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Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per 30 foot of row can reduce cotton yield by 6 to 12%.
Sep 22, 2020 2805-1001 (SPES-266NP)
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per 30 foot of row can reduce cotton yield by 6 to 12%.
Sep 22, 2020 2805-1001 (SPES-266NP)
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Control in Soybeans Mar 20, 2020 2808-1006 (SPES-194NP)
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Control in Soybeans Mar 20, 2020 2808-1006 (SPES-194NP)
Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), A Potential Plant for the Cut Flower Market Jan 17, 2019 2906-1312 (SPES-99)
Adding Cut Flowers May Increase Profits Jan 17, 2019 2906-1331 (SPES-100NP)
Sell Cut Flowers from Perennial Summer-flowering Bulbs Jan 25, 2019 2906-1370 (SPES-101NP)
Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs Nov 16, 2018 2909-1410 (SPES-80NP)
Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn Nov 16, 2018 3002-1438 (SPES-77NP)
Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley Nov 16, 2018 3003-1440 (SPES-79NP)
Balsam Woolly Adelgid
Native to central Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid is now distributed throughout eastern and western North America. It attacks all true firs, Abies spp., including balsam and Fraser fir.
Mar 1, 2021 3006-1452 (ENTO-434NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Two: Nitrogen Fertilizer Injection in No-Till Systems
Liquid nitrogen fertilizers have typically been surface applied. This method of application places the fertilizer where the urea nitrogen component of the solution is susceptible to volatilization losses.
Sep 22, 2020 3011-1516 (SPES-265NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Three: Manure Injection Aug 30, 2019 3011-1517
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
Sap Beetles
Adults are usually black or brown beetles with an oval to oblong shape. They have clubbed or knobbed antennae and the economically important species typically measure 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 inch) long. Some sap beetles have short wing covers that do not cover the entire abdomen. Some species have flattened bodies while others are more convex. Many sap beetles are a dull color, sometimes with mottling or spots. One common sap beetle, the picnic beetle [Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say)], is an attractive shiny black beetle with four yellow-orange bands or spots on the wing covers.
Mar 5, 2021 3104-1546 (ENTO-431NP)
Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Peanuts Nov 11, 2020 4H-932NP
Nitrogen Soil Testing For Corn in Virginia Apr 6, 2023 418-016 (SPES-484P)
Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment
their yield potential. Research has documented that applying fertilizer phosphorus increases crop growth and yields on soils that are naturally low in phosphorus and in soils that have been depleted through crop removal. Crop fertilization represents the greatest use of phosphorus in agriculture today.
Jun 4, 2024 424-029 (SPES-82NP)
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Mar 20, 2019 424-030
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Mar 20, 2019 424-030
Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates Aug 30, 2019 424-035
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials Mar 29, 2019 424-040
Agronomy Handbook 2023 Dec 11, 2023 424-100 (SPES-299P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part I. Crop Descriptions Dec 15, 2023 424-100-A (SPES-299P-A)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part II. Forage Crops Dec 15, 2023 424-100-B (SPES-299P-B)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part III. Turfgrass Dec 15, 2023 424-100-C (SPES-299P-C)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part IV. Seed Facts Dec 15, 2023 424-100-D (SPES-299P-D)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part V. Seeds and Stored Grains Dec 15, 2023 424-100-E (SPES-299P-E)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part VI. Soils of Virginia Dec 15, 2023 424-100-F (SPES-299P-F)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part VII. Soil Health Management Dec 18, 2023 424-100-G (SPES-299P-G)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part VIII. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis Dec 18, 2023 424-100-H (SPES-299P-H)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part X. Lime: Common Soil Additives To Raise Soil pH in Virginia Dec 18, 2023 424-100-J (SPES-299P-J)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XI. Fertilizing With Manures Dec 18, 2023 424-100-K (SPES-299P-K)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XII. Land Application of Biosolids Dec 18, 2023 424-100-L (SPES-299P-L)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XIII. Weeds and Weed Management Dec 18, 2023 424-100-M (SPES-299P-M)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XIV. Nutritional Composition of Feeds Dec 18, 2023 424-100-N (SPES-299P-N)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XV. Diagnostic Laboratory Services Dec 18, 2023 424-100-O (SPES-299P-O)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XVI. Commonly Used Weights and Measures Dec 18, 2023 424-100-P (SPES-299P-P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XVII. Calibration of Sprayers Dec 18, 2023 424-100-Q (SPES-299P-Q)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part IX. Conversion Factors Needed for Common Fertilizer Calculations Dec 18, 2023 424-100-I (SPES-299P-I)
Getting Started in the Production of Field-Grown, Specialty Cut Flowers
Specialty cut flowers are one of the most profitable field crops you can grow. Lynn Byczynski, editor of Growing For Market newsletter (see Resources section), estimates a value of $25,000 to $35,000 per acre for field-grown cuts. The most basic requirements are at least half an acre of open, arable land, a rototiller, and, of course, time and effort. This publication is directed to those new to market gardening, but commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Even grain and livestock farmers have increased profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slower, relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.
