Resources for Fruits & Vegetables

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs Nov 16, 2018 2909-1410 (SPES-80NP)
Corn Earworm on Vegetables Mar 25, 2019 3103-1537 (ENTO-312NP)
Beet Webworm Mar 5, 2021 3104-1542 (ENTO-443NP)
Sap Beetles
Adults are usually black or brown beetles with an oval to oblong shape. They have clubbed or knobbed antennae and the economically important species typically measure 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 inch) long. Some sap beetles have short wing covers that do not cover the entire abdomen. Some species have flattened bodies while others are more convex. Many sap beetles are a dull color, sometimes with mottling or spots. One common sap beetle, the picnic beetle [Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say)], is an attractive shiny black beetle with four yellow-orange bands or spots on the wing covers.
Mar 5, 2021 3104-1546 (ENTO-431NP)
Flea Beetle Control for Home Gardens Dec 5, 2017 3104-1549 (ENTO-251NP)
Pickleworm Mar 5, 2021 3104-1559 (ENTO-439NP)
Rhubarb Curculio
Adult rhubarb curculios are elongated, somewhat cylindrical beetles measuring about 13-19 mm (0.5-0.75 inch) in total body length. They have an obvious long snout that curves downwards from the head. Young adults have a dusty coating of yellow or orange powder that rubs off easily. Older beetles that have lost this dusty coating appear brownish-black in color. Mature larvae are legless white grubs with a brown head capsule. Rhubarb curculio larvae are only found in weedy hosts and not in rhubarb itself. There are a number of related, similar-looking weevils that occur on various weeds in the Asteraceae and Polygonaceae families.
Mar 5, 2021 3104-1563 (ENTO-430NP)
Rose Chafer Mar 1, 2021 3104-1564 (ENTO-436NP)
Rose Scale Apr 22, 2022 3104-1565 (ENTO-501NP)
Squash Vine Borer
Adult squash vine borers are robust, attractive moths with dark wings and conspicuous orange abdomens dotted with black spots. The legs are marked with orange, black, and white, and the hind legs are noticeably feathery. Adults measure about 13 mm (0.5 inch) long with a wingspan of about 32 mm (1.25 inches). The dark wings are held folded at rest; there is a short fringe of hairs on the trailing edge. Squash vine borer is a member of the clearwing moth family; translucent windows are visible in the hind wings when they are fully extended. The antennae are dark, somewhat flattened, and hooked at the tips. Overall, adult squash vine borers resemble paper wasps in appearance. They are active day fliers with a zig-zag flight and easily travel from field to field.
Mar 5, 2021 3104-1566 (ENTO-432NP)
Vegetable Weevil
Adult weevils are a dull, gray-brown color, and about 6–8 mm (0.25–0.32 inch) long. Adults are somewhat bristly in appearance due to t stout hairs and dense scales on the body. Usually there is a set of dark diagonal markings framing a lighter colored V-shape on the wings, but these may wear off with age. Antennae are elbowed and there is a short, stout snout at the front of the head.
Mar 4, 2021 3104-1569 (ENTO-425NP)
Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Strawberries Jul 6, 2020 4H-909NP
Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Hydroponic Salad Greens Jul 2, 2020 4H-911NP
Virginia Virtual Farm to Table: Tomatoes Aug 14, 2020 4H-918NP
Growing Apples in Virginia
Growing apples in the home garden can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience, but consistent production of high quality fruit requires knowledge of tree and fruit growth and a willingness to perform certain practices at the appropriate time. Virginia is on the southern fringe of the U. S. apple producing region. Most apple varieties produce the highest quality fruit when night-time temperatures are cool (less than 60°F) at harvest time. Apples grown under warmer conditions tend to be large, soft, poorly colored, and less flavorful than when grown under cooler conditions. Our warm humid summers are also conducive for infection of many diseases. For these reasons, the best Virginia apples are grown at elevations higher than 800 feet above sea level in the western part of the state. However, even apples grown in eastern Virginia usually have quality superior to apples purchased in the supermarkets.
Aug 17, 2020 422-023 (SPES-233P)
Seed For The Garden Apr 8, 2022 426-316 (SPES-392P)
Fertilizing the Vegetable Garden
The amount of fertilizer to apply to a garden depends on the natural fertility of the soil, the amount of organic matter present, the type of fertilizer used, and the crop being grown. The best way to determine fertilizer needs is to have the soil tested. Soil testing is available through your local Extension agent, through private labs, and with soil test kits which can be purchased from garden shops and catalogs.
