Resources for Fruits & Vegetables
|Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs||Nov 16, 2018||2909-1410 (SPES-80NP)|
|Corn Earworm on Vegetables||Mar 25, 2019||3103-1537 (ENTO-312NP)|
|Beet Webworm||Mar 5, 2021||3104-1542 (ENTO-443NP)|
Adults are usually black or brown beetles with an oval to oblong shape. They have clubbed or knobbed antennae and the economically important species typically measure 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 inch) long. Some sap beetles have short wing covers that do not cover the entire abdomen. Some species have flattened bodies while others are more convex. Many sap beetles are a dull color, sometimes with mottling or spots. One common sap beetle, the picnic beetle [Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say)], is an attractive shiny black beetle with four yellow-orange bands or spots on the wing covers.
|Mar 5, 2021||3104-1546 (ENTO-431NP)|
|Flea Beetles in Home Vegetable Gardens||Nov 22, 2022||3104-1549 (ENTO-531NP)|
|Pickleworm||Mar 5, 2021||3104-1559 (ENTO-439NP)|
Adult rhubarb curculios are elongated, somewhat cylindrical beetles measuring about 13-19 mm (0.5-0.75 inch) in total body length. They have an obvious long snout that curves downwards from the head. Young adults have a dusty coating of yellow or orange powder that rubs off easily. Older beetles that have lost this dusty coating appear brownish-black in color. Mature larvae are legless white grubs with a brown head capsule. Rhubarb curculio larvae are only found in weedy hosts and not in rhubarb itself. There are a number of related, similar-looking weevils that occur on various weeds in the Asteraceae and Polygonaceae families.
|Mar 5, 2021||3104-1563 (ENTO-430NP)|
|Rose Chafer||Mar 1, 2021||3104-1564 (ENTO-436NP)|
|Rose Scale||Apr 22, 2022||3104-1565 (ENTO-501NP)|
|Squash Vine Borer||
Adult squash vine borers are robust, attractive moths with dark wings and conspicuous orange abdomens dotted with black spots. The legs are marked with orange, black, and white, and the hind legs are noticeably feathery. Adults measure about 13 mm (0.5 inch) long with a wingspan of about 32 mm (1.25 inches). The dark wings are held folded at rest; there is a short fringe of hairs on the trailing edge. Squash vine borer is a member of the clearwing moth family; translucent windows are visible in the hind wings when they are fully extended. The antennae are dark, somewhat flattened, and hooked at the tips. Overall, adult squash vine borers resemble paper wasps in appearance. They are active day fliers with a zig-zag flight and easily travel from field to field.
|Mar 5, 2021||3104-1566 (ENTO-432NP)|
Adult weevils are a dull, gray-brown color, and about 6–8 mm (0.25–0.32 inch) long. Adults are somewhat bristly in appearance due to t stout hairs and dense scales on the body. Usually there is a set of dark diagonal markings framing a lighter colored V-shape on the wings, but these may wear off with age. Antennae are elbowed and there is a short, stout snout at the front of the head.
|Mar 4, 2021||3104-1569 (ENTO-425NP)|
|Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Strawberries||Jul 6, 2020||4H-909NP|
|Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Hydroponic Salad Greens||Jul 2, 2020||4H-911NP|
|Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Tomatoes||Aug 14, 2020||4H-918NP|
|Growing Apples in Virginia||
Growing apples in the home garden can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience, but consistent production of high quality fruit requires knowledge of tree and fruit growth and a willingness to perform certain practices at the appropriate time. Virginia is on the southern fringe of the U. S. apple producing region. Most apple varieties produce the highest quality fruit when night-time temperatures are cool (less than 60°F) at harvest time. Apples grown under warmer conditions tend to be large, soft, poorly colored, and less flavorful than when grown under cooler conditions. Our warm humid summers are also conducive for infection of many diseases. For these reasons, the best Virginia apples are grown at elevations higher than 800 feet above sea level in the western part of the state. However, even apples grown in eastern Virginia usually have quality superior to apples purchased in the supermarkets.