Nov 13, 2019 426-618 (SPES-171P)
Field Production of Cut Flowers: Potential Crops May 1, 2009 426-619
Curing Quality Peanuts in Virginia Feb 28, 2019 442-062 (BSE-246P)
Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans Aug 30, 2019 442-310
Japanese Beetle in Field Corn Feb 4, 2019 444-106
Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn Feb 4, 2019 444-107
Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn Feb 4, 2019 444-108
Slugs in Field Corn Feb 4, 2019 444-109
Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual
In the competitive global peanut market, you need to lower production costs. At the same time, you also need to keep pesticide residues in peanuts to a minimum; protect rivers, streams, and lakes from runoff; and prevent chemicals from leaching through the soil to groundwater. Using IPM to protect crops only from pests that are likely to cause economic losses is a good way to meet these goals.
May 12, 2020 444-126
Identifying Soybean Fields at Risk to Leaf-Feeding Insects
This publication explains the relationship between Leaf Area Index and soybean yield potential.
Nov 28, 2023 444-203 (ENTO-565P)
Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot Mar 25, 2022 444-231 (ENTO-495NP)
European Corn Borer Feb 4, 2019 444-232
Periodical Cicada
In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.
Jul 7, 2021 444-276 (ENTO-455NP)
The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory
The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.
Nov 22, 2019 444-351(ENTO-340P)
Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region Nov 13, 2018 444-390
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.
May 12, 2020 444-770
Plant Disease Diagnostic Form
Plant Disease Diagnostic Form
Jun 16, 2023 450-097 (SPES-487NP)
Instructions for Completing the Plant Disease Diagnostic Form (#450-097)
The Plant Disease Diagnostic Form was designed to accommodate a wide variety of plants and growing situations; therefore, certain entries on this form may not be appropriate for a particular specimen or situation. Much of the information requested helps reconstruct the "field situation" for the diagnostician. Consider each section of the form carefully; the information provides important clues to the diagnostician that are significant in guiding the diagnostic process and formulating the control recommendation. Your local Extension office staff can assist you in completing the form and include the relevant information requested on the form, so when possible, complete the form with the assistance of your local VCE agent or VCE staff member.
Sep 2, 2023 450-097-A (SPES-512NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Crop Production Sep 24, 2021 452-124 (SPES-356NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Greenhouse and Nursery Production Aug 19, 2021 452-126 (SPES-349NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Surface-Mined Areas Aug 12, 2021 452-127 (SPES-347NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial Lawns Aug 19, 2021 452-128 (SPES-346NP)
Mid-Atlantic Composting Directory
This directory is intended to provide contact information for service and equipment suppliers, along with sources for information and education. Every attempt has been made to present accurate information. Contents are for informational purposes only and are based on details provided by the organizations and entities listed. Inclusion in this directory does not constitute an endorsement by the publishers of the products or services of any business organization or individual listed herein.
