Resources by Eric R. Day
Plants Attacked: Juniper, arborvitae, other cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, Chinese elm, honeylocust, primarily. Also on crabapple, maple, sycamore, box elder, willow, linden, poplar, and many others.
|Mar 4, 2020||2808-1008 (ENTO-351NP)|
|Cucumber Beetles||Apr 30, 2020||2808-1009 (ENTO-368NP)|
Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.
|Feb 26, 2015||2808-1012 (ENTO-106NP)|
Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.
|Mar 6, 2020||2808-1013 (ENTO-357NP)|
|Brown Marmorated Stink Bug||May 21, 2009||2902-1100|
The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United States. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.
|Dec 11, 2014||2902-1101 (ENTO-97NP)|
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
|Jun 30, 2020||2902-1102 (ENTO-386NP)|
|Emerald Ash Borer||Mar 17, 2016||2904-1290 (ENTO-200NP)|
|Common Ticks of Virginia||Dec 12, 2017||2906-1396 (ENTO-250NP)|
Pine Sawyers are secondary infesters whose main damage is disfiguring wood by larval boring and tunneling in felled trees and usable trees which are weakened or dying from other causes. Plant parts attacked trunk. Damaging stage - larvae.
|Jun 9, 2020||2907-1399 (ENTO-372NP)|
|Pine Needle Scale||
Damage is not apparent until large populations have been present for more than 1 or 2 seasons. Trees are stunted, grow slowly, have short needles and shoots. Occasionally the feeding of scales produces chlorotic, yellowish flecks no the needles, but normally this is not apparent. Heavily infested plants are seriously weakened and may be in a state of decline.
|May 1, 2020||2907-1400 (ENTO-371NP)|
|Balsam Twig Aphid||
Twisted and curled needles are the most apparent damage from feeding by the balsam twig aphid. Feeding can also cause roughened bark on the twigs. Extensive feeding can cause a general decline and reduced vigor of the tree, yet in many cases is cosmetic and not particularly damaging. The major problem is that curled needles reduce the marketability and value of Christmas trees. Balsam twig aphids also produce honeydew, a sticky material that drops to needles and twigs below. At times the honeydew can become a growth medium for sooty mold, which turns the needles and twigs black.
|Apr 30, 2020||2907-1401 (ENTO-367NP)|
|Pine Bark Adelgid||
The pine bark adelgid was introduced from Europe and is now widely distributed in North America, occurring principally throughout the native range of eastern white pine. This insect is also found on Scots and Austrian pine.
|Aug 28, 2018||2907-1402 (ENTO-285NP)|
|Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show||
Ornamental plants enrich our lives every day and improve our environment. Flowers, shrubs, and trees beautify our yards and parks, while houseplants add a pleasant living touch to our indoor environment. Perhaps you are one of the many people who find satisfaction in planting and caring for ornamental plants. If so, sooner or later you will be confronted with insects which threaten to ruin your plants and undo your hard work. Learning to identify pest insects is the first step toward an effective pest management strategy. Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants is a five part program which will introduce you to the common pests of shade trees, shrubs, flowers, and houseplants in Virginia.
|Mar 6, 2015||2909-1414 (ENTO-121NP)|
|Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show||Mar 6, 2015||2909-1415 (ENTO-122NP)|
The European hornet is a stout hornet approximately 1-inch long. The color of the head and thorax is dark reddish brown with deep yellow and brown black markings on the abdomen. The markings on the abdomen are similar to the markings found on yellow jackets. The European hornet resembles the cicada killer wasp but is more robust and has more hair on the thorax and abdomen (but is not as hairy as a bee).
|May 1, 2020||2911-1422 (ENTO-369NP)|
|Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner||
These beetles cause very conspicuous damage in late summer. The leaves on large numbers of twigs and branches will be observed to turn brown prematurely. These twigs and branches sometimes fall from trees in great numbers and accumulate. On close examination, the twigs have one of two kinds of damage. Twigs damaged by the twig girdler are cut as neatly as by a knife. The cut end has been gnawed almost straight across with a faint rounding and is slightly roughened by the chewing. The twig girdler is more commonly found on pecan and hickory. The twig pruner causes a slightly different type of cut. The twig will be observed to have a hollowed out space at the cut end filled with sawdust like frass. The twig when split open will have a long tunnel through most of its length. The twig pruner is more commonly found on oak.