|Aug 17, 2020||422-023 (SPES-233P)|
|Jardinería en macetas y camas elevadas (Container and Raised Bed Gardening)||
La jardinería en macetas le permite tener y disfrutar de muchas plantas ornamentales y cuando no puede cultivarlas directamente en la tierra. Puede utilizar plantas cultivadas en macetas en entradas, patios, terrazas, azoteas, jardines, interiores o en cualquier lugar donde necesite añadir un componente vivo para mejorar el atractivo de una zona. Cada maceta plantada tendrá su propia personalidad; puede crear un paisaje en cada maceta. Pueden ser impresionantes o sutiles, grandes o pequeñas. Las plantas y las macetas ofrecen combinaciones ilimitadas de tamaño, color, forma y textura que pueden dar a su entorno interior y exterior un aspecto más agradable desde el punto de vista estético.
|Nov 6, 2023||426-020s (SPES-428P)|
|Planning the Vegetable Garden||
How much time will you be able to devote to your garden on a regular basis? The answer to this question will dictate the size of your garden. You must remember that, once planted, the garden will have to be weeded once a week, irrigated during droughts, and vegetables harvested when ripe. Depending on the type of vegetables, you may also need to undertake pest control measures.
|Nov 4, 2020||426-312 (HORT-209P)|
|Seed For The Garden||Apr 8, 2022||426-316 (SPES-392P)|
|Fertilizing the Vegetable Garden||
The amount of fertilizer to apply to a garden depends on the natural fertility of the soil, the amount of organic matter present, the type of fertilizer used, and the crop being grown. The best way to determine fertilizer needs is to have the soil tested. Soil testing is available through your local Extension agent, through private labs, and with soil test kits which can be purchased from garden shops and catalogs.
|Jan 14, 2021||426-323 (SPES-295P)|
|Virginia’s Home Garden Vegetable Planting Guide: Recommended Planting Dates and Amounts to Plant||Jan 21, 2020||426-331 (SPES-170P)|
|Guía para cultivar una huerta de hortalizas en Virginia: Fechas de cultivo y cantidades recomendadas para plantar (Virginia’s Home Garden Vegetable Planting Guide: Recommended Planting Dates and Amounts to Plant)||Jan 21, 2020||426-331 (SPES-170P)|
|Weeds in the Home Vegetable Garden||Oct 25, 2023||426-364 (SPES-525P)|
|Asparagus||Sep 16, 2020||426-401 (SPES-250P)|
|Sweet Corn||Sep 16, 2020||426-405 (SPES-251P)|
|Cucumbers, Melons and Squash||
Varieties include both the slicer or fresh salad type and the pickle type (which can also be used fresh); vined, dwarfvined and bush varieties; all female or all-female seedless (no pollination required); burpless; and, various mixtures of these characteristics. Disease resistance is available in many varieties.
|Sep 16, 2020||426-406 (SPES-252P)|
|Leafy Green Vegetables||
Lettuce, a cool-season vegetable crop, is one of the easiest to grow. Lettuce withstands light frost; however, sunlight and high summer temperatures usually cause seedstalk formation (bolting) and bitter flavor. Slow-bolting or heat-resistant varieties are available and are recommended for extending the lettuce-growing season.
|Mar 16, 2015||426-408 (SPES-253P)|
|Onions, Garlic, and Shallots||
Onions are often grouped according to taste. The two main types of onions are strong flavored (American) and mild (often called European). Each has three distinct colors, yellow, white, and red. In general, the American onion produces bulbs of smaller size, denser texture, stronger flavor, and better keeping quality than European types. Globe varieties tend to keep longer in storage.
|Sep 16, 2020||426-411 (SPES-254P)|
Tomatoes are valuable garden plants in that they require relatively little space for large production. Each standard tomato plant, properly cared for, yields 10 to 15 pounds or more of fruit.Diane Relf, Retired Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Alan McDaniel, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Ronald Morse, Former Associate Professor, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Reviewed by John Freeborn, Assistant Master Gardener Coordinator, Horticulture, Virginia Tech
|May 5, 2021||426-418 (HORT-288P)|
|Sprouting Seeds for Food||
Seeds themselves are a very nutritious form of food because they contain proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and oils that a beginning plant needs to grow. Many of these nutritious components are increased greatly when the seeds are sprouted.