Aug 17, 2021 452-230 (SPES-345NP)
Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
Sep 9, 2019 452-702 (CSES-100P)
Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures Aug 30, 2019 452-705
Soil Test Note: 20 Home Shrubs and Trees Jun 29, 2021 452-720 (SPES-336P)
Soil Test Note 23: Christmas Tree Crops Jun 16, 2021 452-723 (SPES-331P)
2024 Pest Management Guide - Field Crops Jan 26, 2024 456-016 (ENTO-566P)
2024 Pest Management Guide - Horticultural and Forest Crops Jan 19, 2024 456-017 (ENTO-568P)
Economics of Farm and Agribusiness Sustainability Feb 25, 2021 AAEC-278NP
Risk Management and Crop Insurance Mar 25, 2021 AAEC-282NP
GMO, Bioengineered Labeling, and Non-GMO Food Mar 1, 2021 AAEC-283NP
2020 NASS Cropland and Pastureland Rental Rates Jul 2, 2021 AAEC-290NP
The Basics of Hardwood-Log Shiitake Mushroom Production and Marketing Jun 17, 2020 ANR-102P (ANR-329P)
Soybean Reproductive Development Stages
Remove the soybean plant at ground level to make it easier to stage. Examine each main stem node one at a time to determine the development stage. Focus on the top four nodes that contain fully developed leaves (shown below). A fully developed leaf is one that is located immediately below a node containing a leaf with unrolled or unfolded leaflets (leaflet edges are no longer touching). The soybean crop is considered to be at a particular stage when 50% of the plants reach that stage. Listed with stage description for R1 through R6 are the approximate number of days to R7, or physiological maturity, for full season (FS) soybean planted in May and double crop (DC) soybean planted in June/July.
Jul 25, 2019 AREC-59NP (SPES-156NP)
2021 Southeastern U.S. Vegetable Growers Crop Handbook
New varieties and strains of particular varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. Since it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only some of the better performing commercial types are listed in the specific crop section, either alphabetically or in order of relative maturity from early to late. These varieties are believed to be suitable for commercial production under most conditions.
Jan 8, 2021 AREC-66NP (SPES-292NP)
Soybean Insect Guide
Numerous kinds of insects can be found in soybeans. Most are beneficial or harmless, but some can cause yield loss and even crop failure if not controlled.
Mar 20, 2019 AREC-68NP
Soil and Soil Water Relationships
This publication presents and discusses concepts that are fundamental to understanding soil, water, and plant relationships and the soil water balance. Knowledge about soil water relationships can inform the decision-making process in agricultural operations or natural resource management, such as determining what crops to plant, when to plant them, and when various management practices should be scheduled. Understanding these concepts is useful for addressing both agronomic and policy issues related to agricultural water management.Zachary M. Easton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech Emily Bock, Graduate Research Assistant, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
Mar 1, 2021 BSE-194P
Irrigation Scheduling in Humid Climates Using the Checkbook Method
Irrigation scheduling is the process of deciding when and how much irrigation to apply to a field. Applying too little irrigation water can cause crop losses and yield reduction, but applying too much water can waste money, fertilizer, and labor, and can even decrease yields in some cases. The goal of this bulletin is to provide information that can help irrigators schedule irrigation using the checkbook method. It describes some of the benefits of irrigation scheduling and general factors that influence the amount and timing of irrigation needs. It then describes the data needed for checkbook irrigation scheduling and how to get this data, the calculations involved, and software/apps that can be used to help with these calculations.
Jun 21, 2024 BSE-239P
Soil Moisture Sensors for Agricultural Irrigation: An Overview on Sensor Types Jul 21, 2021 BSE-338P
Scheduling Agricultural Irrigation Based on Soil Moisture Content: Interpreting and Using Sensor Data Aug 10, 2021 BSE-339P
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops
The general purpose of a cover crop is to improve the soil, the broader environment, or other crops in rotation, not for direct harvest. Cover crops, depending on which are selected, are capable of providing many diverse assets. This publication provides a short description of these main benefits.
Sep 23, 2020 CSES-120NP (SPES-241NP)
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies
Cover crops increase soil organic matter, reduce erosion, suppress weeds, forage for nutrients, and reduce fertilizer costs (Clark, 2007). Cover crop species vary greatly and provide varied benefits. Performance evaluation of cover crop species and mixtures is needed in Virginia.