|May 1, 2020||2911-1423 (ENTO-374NP)|
|Virginia Pine Sawfly||
The Virginia pine sawfly has been recorded from New Jersey and Maryland to North Carolina and westward to Illinois. Its main hosts are Virginia and shortleaf pines, but it also feeds on pitch and loblolly pine.
|May 1, 2020||2911-1424 (ENTO-375NP)|
The baldfaced hornet is a large, black and white hornet up to 1 inch (25.4mm) in length. It is black and white in color with a mostly white head or face. It is widely distributed in Virginia. The nests are constructed of the same paper-like material as that of other wasps (yellowjackets). They differ a great deal from other wasp nests in being enclosed in a thick "paper" envelope. There is a single opening at the lower end of the nest and a few hornets always guard this. Nests are always abandoned at the end of the season. Hymenoptera, Vespidae: Dolichovespula maculata (L.)
|Mar 6, 2020||3006-1449 (ENTO-352NP)|
|Hemlock Woolly Adelgid||Dec 16, 2016||3006-1451 (ENTO-228NP)|
|Balsam Woolly Adelgid||
Native to central Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid is now distributed throughout eastern and western North America. It attacks all true firs, Abies spp., including balsam and Fraser fir.
|Jun 24, 2015||3006-1452(ENTO-161NP)|
|Redheaded Pine Sawfly||
The redheaded pine sawfly occurs from S.E. Canada throughout the eastern U.S. Feeding is primarily restricted to the two and three-needled pines, such as Jack, red, shortleaf, loblolly, slash, longleaf, and pitch pines. White pine and Norway spruce may also be defoliated.
|Jun 24, 2015||3006-1453(ENTO-162NP)|
|Drugstore and Cigarette Beetles||Mar 8, 2016||3101-1526 (ENTO-193NP)|
|Earwigs in Virginia||Mar 11, 2016||3101-1527 (ENTO-194NP)|
|Locust Leafminer||Mar 17, 2016||3101-1528 (ENTO-205NP)|
|Pine Tortoise Scale||
Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years - most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.
|Mar 24, 2016||3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)|
|Corn Earworm on Vegetables||Mar 25, 2019||3103-1537 (ENTO-312NP)|
|Beet Webworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1542|
|Blister Beetles||Feb 19, 2016||3104-1543 (ENTO-187NP)|
|Cabbage Looper||Sep 29, 2017||3104-1544 (ENTO-244NP)|
|Celery Leaftier||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1545|
Adults are usually black or brown beetles with an oval to oblong shape. They have clubbed or knobbed antennae and the economically important species typically measure 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 inch) long. Some sap beetles have short wing covers that do not cover the entire abdomen. Some species have flattened bodies while others are more convex. Many sap beetles are a dull color, sometimes with mottling or spots. One common sap beetle, the picnic beetle [Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say)], is an attractive shiny black beetle with four yellow-orange bands or spots on the wing covers.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1546(ENTO-157NP)|
|Cutworms in the Home Garden||Dec 12, 2017||3104-1547 (ENTO-252NP)|
|Eggplant Lace Bug||
Adult eggplant lace bugs are a mottled grayish to dark brown in color and measure 4 mm (0.16 inch) long. Their bodies are flattened but sculptured, with broad lateral projections behind the head and lace-like wings. The antennae are darker at the tips. Nymphs are wingless and yellow in coloration. They develop black markings and black antennae as they mature. Older nymphs have many spiny projections over the body. Mature nymphs measure about 2 mm (0.08 inch) long.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1548(ENTO-153NP)|
|Flea Beetle Control for Home Gardens||Dec 5, 2017||3104-1549 (ENTO-251NP)|
|Grasshoppers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1550|
|Hornworms in Home Gardens||Dec 12, 2017||3104-1551 (ENTO-254NP)|
|Imported Cabbageworm in Home Gardens||Dec 13, 2017||3104-1552 (ENTO-253NP)|
|Insect Pests of Potatoes in Home Gardens||Dec 13, 2017||3104-1553 (ENTO-256NP)|
|Leafminers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1554|
|Mexican Bean Beetle||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1555|
|Onion Thrips||May 1, 2020||3104-1556 (ENTO-370NP)|
|Parsleyworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1557|
|Pepper Weevil||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1558|
|Pickleworm||May 13, 2015||3104-1559(ENTO-154NP)|
|Raspberry Crown Borer||Mar 24, 2016||3104-1561 (ENTO-208NP)|
Adult rhubarb curculios are elongated, somewhat cylindrical beetles measuring about 13-19 mm (0.5-0.75 inch) in total body length. They have an obvious long snout that curves downwards from the head. Young adults have a dusty coating of yellow or orange powder that rubs off easily. Older beetles that have lost this dusty coating appear brownish-black in color. Mature larvae are legless white grubs with a brown head capsule. Rhubarb curculio larvae are only found in weedy hosts and not in rhubarb itself. There are a number of related, similar-looking weevils that occur on various weeds in the Asteraceae and Polygonaceae families.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1563(ENTO-155NP)|
|Rose Chafer||Mar 24, 2016||3104-1564 (ENTO-209NP)|
|Rose Scale||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1565|
|Squash Vine Borer||
Adult squash vine borers are robust, attractive moths with dark wings and conspicuous orange abdomens dotted with black spots. The legs are marked with orange, black, and white, and the hind legs are noticeably feathery. Adults measure about 13 mm (0.5 inch) long with a wingspan of about 32 mm (1.25 inches). The dark wings are held folded at rest; there is a short fringe of hairs on the trailing edge. Squash vine borer is a member of the clearwing moth family; translucent windows are visible in the hind wings when they are fully extended. The antennae are dark, somewhat flattened, and hooked at the tips. Overall, adult squash vine borers resemble paper wasps in appearance. They are active day fliers with a zig-zag flight and easily travel from field to field.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1566(ENTO-158NP)|
|Stalk Borer||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1567|
|Tarnished Plant Bug||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1568|
Adult weevils are a dull, gray-brown color, and about 6–8 mm (0.25–0.32 inch) long. Adults are somewhat bristly in appearance due to t stout hairs and dense scales on the body. Usually there is a set of dark diagonal markings framing a lighter colored V-shape on the wings, but these may wear off with age. Antennae are elbowed and there is a short, stout snout at the front of the head.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1569(ENTO-156NP)|
|White Grubs in Vegetable Gardens||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1570|
|Whitefringed Beetles||May 6, 2020||3104-1571 (ENTO-379NP)|
Carpenter ants can be found outside on trees and sidewalks and indoor. Where they are found determines how best to control them. Inside they can be active indoors during many months of the year, usually during the spring and summer. When ants are active in the house during late winter/early spring (February/March), the infestation (nest) is probably within the household. In late spring large numbers of foraging ants may come in from outside looking for food and may not indicate and infestation. Outside carpenter ants become active in late spring and early summer and will be seen on tree trunks and sidewalks.
|Mar 11, 2016||3104-1573 (ENTO-188NP)|
|Centipede - Chilopoda||May 13, 2011||3104-1574|
|Click Beetle - Coleoptera: Elateridae||May 13, 2011||3104-1575|
|Clothes Moths||Mar 11, 2016||3104-1576 (ENTO-191NP)|
|Firebrat - Thysanura: Lepismatidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1578|
|Fungus Gnats||Mar 16, 2016||3104-1579 (ENTO-201NP)|
|House Fly Maggot - Diptera: Muscidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1580|
|Lace Bugs - Hemiptera: Tingidae||Mar 17, 2016||3104-1581 (ENTO-204NP)|
|Indian Meal Moth||Mar 17, 2016||3104-1582 (ENTO-203NP)|
Heavily infested trees will have large numbers of scales on twigs and branches. Scales may also be found on exposed roots and on the trunk of young trees. Scale insects feed on plant sap with their long thread-like mouthparts (stylets), which are several times longer than the insect itself.