|Apr 6, 2022||426-419 (SPES-394P)|
|Herb Culture and Use||Oct 11, 2019||426-420|
|Root Crops||Sep 16, 2020||426-422 (SPES-249P)|
|Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Gardens||Sep 12, 2019||426-708 (ENTO-330NP)|
|Small Fruit in the Home Garden||
As a general rule, plant selection and production area in a home garden should be limited to what you can properly care for. It is better to have a small, welltended planting area rather than a large, neglected one. Small fruits offer certain advantages over fruit trees for home culture because small fruits require less space for the amount of fruit produced, and they bear fruit one or two years after planting. Success with small-fruit planting will depend on the attention given to all phases of production, including crop and variety selection, site selection, soil management, fertilization, pruning, and pest management.
|May 5, 2022||426-840 (SPES-399P)|
|Tree Fruit in the Home Garden||
It is desirable to locate the fruit planting as close to your home as possible. Where space is limited, fruit trees may be set in almost any location suitable for ornamental plants. Consider the mature size of the tree when designing the planting.
|Sep 21, 2020||426-841 (SPES-259P)|
|Soil Test Note 21: Home Fruit Trees||Apr 14, 2023||452-721 (SPES-489NP)|
|2023 Spray Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers||
The guide contains information on pesticides used in orchards, with a seasonal treatment of when and how these materials should be employed. Efficacy information toward major fruit pests as well as beneficial species is included. The guide is black and white, but with a color photograph for the cover. It is spiral bound.
|Feb 16, 2023||456-419 (ENTO-534P)|
|Economics of Farm and Agribusiness Sustainability||Feb 25, 2021||AAEC-278NP|
|Risk Management and Crop Insurance||Mar 25, 2021||AAEC-282NP|
|GMO, Bioengineered Labeling, and Non-GMO Food||Mar 1, 2021||AAEC-283NP|
|Marketing Farm and Food Products||Apr 12, 2021||AAEC-284NP|
|AgrAbility Virginia Program Evaluation Brief: 2021 Survey & Interview Results||Jun 29, 2021||ALCE-255NP|
|Soil Moisture Sensors for Agricultural Irrigation: An Overview on Sensor Types||Jul 21, 2021||BSE-338P|
|Scheduling Agricultural Irrigation Based on Soil Moisture Content: Interpreting and Using Sensor Data||Aug 10, 2021||BSE-339P|
|Diagnosing Stink Bug Injury to Vegetables||
In the mid-Atlantic U.S. vegetable crops are attacked by several different stink bug species (1). The primary pest species include: the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, which has become the dominant species in most landscapes (2), brown stink bug, Euschistus servus Say, which is the most common species attacking tomatoes; green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris Say (3); and harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, which is primarilly a pest of brassica vegetables only (4). All stink bugs are piercing sucking feeders that insert their stylets into the fruit, pods, buds, leaves, and stems of plants.
|May 25, 2021||ENTO-173NP (ENTO-449NP)|
|Benefits of an Insecticide Seed Treatment for Pumpkin Production in Virginia||
In recent years cucurbit growers in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. could purchase their seeds pre-treated with the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam. The insecticide seed treatment is currently packaged as FarMore F1400, which also includes three proven and complementary fungicides that provide the first line of defense against several key seed and seedling diseases including Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium, general damping-off and seedling blight.
|Dec 21, 2015||ENTO-174NP|
|Stink Bugs||Oct 13, 2017||444-621 (ENTO-242NP)|
|Flea Beetles Attacking Brassica Plants in Virginia||Mar 27, 2018||ENTO-267NP|
|Spotted Lanternfly in Virginia Vineyards: Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae)||Aug 17, 2022||ENTO-323NP (ENTO-516NP)|
|Critical updates for the 2021 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Recommendations||Mar 10, 2021||ENTO-446NP|
|Pesticide Drift Series: Using Buffers to Reduce the Impact of Spray Drift||Jun 22, 2021||ENTO-454NP|
|Broad-Headed Bugs||Jul 23, 2021||ENTO-457NP|
|UPDATED List of Commercial Suppliers and Insectaries/Laboratories Selling Predators and Parasitoids for Augmentative Biocontrol||Feb 4, 2022||ENTO-480NP|
|Identification and Life Cycle of Spotted Lanternfly in Virginia||Mar 18, 2022||ENTO-268NP (ENTO-494NP)|
|Diamondback Moth Mating Disruption||
Diamondback moth has become one of the hardest lepidopteran "worm" pests to control globally due to insecticide resistance. Mating disruption is an effective pesticide-free strategy for managing this pest of cabbage, broccoli, collards, and other brassica crops.