Sep 23, 2020 CSES-121NP (SPES-240NP)
The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook
Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and Virginia, the five states in the Mid-Atlantic region, all require Certified Nutrient Management Plans to be completed for certain agricultural programs.
Jun 1, 2020 CSES-122P
Facts About Industrial Hemp Aug 14, 2017 CSES-196NP
Predicting Soybean Reproductive Stages in Virginia Oct 7, 2017 CSES-197P
Internationalizing the Land Grant Mission: Lessons from Senegal Aug 4, 2023 CSES-207P
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems May 1, 2023 CSES-22P (SPES-5P)
2017 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Jan 31, 2018 CSES-225NP
2017 Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests Feb 21, 2018 CSES-227
Harvesting and nutrient replacement costs associated with corn stover removal in Virginia Feb 21, 2018 CSES-229NP
Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
Feb 21, 2020 CSES-98P(SPES-178P)
2017 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 4, 2018 CSES-223NP
2017 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Jan 4, 2018 CSES-224NP
Determining Harvesting Time for Corn Silage May 5, 2016 DASC-82NP
Evaluation of the Residual Efficacy of Commercial Slug Baits
Slugs are prevalent pests in no-till and reduced-till crop systems in Virginia. These slimy mollusks utilize plant residue to hide during the day, and at night, they feed on numerous crops causing irregular feeding holes and shredded leaves. Slugs cause the most damage during early plant growth.
Feb 15, 2021 ENTO-178NP (ENTO-401NP)
Corn earworm monitoring in commercial sweet corn fields in Virginia – 2017 Mar 5, 2018 ENTO-266NP
Brown Stink Bug in Field Corn Feb 20, 2019 ENTO-307NP
Sugarcane Aphid in Virginia Sorghum Sep 12, 2019 ENTO-334NP
Integrated Pest Management of Hemp in Virginia Mar 2, 2020 ENTO-349NP
Reading Pesticide Product Labels Jan 7, 2021 ENTO-390NP
Lepidopteran Insecticide Menu for Vegetable Growers Jan 7, 2021 ENTO-395NP
Colorado Potato Beetle Foliar Insecticide Menu for Potato Growers Mar 8, 2021 ENTO-396NP
Box Tree Moth Mar 10, 2021 ENTO-445NP
Critical updates for the 2021 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Recommendations Mar 10, 2021 ENTO-446NP
Biology and Management of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Mid Atlantic Soybean Jul 2, 2021 ENTO-450NP
Cyclamen Mite in Virginia Strawberries Oct 13, 2021 ENTO-451NP
Pesticide Drift Series: Understanding and Controlling Pesticide Drift Jul 7, 2021 ENTO-452NP
Pesticide Drift Series: Protecting Sensitive Areas from Pesticide Drift Jul 7, 2021 ENTO-453NP
Pesticide Drift Series: Using Buffers to Reduce the Impact of Spray Drift Jun 22, 2021 ENTO-454NP
Benefits of an Insecticide Seed Treatment for Cucurbit Production Oct 14, 2021 ENTO-456NP
Broad-Headed Bugs Jul 23, 2021 ENTO-457NP
Threecornered Alfalfa Hopper in Virginia Soybeans Nov 22, 2021 ENTO-460NP
UPDATED List of Commercial Suppliers and Insectaries/Laboratories Selling Predators and Parasitoids for Augmentative Biocontrol Feb 4, 2022 ENTO-480NP
Identification and Life Cycle of Spotted Lanternfly in Virginia Mar 18, 2022 ENTO-268NP (ENTO-494NP)
Nanobubbles as an Emerging Sanitation Technology Jan 27, 2021 FST-383NP
Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia May 6, 2022 HORT-226P (SPES-400P)
Sweetpotato Production and Variety Performance in Southeast Virginia, 2015-2016 May 8, 2018 HORT-282P
Micro Tunnels in Vegetable Crops: Beyond Season Extension
"Low Tunnels in Vegetable Crops: Beyond Season Extension" is a comprehensive document that delves into the multifaceted benefits of micro tunnels in vegetable cultivation, encompassing not only extended growing seasons but also improved yield, pest management, and resource efficiency, making it an essential resource for modern sustainable farming.