|Mar 24, 2016||3104-1583 (ENTO-206NP)|
|Wheel Bug||Apr 15, 2016||3104-1585 (ENTO-211NP)|
|Wolf Spiders and Fishing Spiders||Mar 29, 2016||3104-1586 (ENTO-212NP)|
|Yellow Ants||Apr 15, 2016||3104-1587 (ENTO-213NP)|
|Carpet Beetles||Mar 4, 2016||3104-1588 (ENTO-189P)|
|Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Gardens||Sep 12, 2019||426-708 (ENTO-330NP)|
|Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia||May 1, 2009||430-524|
|Colorado Potato Beetle||Nov 27, 2018||444-012 (ENTO-292NP)|
|Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control||Mar 20, 2019||444-018 (ENTO-306NP)|
|Insect Identification and Diagnosis Request||May 19, 2016||444-113 (ENTO-196NP)|
|Giant Resin Bee||
Size: about 0.75 inch (1.9 cm) Color: Black and yellow-brown Giant resin bees are large with a cylindrical body and large jaws. They have a dark head and abdomen with yellow-brown hair on the face, thorax, and the first segment of the abdomen behind the "waist." The wings are a transparent brown color that darkens toward the tips. Male giant resin bees have a truncated, squared abdomen while the females have a more tapered, pointed abdomen. Giant resin bees can be distinguished from bumblebees and carpenter bees by their cylindrical bodies and the appearance of their abdomens. Giant resin bees do not have hairy abdomens like bumblebees, nor are their abdomens shiny like carpenter bees. Hymenoptera: Megachilidae Megachile sculpturalis Smith.
|Mar 19, 2020||444-206 (ENTO-358NP)|
|Black Vine Weevil||
The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.
|Mar 6, 2020||444-210 (ENTO-354NP)|
|Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers||
Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more. Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Adults are called longhorned beetles because of their long and distinctive 11-segmented antennae, often longer than the beetle's body. The thorax and wing covers on some species bear small, stout spines. Roundheaded borers (larvae) are elongate, cylindrical, and have large gnawing mandibles. The name roundheaded borer refers to the enlarged thorax directly behind the head. Order: Coleoptera, Family: Cerambycidae.
|Mar 19, 2020||444-215 (ENTO-363NP)|
Species identification is difficult because the adult beetles of the various species are very similar, cylindrical and hard-shelled. Over 600 species in the sub-family. Adult beetles are between 1/8 and 1/3 inch long. Nearly all bark beetles are black or brown. Bark beetles are in the Order: Coleoptera, Family: Curculionidae, Sub Family: Scolytinae.
|Mar 19, 2020||444-216 (ENTO-353NP)|
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see. Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands. Order: Homoptera, Family: Aphididae
|Mar 4, 2020||444-220 (ENTO-350NP)|
Spider mites (Family Tetranychidae, Order Acari) are not insects; they are closely related to spiders, harvestmen (daddy longlegs), and ticks. Unlike insects, which have six legs and three body parts, spider mites have eight legs and a one-part body. They also lack wings, antennae, and compound eyes. Individual spider mites are almost microscopic, yet when they occur in large numbers, they can cause serious damage. Dozens of species attack shade trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
|Feb 26, 2015||444-221 (ENTO-107NP)|
|European Corn Borer||Feb 4, 2019||444-232|
|Spruce Spider Mite||
The spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae, Oligonychus unuguis (Jacobi)) lives in all areas of Virginia and is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the United States and Canada. It attacks spruce, arborvitae, juniper, hemlock, pine, Douglas fir, Fraser fir, and larch, among others.
|Mar 2, 2015||444-235 (ENTO-108NP)|
|White Pine Weevil||
The white pine weevil (WPW) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Pissodes strobi (Peck)) is found throughout Virginia. Its preferred hosts are eastern white pine and Norway spruce, but it can attack Scotch and other pines as well.
