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Authors as Published

Alex X. Niemiera, Professor, School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech (first published October 2018, last reviewed March 2024)


Foliage: Deciduous broadleaf (some species are evergreen)

Height: 12 inches to 6 feet

Spread: 2 to 8 feet

Shape: Spreading or upright

Leaves are small and glossy green. Showy small, white/pink, spring flowers are followed by red or black fruit which cover branches in the fall. The fruit display can be quite showy.

Plant Needs

Zone: 5 to 7

Light: Partial shade to full sun Moisture: Wet, moist, or dry Soil Type: Sandy, loam, or clay pH Range: 3.7 to 7.0


Suggested uses for this plant include border, hedge, massing, specimen plant, & ground cover.

Planting Notes

Due to sparse root system, plant container grown plants or those that have balled and burlapped roots. Plant in rich, moist, well-drained soil if possible. Salt tolerant.


Control may be needed in some years for lacebugs, mites, scale insects, and fire blight. Wood damaged by fire blight should be pruned and destroyed.


Fire blight can be severe in some areas.

Susceptible to several insects, including lacebugs, mites, and scale insects.


Consult local sources, including historic or public gardens and arboreta, regarding cultivars and related species that grow well in your area.

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Publication Date

March 7, 2024

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