Nov 9, 2023 HORT-291 (SPES-524P)
Managing Troublesome Crop Weeds: Current Practices Jul 25, 2017 PPWS-101NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2018 May 14, 2019 SPES-118 (SPES-130NP)
Harvest Weed Seed Control May 6, 2019 SPES-135NP
Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Control in Soybeans Jun 6, 2019 SPES-143NP
Nematode Management in Field Crops Feb 23, 2024 SPES-15NP (SPES-531NP)
Nematode Management in Field Crops
This is a guide for understanding the biology of plant nematodes, how they affect different crops, how to sample for them, how to interpret nematode sample results and management strategies.
Feb 23, 2024 SPES-15NP (SPES-531NP)
Instructions for Sampling and Submitting Crop Nematode Samples Dec 12, 2023 SPES-16NP (SPES-530NP)
Herbicide Options to Terminate Winter Cover Crops Sep 18, 2019 SPES-167NP
Fertilizer: The Many Forms You Can Use Mar 18, 2020 SPES-187NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2019 Feb 12, 2020 SPES-191NP
Foliar Injury: Spring Nitrogen Applications to Small Grains Apr 2, 2020 SPES-197NP
Common Fertilizers Used in Virginia: Secondary and Micronutrients
Secondary macronutrients are used in relatively large quantities by plants for optimal growth and are sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). Micronutrients on the other hand are needed in much smaller quantities than both primary and secondary macronutrients; however, micronutrients are still essential for plant growth.
Apr 10, 2020 SPES-200NP
Conversion Factors Needed for Common Fertilizer Calculations Apr 29, 2020 SPES-201NP
2020 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots Aug 19, 2020 SPES-238NP
Shenandoah Valley AREC Field Day 2020
The Virginia Tech Shenandoah Valley Agricultural Research and Extension Center hosted its biennial Field Day on August 5, 2020 at 2 pm. This online event featured videos of current research projects at the Shenandoah Valley AREC. The topics covered during this field day included establishing and protecting trees in pasture, establishing biodiverse pasture systems for pollinators and cattle, new herbicide options for pasture weed control (while still preserving clover), cow and calf performance on summer-stockpiled tall fescue pastures, supplementing yeast-derived products to feedlot cattle, the Asian longhorned tick and Theileria, standardized performance analyses for benchmarking cow herd productivity, and the Smart Farm Innovation Network.
Nov 24, 2020 SPES-269-8
Managing Phosphorus Balance on Virginia Dairy Farms Mar 15, 2021 SPES-278NP
Specialty Small Grains in 2020 Dec 17, 2020 SPES-279NP
Drill Calibration Worksheet Jan 14, 2021 SPES-283NP
Nurturing Community, Soil Health, and Restorative Justice Jan 14, 2021 SPES-285NP
Taking Care of the Soil Jan 14, 2021 SPES-286NP
Keeping the Spark Alive: Soil, Service, and Berries Jan 14, 2021 SPES-287NP
It All Starts with Your Soil …And Volunteers! Jan 14, 2021 SPES-288NP
Introduction to Soil, Conservation, and Place video series Jan 7, 2021 SPES-290NP
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research 2020 Jan 18, 2021 SPES-294NP
Lime: Common Soil Additives to Raise Soil pH in Virginia Feb 16, 2021 SPES-298NP
2020 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results. I. Agronomic and Grade Data Feb 18, 2021 SPES-302NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2020 Feb 19, 2021 SPES-303NP
Peanut Variety and Quality 2020 Results. II. Quality Data Mar 22, 2021 SPES-309NP
2021 Virtual Eastern Shore Agricultural Conference and Trade Show Mar 12, 2021 SPES-312NP
Does Land Application of Biosolids Pose Health Concerns for Grazing Livestock? Aug 3, 2021 SPES-318P
An Overview of Southern Blight, Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Aug 24, 2021 SPES-325NP
Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation for Management of Soilborne Pests in Vegetables Jul 6, 2021 SPES-326NP
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2021 Jun 28, 2021 SPES-335NP
4 The Soil Live Kickoff Jul 23, 2021 SPES-339NP
Cool-Season Turfgrass Sports Field Maintenance Calendar Jul 22, 2021 SPES-341NP
Small Grains in 2021 Aug 3, 2021 SPES-348NP
