute to the value of a home? How does a landscape contractor convince his/her client to spend a significant portion of a home’s construction budget on landscaping, and is this a wise investment? How can a homeowner feel justified by spending thousands of dollars to landscape a newly constructed house? Or, will thousands of dollars worth of landscaping, significantly increase the “curb appeal” of a home for sale? To answer these questions, researchers conducted a seven-state survey of attendees at consumer home and garden shows to determine consumer perspective on how plant size, type, and design sophistication in a landscape affect the perceived value of a home (Behe et al., 2005).
Nov 6, 2023 426-087
Indoor Plant Culture
Select only those plants that appear to be free of pests. Check the undersides of the foliage and the junction of leaf and stem for signs of insects or disease. Select plants that look sturdy, clean, and well-potted. Choose plants with healthy foliage. Avoid plants with yellow or chlorotic leaves, brown leaf margins, wilted foliage, spots or blotches, or spindly growth. In addition, avoid those with torn leaves. Plants that have new flower and leaf buds along with young growth are usually of superior quality.
Nov 6, 2023 426-100
Planning the Vegetable Garden
How much time will you be able to devote to your garden on a regular basis? The answer to this question will dictate the size of your garden. You must remember that, once planted, the garden will have to be weeded once a week, irrigated during droughts, and vegetables harvested when ripe. Depending on the type of vegetables, you may also need to undertake pest control measures.
Nov 4, 2020 426-312 (HORT-209P)
Intensive Gardening Methods Nov 6, 2023 426-335
Métodos de huerta intensiva (Intensive Gardening Methods)
El objetivo de la jardinería intensiva es cosechar la mayor cantidad posible de productos en un espacio limitado. Las huertas más tradicionales constan de largas hileras de hortalizas muy separadas entre sí. Gran parte de la superficie de la huerta está ocupada por el espacio entre las hileras. Una huerta intensiva minimiza el espacio desperdiciado. La práctica de la huerta intensiva no es solo para los que tienen un espacio limitado en el jardín; más bien, una huerta intensiva concentra sus esfuerzos de trabajo para crear un entorno ideal para las plantas, lo que brinda mejores rendimientos.
Nov 6, 2023 426-335s (SPES-427P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Boxwoods Aug 2, 2023 426-603 (HORT-290P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Groundcovers
Landscapes are composed of plants that form ceilings, walls, and floors spaces. Groundcovers serve as attractive carpets of foliage that cloak and beautify our landscape “floors” (fig. 1). A groundcover is a low-growing plant species — 3 feet tall or shorter — that spreads to form a relatively dense layer of vegetation. In covering bare soil, groundcovers reduce soil erosion and provide habitat for insects and other animals, along with a host of other positive environmental effects.
Nov 6, 2023 426-609 (HORT-31P)
Shrubs: Functions, Planting, and Maintenance
What is a shrub? A shrub is generally considered a multi-stem woody plant that is less than 15 feet tall. Of course, this and other plant size categories are definitions contrived by humans to categorize nature. What is the difference between a large shrub and a small tree? In many cases, there is none. A shrub does not become a tree just because it grows higher than 15 feet. Classifying plants into ground cover, shrub, and tree designations are aids to allow us to conveniently classify and describe plants, albeit with a significant amount of ambiguity.
Nov 6, 2023 426-701
Planting Trees Jun 24, 2022 426-702 (HORT-248NP)
Using Compost in Your Landscape Mar 13, 2021 426-704 (SPES-304P)
Creating a Water-Wise Landscape Feb 2, 2021 426-713 (HORT-200P)
Diagnosing Plant Problems
Something is wrong with your plant. What’s the cause? You can begin to determine the cause of the problem by taking on the role of Sherlock Holmes – be a keen observer and ask many questions. Diagnosing plant problems is often a difficult task. There can be many different causes for a given symptom, not all of them related to insects or diseases. The health of a plant may be affected by soil nutrition and texture, weather conditions, quantity of light, other environmental and cultural conditions, and animals, including humans. Complicating this scenario is the fact that any two of the above factors can interact to give rise to a problem. For example, a prolonged period of drought may weaken plants so that they are more susceptible to pests; this is typically observed with boxwoods.
Nov 6, 2023 426-714
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
Jun 27, 2022 450-236 (PPWS-69P)
Arbustos ideales para los paisajes de Virginia (Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes)
La forma más eficaz de controlar las enfermedades de los cultivos en nuestro jardín es la prevención. La prevención de enfermedades puede ser tan sencilla como elegir el cultivo adecuado para el lugar adecuado al momento de cultivar. Esta hoja informativa fue desarrollada como una guía de los arbustos que generalmente experimentan pocos problemas en los paisajes de Virginia. El uso de estas especies para las nuevas plantaciones debería ayudarle a evitar problemas de enfermedades e insectos en su jardín.