|May 6, 2020||444-270 (ENTO-377NP)|
|Eastern Tent Caterpillar||
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
|Mar 6, 2020||444-274 (ENTO-356NP)|
|Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia||
Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk. Once inside, insecticides are not recommended except for severe cases. Sweep up with a broom and dustpan all beetles that collect in windowsills and on walls. Beetles can also be picked up with a vacuum cleaner but bags will need to be discarded so that beetles do not escape.
|Mar 17, 2020||444-275 (ENTO-361NP)|
In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.
|Feb 25, 2015||444-276 (ENTO-105NP)|
|Lilac Borer/Ash Borer||
The adult has clear wings and is wasp-like in appearance. Size: The moth is about 1 inch long with a wingspan of 1 1/2 inches. Color: The fore wings are brown or chocolate color and the hind wings are clear with a dark border. The larvae are pure white worms with brown heads. Order: Lepidoptera Family: Sesiidae Species: Podosesia syringae (Harris).
|Mar 19, 2020||444-278 (ENTO-359NP)|
Whiteflies are white insects with pale yellow bodies that are approximately 2 mm long. They belong to the order Homoptera and are close relatives of aphids, scales, mealybugs, hoppers and cicadas.
|May 6, 2020||444-280 (ENTO-378NP)|
Adult thrips are small, pale-yellow insects (occasionally black) with elongated bodies, and fringed wings. Their life cycle consists of an egg, nymph, pre-pupa, pupa and an adult. The exact time required for thrips to complete their life cycle varies with species, temperature and the host plant. Western flower thrips complete their life cycle, from egg to adult, in approximately 10 days at 80° F. Adults insert eggs in leaf tissue which hatch in approximately three days. Nymphs feed for four to five days and then drop from the plant to pupate in the soil. Adults emerge after two days of pupation and begin feeding.
|May 1, 2020||444-281 (ENTO-373NP)|
|Pine Shoot Beetle||
Pine shoot beetles are in the same family as bark beetles and resemble bark beetles in appearance with their cylindrical shape. The adults are 1/8 to 1/4 inches long. The larvae are legless and can be up to 1/4 inch long. Pine shoot beetles are dark brown. The larvae have a dark brown head and creamy white body.
|Apr 27, 2015||444-291 (ENTO-149NP)|
|Field Guide to Stink Bugs||
Field Guide to Stink Bugs of Agricultural Importance in the United States
|May 12, 2020||444-356 (ENTO-68)|
|Asparagus Beetles||Sep 27, 2017||444-620 (ENTO-243NP)|
Plants Attacked: Wax scale has well over 50 hosts, especially Japanese and Chinese hollies, pyracantha, spirea, ivy, hemlock, euonymus, and boxwood; Description of Damage: Infestations seldom kill plants directly, but seriously weaken them, reduce growth, and cause decline. Deposits of honeydew give rise to rampant growth of the black sooty mold fungus, particularly on burford and Chinese holly.
|May 6, 2020||444-622 (ENTO-376NP)|
|Magnolia Soft Scale||
Heavy magnolia soft scale infestations cause stunting of twigs and undersize leaves, visibly weakening the trees. Small trees may be killed. Large trees lose branches and tree shape may become irregular.
|Mar 31, 2020||444-623 (ENTO-360NP)|
|Twobanded Japanese Weevil||
The Japanese weevil has a long list of hosts, but is especially found on cherry laurel, broad-leaved evergreens, pyracantha, privet, barberry, euonymus, and many others. This weevil has also damaged vegetable and field crops in Virginia.
|Mar 16, 2020||444-624 (ENTO-362NP)|
|Dogwood Twig Borer||
The larvae tunnel in live twigs and feed down the center of the branch, making a long series of closely placed round holes for the exudation of frass. Periodically, the larvae cut off portions of the twig from within and continue to feed inside the twig on the green wood working their way down.
|Mar 6, 2020||444-625 (ENTO-355NP)|
|Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans||
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.
