ID

448-407 (CSES-222P)

Authors as Published

 J.M. Galbraith, Extension Specialist and Associate Professor, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech C.E. Zipper, Extension Specialist and Professor, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech R.B. Reneau Jr., Professor Emeritus, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech


This publication is available in a PDF file format only.

The purpose of this publication is to describe on-site technologies for treating domestic sewage where conventional systems (septic tank with drainfield) are not an option (U.S. EPA 2002). These technologies are described as alternatives in this publication. Our goal is to provide information that can be used by property owners and residents to initiate action to rectify sewage disposal problems, especially where current wastewater treatment is inadequate.


Virginia Cooperative Extension materials are available for public use, reprint, or citation without further permission, provided the use includes credit to the author and to Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University.

Virginia Cooperative Extension is a partnership of Virginia Tech, Virginia State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments. Its programs and employment are open to all, regardless of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, gender expression, national origin, political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, military status, or any other basis protected by law.

Publication Date

March 27, 2018