Aug 7, 2023 450-236s (SPES-429s)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
Jun 29, 2022 450-237 (PPWS-70P)
Goldenchain tree, Laburnum × watereri
Goldenchain tree is a small tree that is primarily noted for its very showy pendulous flowers (16 inches plus in May). This species is best grown in zones 5 to 7 and generally requires afternoon shade. Plants in full sun are often stressed and succumb to pest problems. ‘Vossii’ is a long-flowered cultivar.
Feb 1, 2024 HORT-10NP
Hinoki Falsecypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa
Hinoki falsecypress is a medium to large conifer. There are numerous cultivars that are more popular and prevalent in the nursery trade than the species. However, the species is a very beautiful conifer and well worth the hunt in garden centers or mail order nurseries. In my opinion, the hinoki falsecypress (species, not a cultivar) is more desirable than the sawara falsecypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera species, not a cultivar) since hinoki falsecypress foliage is denser and brighter green, and the bark is a brighter red-brown color. Cultivars vary in size (growth rate), foliage size and color, and form.
Feb 1, 2024 HORT-11NP
Japanese Cryptomeria, Cryptomeria japonica
Japanese cryptomeria is a handsome medium to large conifer with a conical to narrow conical form. This species is fast growing and is relatively popular in the trade. If lower limbs are removed, one can observe a beautiful orange-brown bark (on most trees). The foliage tends to turn brownish on the south side of the plant in winter due to desiccation; however, foliage will turn green in spring. Japanese cryptomeria does have a few disease problems, although these are not considered a major issue at this point in time.
Feb 1, 2024 HORT-12NP
Japanese Stewartia, Stewartia pseudocamellia
Japanese stewartia is a strikingly beautiful small tree. It has very showy white flowers with gold-colored stamens in June; bright maroon-red fall foliage color; and with age develops bark with a patchwork of brown, orange-brown, and cream colors. Bark characteristics vary from tree to tree and some trees have lustrous bark.
Feb 1, 2024 HORT-13NP
Japanese Zelkova, Zelkova serrata
Japanese zelkova is a medium to large shade tree with a distinct vase shape. This species is quite drought and heat tolerant; its use as a street tree species is testimony to its toughness. Fall foliage colors range from fair to quite good (orange to bronze-red to maroon) and will vary from tree to tree (seedling-grown trees) or from cultivar to cultivar.
Feb 1, 2024 HORT-14NP
Katsuratree, Cercidiphyllum japonicum
Katsuratree is a magnificent medium to large shade tree. Its accolade-deserving qualities are its form, beautiful foliage, and bark. Seedling-grown trees have a variable form ranging from upright oval to pyramidal to wide spreading. This species has a tendency to develop major branches near ground level, and if one has ample space, such low slung trunks give the lower portion of the tree a majestic “octopus-like” appearance.
Feb 1, 2024 HORT-15NP
Kousa Dogwood, Cornus kousa Oct 1, 2018 HORT-16NP
Lacebark Pine, Pinus bungeana
Lacebark pine is a medium (sometimes large) conifer species that has strikingly beautiful bark. Bark is a camouflage-like patchwork of greens, silvery-white, creams, browns, and red-browns. There is a great amount of tree to tree variation in bark color; patchwork of colors begins to appear on approximately 2 inch diameter branches.
Mar 5, 2024 HORT-17NP
Leyland Cypress, Cupressocyparis leylandii
Leyland cypress is a fast-growing conifer that is one of the most popular landscape conifers in the eastern U.S. In addition to its vigor, this species is relatively drought tolerant and can be pruned into a hedge.
Mar 5, 2024 HORT-18NP
Mimosa (Silk-tree or Albizia), Albizia julibrissin
Mimosa is a fast-growing small tree with very attractive pink pin cushion-like flowers in summer. This species has tropical-like foliage (bipinnately compound foliage with very small leaflets) that confers a very fine texture to the tree.
Mar 5, 2024 HORT-19NP
Norway Spruce, Picea abies
Norway spruce is a medium to large conical conifer. When young (first 10 years or so), the plant is stiffly conical. With age, the secondary branches hang from the primary horizontal branches.
Mar 5, 2024 HORT-20NP
Paperbark Maple, Acer griseum
Paperbark maple is a small tree with exceptionally beautiful peeling cinnamon-colored bark. Most branches, those that have a diameter about one-half inch and larger, will have peeling (exfoliating) orange-brown bark.
Mar 7, 2024 HORT-21NP
Red Buckeye, Aesculus pavia
Red buckeye is typically a multi-trunk small tree (large shrub). Its claim to fame is the red flowers that cover the plant in April/May. Flower stalks (panicles) are about 8 inches long with 2 inch long red tubular flowers. Flowers are pollinated by ruby-throated hummingbirds.
Mar 6, 2024 HORT-22NP
River Birch, Betula nigra
River birch is a fast-growing shade tree species. As the common name implies, river birch trees tolerate wet soils and are a very suitable species for portions of the landscape that characteristically have moist soil, such as low areas or in poorly drained soils.