|May 12, 2020||444-770|
|Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes||
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
|Jun 27, 2016||450-236 (PPWS-69P)|
|Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes||
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
|Oct 19, 2016||450-237 (PPWS-70P)|
|Rose Rosette Disease||
Rose rosette disease (RRD), a disease believed to be caused by the recently identified Rose rosette virus, has been spreading through much of the wild rose population of the Midwestern, Southern, and Eastern United States for years.
|Sep 17, 2012||450-620 (PPWS-10P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2020||Jan 27, 2020||456-017 (ENTO-337)|
|IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact||
Tree fruits are important to the agricultural economy in Virginia. The commonwealth ranks sixth in the nation in apple production, with a crop valued at more than $68 million, and 20th in peach production, with a crop valued at $4.5 million. Although smaller in acreage, cherries, pears, and plums also play an important role in some areas of Virginia. These fruit crops are susceptible to an everchanging array of insects, plant diseases, and weeds, and pest management programs are complex and knowledge-intensive.
|May 13, 2015||AREC-135NP|
Adult blow flies are generally medium to large, robust flies. They vary in length, with the largest species measuring about 16 mm (0.6 inches) long.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-134NP|
|Brown Recluse Spider||
Brown recluse spiders belong to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. Their name refers to a characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern on their head region directly behind their eyes (never on the abdomen). Brown recluse spiders range in color from tan to dark brown, but often they are a golden brown.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-135NP|
Adult cluster flies are medium-sized, robust, somewhat bristly flies about 7 mm (0.3 inches) long.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-136NP|
Adult house flies are medium-sized flies about 6 mm (0.25 inch) long. They are grayish-black in color, with 4 dark bands running the length of the thorax and conspicuous bristles on the body.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-137NP|
|Lice Found on Humans||
Human head and body lice are wingless, flattened insects with mouthparts for sucking blood. The head is somewhat narrower than the rest of the elongated body. Adults are small, about the size of a sesame seed (2.5–3.5 mm; 0.1 inch).
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-138NP|
|Imported Willow Leaf Beetle||
Imported willow leaf beetle was identified in the United States in 1915. It likely arrived on landscape plants shipped from Europe, where it is native.
|May 20, 2015||ENTO-139NP|
Adult iris borers are stout, medium sized moths with a wingspan of 3.8–5 cm (1.5–2 inches). The head and forewings are covered with purplish brown scales and the hind wings are yellowish. The forewings have thin dark zigzag lines, a more conspicuous dark kidney-shaped spot, and variable sooty shading around the margins
|May 20, 2015||ENTO-140NP|
|Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Forst.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae||
The locust borer is a native insect that attacks black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and its ornamental cultivars. Adult locust borers are conspicuous black and yellow beetles with long black antennae and reddish legs. There is a yellow W-shaped band across the wing covers with other yellow stripes.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-141NP|
|Redheaded Ash Borer||
Adult redheaded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 4–13 mm (0.16–0.5 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. The head, thorax and legs are reddish brown and there are four yellow dorsal bands on the darker wing covers.
|May 7, 2015||ENTO-142NP|
|Psocids: Barklice and Booklice||
Psocids are small, oval insects with soft bodies that usually measure only several millimeters long. A psocid measuring 6 mm (0.25 inches) long is rather large for this group of insects. Psocids generally occur in shades of brown, black, or pale colors; some have distinctive mottled or striped markings.
|May 7, 2015||ENTO-143NP|
|Crab Lice, Pthirus pubis (L.) Psocodea: Phthiraptera; Pthiridae||
Crab lice are very small (1.5–2 mm; 0.06–0.08 inch), wingless, flattened insects with mouthparts for sucking blood. The body is about as wide as it is long, broadest at the “shoulders”, with a small head.
|May 7, 2015||ENTO-144NP|
|Galls made by Wasps||
Gall wasps attack primarily oak trees, and are found on roots, flowers, and acorns, but especially the leaves and twigs. Roses and brambles (blackberries and raspberries) also are attacked by gall wasps. These insects have complicated life cycles, and the galls they produce occur in an endless variety of shapes and colors. In some species, alternate generations produce distinctly different galls.