2021 Virginia On-farm Wheat Test Plots Sep 8, 2021 SPES-352NP
Protective Agriculture Production Series: Fundamentals Sep 16, 2021 SPES-355NP
2021 Eastern Shore AREC Interactive Research Field Day Oct 8, 2021 SPES-359NP
Specialty Small Grains in 2021 Sep 24, 2021 SPES-360NP
Virginia Corn Silage Hybrid Trials in 2021 Dec 16, 2021 SPES-364NP
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2021 Dec 17, 2021 SPES-365NP
2023 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 3, 2023 SPES-367NP (SPES-451NP)
2021 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research Jan 28, 2022 SPES-377NP
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results I. Agronomic and Grade Data Feb 18, 2022 SPES-382NP
2021 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Feb 18, 2022 SPES-383NP
2021 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Feb 17, 2022 SPES-385NP
2021 Virginia Soybean Performance Tests Feb 21, 2022 SPES-386NP
Consider Your Whole System: Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia Jun 25, 2018 SPES-39NP
Consider Your Whole System: Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia
Early summer often means locally heavy and sporadic rainfall as thunderstorms deliver intense rains, and 2018 appears to be no different with many areas in eastern Virginia receiving 3+ inches of rain in a few days (Figure 1). These storms also often coincide with the timing of sidedress nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) applications on corn. While some rainfall after sidedress is very beneficial to facilitate N movement into soil, heavy rain (2+ inches) often leaves us wondering how much, if any, of that recently-applied N remains and if additional N is needed.
Jan 31, 2024 SPES-39NP
Consider Your Whole System: Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia Jun 25, 2018 SPES-39NP
Fresh Hops Harvesting and Handling Tips Jun 29, 2018 SPES-43NP
Weed Management Planner - Before Planting Aug 2, 2023 SPES-268NP (SPES-506NP-A)
Weed Management Planner - After Planting Feb 13, 2024 SPES-268NP (SPES-570NP-B)
2021 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Quality Data Mar 24, 2022 SPES-395NP
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2022 Jun 24, 2022 SPES-406NP
Effective Tiller Management for Winter Wheat Jan 4, 2023 SPES-431P
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2022 Dec 9, 2022 SPES-453NP
Edamame in Virginia II. Producing a High-Quality Product Apr 13, 2023 SPES-455P
Virginia Corn Silage Hybrid Trials in 2022 Dec 16, 2022 SPES-457NP
2022 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research Jan 6, 2023 SPES-460NP
Specialty Small Grains in 2022 Jan 17, 2023 SPES-473NP
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation 2022 I. Agronomic and Grade Data Feb 22, 2023 SPES-475NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2022 Feb 13, 2023 SPES-478NP
2022 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Mar 15, 2023 SPES-482NP
Lessons learned from peanut variety testing in 2022 Apr 24, 2023 SPES-485NP
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results 2022 Apr 21, 2023 SPES-499NP
Basic Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Physiology and Morphology May 31, 2023 SPES-508NP
Aerial imagery to improve disease diagnosis and management in field crops Aug 11, 2023 SPES-515NP
2023 Potato Variety Evaluation for the Eastern Shore of Virginia
The publication delves into the critical aspects of potato cultivar selection for Eastern Virginia. It highlights the importance of choosing cultivars well-suited to the region's climate and growing conditions. Factors like temperature fluctuations, precipitation patterns, tuber yield and quality are considered when making these selections. The evaluation process encompasses parameters such as yield potential, vegetative characteristics, and quality attributes like Specific Gravity and chip color. Moreover, the publication explores the use of metrics like NDVI and SPAD for assessing plant health. Detailed results for specific cultivars, such as 'Atlantic' and 'Chieftain,' among others, are provided, emphasizing data-driven decisions for optimal potato production in Eastern Virginia.