Mar 5, 2024 HORT-23NP
Saucer Magnolia, Magnolia ×soulangeana
Saucer magnolia is generally a small (occasionally medium) multi-stem tree that is known for its outstanding flower display in March (February in southern U.S. and April in northern U.S.). Flowers are about 8 inches in diameter; outer sides of petals (actually called tepals; about 9 tepals) are various shades of pink-purple while inner sides of tepals are white.
Mar 5, 2024 HORT-24NP
Sawara Falsecypress (Japanese Falsecypress), Chamaecyparis pisifera
Sawara falsecypress is a medium to large conifer. There are numerous cultivars that are more popular and prevalent in the nursery trade than the species. Cultivars vary in size (growth rate), foliage type and color, and form. Many of the cultivars are considered “dwarf” since they do not attain the mature size of the species.
Mar 5, 2024 HORT-25NP
Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris
Scotch pine is a medium tree. Like most pines, the first 20 or so years of its life it has a conical shape and with maturity it loses its lower limbs and has an irregular flat topped or oval shape. Scotch pine has a relatively showy orange colored bark (with the exception of the lower trunk). It is also relatively drought tolerant, thus it is suitable for landscape sites that tend to be dry.
Mar 6, 2024 HORT-26NP
Sourwood, Oxydendrum arboreum
Sourwood is a small slow-growing tree although forest specimens exceed this small status. This species is certainly worthy to be a specimen plant (sufficient attributes to be featured as a focal point). Sourwood has beautiful lustrous foliage in the growing season which turns a bright maroon to pink-red in the fall.
Mar 6, 2024 HORT-27NP
Star Magnolia, Magnolia stellata
Star magnolia is a small multi-stem tree that is known for its outstanding flower display in March (February in southern U.S. and April in northern U.S.). Flowers are about 3 to 4 inches in diameter and fragrant; outer sides of petals (actually called tepals; about 12 to 18 tepals) are white or blushed with pink while inner sides of tepals are white.
Mar 6, 2024 HORT-28NP
Umbrella-Pine (Japanese Umbrella-Pine), Sciadopitys verticillata
Umbrella-pine is a beautiful slow-growing conical conifer. Its beauty is mostly derived from the unusual texture that is imparted by the glossy dark-green needles that occur in whorls along the stem.
Mar 6, 2024 HORT-29NP
Washington Hawthorn, Crataegus phaenopyrum
Washington hawthorn is a small tree (single or multiple trunks) with showy white flowers in June. Trees produce an abundance of persistent glossy bright red fruit (about 0.25 inches in diameter) that result in a spectacular fruit display that persist into winter months.
Mar 6, 2024 HORT-30NP
American Hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana
American hornbeam, also called blue beech, musclewood, water beech, and ironwood, is a small to medium tree. In its youth, and even sometimes at maturity, this species tends be multi-trunked and densely branched. It also tends to develop major branches near ground level which can be a desirable or undesirable characteristic depending on how this species is intended to be used in the landscape.
Mar 6, 2024 HORT-5NP
American (Fagus grandifolia) and European (Fagus sylvatica) Beeches
Beeches, both the American and European species, are large stately and noble trees. They have a smooth sensuous dark gray bark that is exceptionally attractive. Unfortunately, this feature often beckons graffiti practitioners to denigrate trees by carving their initials on trunks.
Mar 6, 2024 HORT-6NP
Chinese Elm (Lacebark Elm), Ulmus parvifolia
Chinese elm is a medium to large fast-growing shade tree. This species is quite tolerant of drought and poor soil; hence, it has been extensively used in urban situations. There are numerous cultivars; cultivar selection criteria include cold hardiness, form, growth rate, foliage characteristics, and bark showiness.
Mar 6, 2024 HORT-7NP
Chinese Pistache, Pistacia chinensis
Chinese pistache is a medium-size shade tree. It is quite tolerant of full sun, hot, and dry conditions (once established). This species has separate male and female plants (dioecious); female plants (if male trees are present) will produce clusters of reddish pea-size fruit that are somewhat attractive.
Mar 7, 2024 HORT-8NP
Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Showy Flowering Shrubs
This publication features small, medium, and large flowering shrubs (five of each category) with photos. All photos are by the author. There are at least eight shrubs from each category noted in a table (without photos) at the end of this publication. All shrubs — featured or in the table — are landscape worthy and are especially suited to landscapes in Virginia and the Mid-Atlantic States.
Jul 30, 2020 HORT-84P
Douglasfir, Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglasfir is a large and stately narrow conical conifer that is native to the Pacific Northwest (P. menziesii var. menziesii) and Rocky Mountains (P. menziesii var. glauca). Trees in native habitats are often taller than 100 feet; however, landscape trees rarely exceed 50 feet.
Mar 8, 2024 HORT-9NP
Edible Landscape Species – Trees Oct 21, 2021 SPES-316
Edible Landscape Species – Shrubs, Vines, and Groundcovers Oct 21, 2021 SPES-317
Comparison of Raised Bed Methods, Materials, and Costs Sep 29, 2022 SPES-425NP
Arbustos ideales para los paisajes de Virginia (Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes) Dec 5, 2022 SPES-429P