|May 14, 2015||ENTO-145NP|
|Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges||
Galls made by made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges occur on many different plants. Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Most are harmless to trees, but a few are pests.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-146NP|
|Galls and Rust made by Mites||
Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-147NP|
|Large and unusual Insects Found in Virginia||
Several different insects are found in Virginia that cause concern due to their large size and coloration. They are for the most part harmless and just curiosities of nature.
|May 5, 2015||ENTO-148NP|
|Native and Solitary Bees In Virginia||
Although honey bees are well known for pollination and honey production, other bees at times impact humans in various ways. These native bees range from beneficial to annoying, sometimes at the same time. Native bees are important pollinators for fruit and vegetables.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-151NP|
|Yellow Poplar Weevil||
Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.
|May 6, 2020||ENTO-172NP (ENTO-380NP)|
|Buck Moth||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-18NP (ENTO-258NP)|
The spotted lanternfly (SLF) originates from China where its presence has been documented in detail dating as far back as the 12th century.
|Jul 26, 2018||ENTO-180NP (ENTO-284NP)|
This bug is about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 as wide. It is black with three red lines on the thorax, a red line along each side, and an oblique red line on each wing. The wings lie flat on the back when at rest. The young nymphs are red and gray. The population of bugs may number into the thousands. Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus
|Feb 26, 2016||ENTO-186NP|
|Hag Moth Caterpillar||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-19NP (ENTO-259NP)|
|Hickory Horned Devil||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-20NP (ENTO-260NP)|
|Mosquitos and their Control||
The key to controlling mosquitoes is removing the standing or stagnant water where they live.
|Mar 11, 2016||ENTO-202NP|
|Velvet Ants||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-22NP (ENTO-263NP)|
|Fall cankerworm: Alsophila pometaria||
Cankerworms are also known as inchworms, loop worms, and spanworms - this is credited to their distinctive way of moving. In order to travel, a cankerworm must grab leaves or branches with its front legs and then pull the rest of its body forward. This causes the abdomen area to contract and gives the worm the appearance of arching its back.
|Aug 5, 2016||ENTO-223NP|
|Springtails||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-23NP (ENTO-262NP)|
|Insect Identification Laboratory Annual Report 2016||Mar 7, 2017||ENTO-233|
|Silverfish and Firebrats||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-24NP (ENTO-261NP)|
|Stink Bugs||Oct 13, 2017||ENTO-242NP|
|Ground Beetles||Dec 13, 2017||ENTO-249NP|
|Pest Alert: Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula||Nov 12, 2018||ENTO-265NP (ENTO-291NP)|
|Possible Spotted Lanternfly Egg Mass Look-alikes in Virginia||May 16, 2018||ENTO-276NP|
|Possible Spotted Lanternfly Immature Look-alikes in Virginia||May 16, 2018||ENTO-277NP|
|Possible Spotted Lanternfly Adult Look-alikes in Virginia||May 16, 2018||ENTO-278NP|
|Alerta de Plagas: Mosca Linterna con Manchas Lycorma delicatula||May 30, 2018||ENTO-265 (ENTO-279S)|
|Longhorned Tick||Jun 25, 2018||ENTO-282NP|
|Darkling Beetles and Mealworms||Jun 25, 2018||ENTO-283NP|
|Asian Needle Ant||Jun 4, 2018||ENTO-29NP (ENTO-280NP)|
|What Virginians Need to Know About the Spotted Lanternfly Quarantine||Jun 7, 2019||ENTO-319NP|
|Ciclo de Vida en Virginia de Spotted Lanternfly (Mosca de Alas Manchadas)||Jun 24, 2019||ENTO-320NP|
|Residential Control for Spotted Lanternfly (SLF) in Virginia||Aug 9, 2019||ENTO-322NP|
|Control de la Mosca Linterna con Manchas (Spotted Lanternfly- SLF) en Hogares de Virginia||Aug 29, 2019||ENTO-322S|
|Spotted Lanternfly in Virginia Vineyards: Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae)||Aug 12, 2019||ENTO-323NP|
|Mosca Linterna con Manchas (Spotted Lanternfly) en Viñedos de Virginia: Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae)||Aug 20, 2019||ENTO-323S|
|Best Management Practices for Spotted Lanternfly in Yards and Landscapes||Dec 17, 2019||ENTO-344NP|
|Managing the Asian Longhorned Tick: Checklist of Best Tick Management Practices for Horse Owners||Mar 25, 2020||ENTO-348NP|
|Managing the Asian Longhorned Tick: Checklist for Best Management Practices for Cattle Producers||May 7, 2020||ENTO-382NP|
|Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood||
Three pests, the boxwood leafminer, mite and psyllid commonly attack American and English boxwood in Virginia and cause spotting, yellowing, and puckering of leaves.