Oct 18, 2023 SPES-521NP
2022 Potato Industry Status at the Eastern Shore of Virginia
This document provides an overview of the potato industry's status in 2022, including key statistics such as acreage, cultivar selection methods, planting practices, and pest control measures. The challenges faced by potato farmers in the region are also discussed, including issues related to fertilization, labor, pests, and market conditions. Additionally, the document outlines the research priorities identified by potato farmers, focusing on soil analysis, weather data accessibility, and irrigation management. It emphasizes the importance of research and innovation for the sector's future growth. Lastly, the document explores communication preferences among potato farmers, highlighting their preference for email and annual conferences as effective means of information exchange.
Oct 23, 2023 SPES-522NP
2023 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research
These demonstration and research results are a collaborative effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, Virginia producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunities to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
Jan 12, 2024 SPES-577NP
Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots 2023
These demonstrations and replicated studies provide information that can be used by Virginia corn growers to make better management decisions on their farm. These results should be used along with data from other replicated studies when making decisions. Refer to individual location results for additional detail.
Feb 14, 2024 SPES-579NP
Prohexadione Calcium or Seed Aging?
Peanut is a “cash” commodity for Virginians and most farmers grow this crop for certified seed. Seed quality and germination in particular are, therefore, very important. Even though the 2022 results were inconclusive, potential for prohexadione calcium to reduce germination and increase abnormal seedling production was clearly suggested by these data. The inconclusiveness could have been the result of a combination of factors, other than PC, affecting seed quality during storage. A differential response of the cultivars to both, seed aging and PC, was clearly suggested by our preliminary data. Evidence that PC may affect the seed quality, through seed weight, was also notable from the 2022 tests.
Feb 13, 2024 SPES-581NP
Aerial Spectral Imagery to Determine Wheat Fertility Rate and Timing
An overview of how to use aerial spectral imagery to determine wheat fertility rate and timing.
Feb 22, 2024 SPES-582NP
2023 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Mar 13, 2024 SPES-588NP
Faba Bean: A Multipurpose Specialty Crop for the Mid-Atlantic USA
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.), also known as fava bean, broad bean, horse bean, or Windsor bean, is a leguminous crop used as food, feed, forage, or cover crop in different parts of the world. This crop can be used for food, feed, and as a ground cover crop. It is highly nutritious and has high protein content, the second after soybean when comparing with the common grown legumes including, dry beans, lentils, peas, cowpeas, and chickpeas. The high protein content makes faba bean an excellent source for plant-based foods, like meat and milk. Compared to the other cool-season legumes such as pea and lupin, faba bean can attain and fix substantially more nitrogen from the atmosphere to soil. Because of temperature increase during summer, a winter crop can ensure cropping system diversification while minimizing the negative effects of summer heat on yield and economic return, and this crop can potentially be faba bean. A USDA-funded project at the Virginia Tech’ s Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, is focused on introduction of faba bean as a winter seed crop with multiple benefits for the Mid-Atlantic cropping systems. The project includes collaborators from the University of Maryland, University of Delaware, North Carolina State University, and University of Georgia, in addition to the Virginia State University and Virginia Tech. Started in 2023 and lasting until 2027, the project will address objectives related to cultivar development through breeding, genetics and physiological strategies, identification of the best agronomic practices to maximize yield and economic return, economic and marketing logistics, and consumer acceptance. As the results became available, the PI will provide updates on this new crop for the region.
Mar 26, 2024 SPES-590NP
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results 2023: Agronomic and Grade Data
In 2023, PVQE included 34 genotypes: 5 commercial varieties, including ‘Bailey II’,’ Emery’, ‘NC 20’, ‘Sullivan’ and ‘Walton’; and 25 advanced breeding lines developed by the North Carolina State University peanut breeding program and 4 advanced breeding lines developed by the University of Florida (Table 1). All breeding lines have the ‘high oleic acid’ characteristic. Cultivars and lines were planted from May 9 through June 15 at four locations: Tidewater AREC in Suffolk, VA, Slade Farm near Williamston, Martin Co., NC, the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station (UCPRS) near Rocky Mount, NC, and the Edisto Research and Education Center (EREC) in Blackville, SC.