|Aug 25, 2023||ENTO-571NP|
|Nanobubbles as an Emerging Sanitation Technology||Jan 27, 2021||FST-383NP|
|Assessing On-Farm Produce Safety Risks: Production Stage||Jan 31, 2022||FST-403NP|
|Marinated Tomatoes||Apr 15, 2022||HNFE-978NP|
|Vertical Gardening Using Trellises, Stakes, and Cages||Dec 12, 2022||HORT-189NP (SPES-450NP)|
|Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia||May 6, 2022||HORT-226P (SPES-400P)|
|USDA Edamame Project||Feb 15, 2019||SPES-104NP|
|Changes to USDA GAP & GHP, Produce Harmonized GAP, and Harmonized GAP Plus+ Audit Billing and Scheduling||Jun 17, 2019||SPES-132NP (SPES-147NP)|
|A Survey of Strawberry Production Practices in Virginia||Aug 12, 2019||SPES-150P|
|Kitchen Garden Presentation by Henrico Master Gardeners||Jul 14, 2020||SPES-225NP|
|Strawberry Variety Evaluation, Opportunities, and Challenges of High Tunnel Production||Feb 9, 2021||SPES-273P|
|Lime: Common Soil Additives to Raise Soil pH in Virginia||Feb 16, 2021||SPES-298NP|
|2021 Virtual Eastern Shore Agricultural Conference and Trade Show||Mar 12, 2021||SPES-312NP||
|Fungicide Spray Guidelines for Non-bearing Vineyards||Jul 14, 2021||SPES-315NP|
|Assessing On-Farm Risks and Documenting Food Safety Practices to Meet Farm to School Requirements||May 7, 2021||SPES-319NP|
|An Overview of Southern Blight, Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii||Aug 24, 2021||SPES-325NP|
|Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation for Management of Soilborne Pests in Vegetables||Jul 6, 2021||SPES-326NP|
|Protective Agriculture Production Series: Fundamentals||Sep 16, 2021||SPES-355NP|
|2021 Eastern Shore AREC Interactive Research Field Day||Oct 8, 2021||SPES-359NP|
|Frost/Freeze Protection in Strawberry||Aug 27, 2018||SPES-56NP|
|Insecticide and Acaricide Research on Vegetables in Virginia -2017||Dec 17, 2018||SPES-85NP|
|Blackberry Fruit: Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits||Mar 16, 2022||SPES-366P|
|How to develop a planting plan for vegetables in Virginia: A sample spreadsheet||May 11, 2022||SPES-401NP|
|Bringing Apples to Life: A Story of Perseverance, Collaboration, and Innovation||Jun 8, 2022||SPES-405NP|
|Comparison of Raised Bed Methods, Materials, and Costs||Sep 29, 2022||SPES-425NP|
|Basic melon (Cucumis melo L.) physiology and morphology||
Understanding the fundamental aspects of melon physiology and morphology is essential for optimizing its cultivation, improving yield, and enhancing fruit quality. This document provides a concise overview of the key physiological and morphological characteristics of the basic melon plant, highlighting its growth and development processes. The physiological aspects encompass various essential factors that influence melon growth, including photosynthesis, water relations, nutrient uptake and assimilation, and hormone regulation. Melon plants exhibit distinct physiological responses to environmental stimuli such as light, temperature, and water availability, which directly impact their growth, flowering, and fruiting. An understanding of these physiological processes aids in implementing appropriate cultivation practices and management strategies for maximizing melon productivity.
|Jun 9, 2023||SPES-507NP|
|Basic Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Physiology and Morphology||May 31, 2023||SPES-508NP|