|Apr 3, 2019||ENTO-42NP (ENTO-314NP)|
|Millipedes||Apr 10, 2019||ENTO-43NP (ENTO-317NP)|
Description of Damage: The bark becomes roughened and encrusted with scales. Branches and limbs die back and result in a rapid decline in tree vigor, occasionally resulting in the death of trees. Seriously weakened trees are common in Virginia as a result of scale populations, especially red and silver maples.
|Apr 29, 2019||ENTO-44NP (ENTO-318NP)|
|Insect Identification Lab||
Welcome to the Insect Identification Laboratory at Virginia Tech. The Insect Identification Lab covers all insects found in all situations and commodities in Virginia. This diagnostic lab started in 1967 and is a service for Extension Agents and Citizens of Virginia.
|Apr 30, 2019||ENTO-45NP|
This is a factsheet on yellowjackets in Virginia.
|Apr 10, 2019||ENTO-49NP (ENTO-316NP)|
|Striped Cucumber Beetle||
In Virginia, cucurbits are attacked by two native species of cucumber beetles, the striped cucumber beetle, A. vittatum, which is featured in this document, and the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica decimpunctata howardi (Mannerheim), which is discussed in a separate fact sheet.
|May 12, 2020||ENTO-61NP|
|Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia||
Several species of spiders found in Virginia have fearsome reputations for giving painful bites resulting in life-threating complications.
|Feb 10, 2020||ENTO-73NP (ENTO-346NP)|
Parasitic wasps, also called parasitoids, are found in multiple families within the insect order Hymenoptera, which also contains the sawflies, bees, and wasps.
|Feb 10, 2020||ENTO-74NP (ENTO-345NP)|
|Stinging Caterpillars: Slug Caterpillars and Flannel Moths||
Slug caterpillars in the family Limacodidae move with a slow gliding motion rather than walking, much like a slug. Some slug caterpillars are brightly colored with bumps, protuberances, or appendages.
|Mar 18, 2020||ENTO-75NP (ENTO-347NP)|
|Emerald Ash Borer: Options for Landowners||
Emerald ash borer (EAB) is found in all regions of Virginia. Some areas have established populations with a high level of ash tree mortality and other areas are seeing it for the first time. With a wider spread of infestation many homeowners are seeking methods to protect their ash trees.
|Dec 17, 2019||ENTO-76NP (ENTO-343NP)|
|Spotted Lanternfly Life Cycle in Virginia||Jul 8, 2019||ENTO-268NP (ENTO-321NP)|
|Larder Beetle||Sep 19, 2018||ENTO-286NP|
|Mortality of Great Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia||
Since 2015, Extension specialists from Virginia Tech (VT) have visited and collected plant and soil samples from several large areas of dying great rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia’s mountainous regions. In 2016 VT specialists met with Virginia Department of Forestry, US Forest Service personnel, and other experts to revisit some of these sites. No consistent cause of this mortality has yet been identified. It is possible that a variety of factors are stressing the rhododendrons in these areas to a point where opportunistic pathogens or insects can successfully attack and kill them. The following information summarizes our observations and diagnostic results from four separate great rhododendron mortality sites in Virginia. This information is not equivalent to a research study, which would also include samples taken from healthy great rhododendron for comparison; however, we are confident that we have ruled out two diseases that are frequently mentioned both online and anecdotally as a cause of this mortality, specifically Phytophthora root rot and Botryosphaeria dieback.
|Aug 21, 2019||SPES-151P|