VCE AG Today: Soybean pest update Feb 13, 2022 VCE-1027-57NP
VCE AG Today: Soybean Variety Selection Tool Feb 10, 2022 VCE-1027-59NP
VCE AG Today: High Fertilizer Prices; Why? Feb 7, 2022 VCE-1027-61NP
VCE AG Today: Tips For Starting the Vegetable Season off Right Feb 10, 2022 VCE-1027-62NP
VCE Ag Today: Commodity Market Update Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-1NP
VCE Ag Today: Fertility Update in Corn and Soybeans Mar 25, 2021 VCE-1027-10NP
VCE Ag Today: Irrigation Tips for Row Crops Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-12NP
VCE Ag Today: Herbicide Resistant Management Update Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-14NP
VCE Ag Today: Disease Management of Corn and Soybeans Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-15NP
VCE Ag Today: Pesticide Updates
VCE AG TODAY is a weekly webinar that provides updates on agricultural practices. If you have any questions, please reach out to your local Extension office or visit
Mar 1, 2021 VCE-1027-16
VCE Ag Today - Soybean Arthropod Pest Management Apr 9, 2021 VCE-1027-17NP
VCE Ag Today: Cover Crop Considerations for Fall Planting Mar 25, 2021 VCE-1027-18NP
VCE Ag Today: Getting Ready for Corn Harvest Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-19NP
VCE Ag Today: Spring Small Grain Update Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-2NP
VCE Ag Today: Late Summer Pasture Management Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-20NP
VCE Ag Today: Increasing Grazing Days in Eastern Virginia Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-21NP
VCE Ag Today: Planning for Small Grain Planting Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-22NP
VCE Ag Today: Corn Drying and Storage Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-23NP
VCE Ag Today: Palmer Amaranth ID and Control Mar 25, 2021 VCE-1027-24NP
VCE Ag Today: Safety of Biosolids Use Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-27NP
VCE Ag Today: Spotted Lanternfly – A Threat to Virginia? Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-30NP
VCE Ag Today: Fall Vegetable Pest Update Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-31NP
VCE AG Today - Basics of Grain Marketing Mar 23, 2021 VCE-1027-32NP
VCE AG Today - Dicamba Update Mar 23, 2021 VCE-1027-33NP
VCE Ag Today: Row Crop Insect and Disease Update Apr 1, 2021 VCE-1027-35
VCE Ag Today: Small Grain and Rapeseed Update Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-36NP
VCE Ag Today: Soybean Update Apr 9, 2021 VCE-1027-37NP
VCE Ag Today: Small Grains Update May 7, 2021 VCE-1027-41NP
VCE Ag Today - Agricultural Drainage Apr 2, 2021 VCE-1027-42NP
VCE Ag Today: Grow Award - Winning Hay May 5, 2021 VCE-1027-47NP
VCE Ag Today: Understanding Spray Water Chemistry May 7, 2021 VCE-1027-48NP
VCE Ag Today: Market Update Jul 5, 2021 VCE-1027-49NP
VCE Ag Today: Soybean Update Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-5NP
VCE Ag Today: Cucurbit Management Jul 5, 2021 VCE-1027-51NP
VCE Ag Today: Virginia Pesticide Collection Programs Nov 10, 2021 VCE-1027-52NP
VCE Ag Today: Weed Control in Pastures Nov 10, 2021 VCE-1027-55NP
VCE Ag Today: Post-plant Strawberry Disease Management in Fall and Winter Nov 10, 2021 VCE-1027-56NP
VCE Ag Today: Hot Topics in Commercial Horticulture Mar 25, 2021 VCE-1027-6NP
VCE Ag Today: Hot Topics in Weed Management Mar 25, 2021 VCE-1027-7NP
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Dec 17, 2021 VTTP-2