Jan 14, 2021 426-323 (SPES-295P)
Virginia’s Home Garden Vegetable Planting Guide: Recommended Planting Dates and Amounts to Plant Jan 21, 2020 426-331 (SPES-170P)
Asparagus Sep 16, 2020 426-401 (SPES-250P)
Sweet Corn Sep 16, 2020 426-405 (SPES-251P)
Cucumbers, Melons and Squash
Varieties include both the slicer or fresh salad type and the pickle type (which can also be used fresh); vined, dwarfvined and bush varieties; all female or all-female seedless (no pollination required); burpless; and, various mixtures of these characteristics. Disease resistance is available in many varieties.
Sep 16, 2020 426-406 (SPES-252P)
Leafy Green Vegetables
Lettuce, a cool-season vegetable crop, is one of the easiest to grow. Lettuce withstands light frost; however, sunlight and high summer temperatures usually cause seedstalk formation (bolting) and bitter flavor. Slow-bolting or heat-resistant varieties are available and are recommended for extending the lettuce-growing season.
Mar 16, 2015 426-408 (SPES-253P)
Onions, Garlic, and Shallots
Onions are often grouped according to taste. The two main types of onions are strong flavored (American) and mild (often called European). Each has three distinct colors, yellow, white, and red. In general, the American onion produces bulbs of smaller size, denser texture, stronger flavor, and better keeping quality than European types. Globe varieties tend to keep longer in storage.
Sep 16, 2020 426-411 (SPES-254P)
Tomatoes
Tomatoes are valuable garden plants in that they require relatively little space for large production. Each standard tomato plant, properly cared for, yields 10 to 15 pounds or more of fruit.Diane Relf, Retired Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Alan McDaniel, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Ronald Morse, Former Associate Professor, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Reviewed by John Freeborn, Assistant Master Gardener Coordinator, Horticulture, Virginia Tech
May 5, 2021 426-418 (HORT-288P)
Sprouting Seeds for Food Apr 6, 2022 426-419 (SPES-394P)
Herb Culture and Use Oct 11, 2019 426-420
Root Crops Sep 16, 2020 426-422 (SPES-249P)
Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Gardens Sep 12, 2019 426-708 (ENTO-330NP)
Small Fruit in the Home Garden
As a general rule, plant selection and production area in a home garden should be limited to what you can properly care for. It is better to have a small, welltended planting area rather than a large, neglected one. Small fruits offer certain advantages over fruit trees for home culture because small fruits require less space for the amount of fruit produced, and they bear fruit one or two years after planting. Success with small-fruit planting will depend on the attention given to all phases of production, including crop and variety selection, site selection, soil management, fertilization, pruning, and pest management.
May 5, 2022 426-840 (SPES-399P)
Tree Fruit in the Home Garden
It is desirable to locate the fruit planting as close to your home as possible. Where space is limited, fruit trees may be set in almost any location suitable for ornamental plants. Consider the mature size of the tree when designing the planting.
Sep 21, 2020 426-841 (SPES-259P)
2022 Spray Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers
The guide contains information on pesticides used in orchards, with a seasonal treatment of when and how these materials should be employed. Efficacy information toward major fruit pests as well as beneficial species is included. The guide is black and white, but with a color photograph for the cover. It is spiral bound.
Mar 7, 2022 456-419 (ENTO-479P)
Economics of Farm and Agribusiness Sustainability Feb 25, 2021 AAEC-278NP
Risk Management and Crop Insurance Mar 25, 2021 AAEC-282NP
GMO, Bioengineered Labeling, and Non-GMO Food Mar 1, 2021 AAEC-283NP
Marketing Farm and Food Products Apr 12, 2021 AAEC-284NP
AgrAbility Virginia Program Evaluation Brief: 2021 Survey & Interview Results Jun 29, 2021 ALCE-255NP
Soil Moisture Sensors for Agricultural Irrigation: An Overview on Sensor Types Jul 21, 2021 BSE-338P
Scheduling Agricultural Irrigation Based on Soil Moisture Content: Interpreting and Using Sensor Data Aug 10, 2021 BSE-339P
Diagnosing Stink Bug Injury to Vegetables
In the mid-Atlantic U.S. vegetable crops are attacked by several different stink bug species (1). The primary pest species include: the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, which has become the dominant species in most landscapes (2), brown stink bug, Euschistus servus Say, which is the most common species attacking tomatoes; green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris Say (3); and harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, which is primarilly a pest of brassica vegetables only (4). All stink bugs are piercing sucking feeders that insert their stylets into the fruit, pods, buds, leaves, and stems of plants.
May 25, 2021 ENTO-173NP (ENTO-449NP)
Benefits of an Insecticide Seed Treatment for Pumpkin Production in Virginia
In recent years cucurbit growers in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. could purchase their seeds pre-treated with the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam. The insecticide seed treatment is currently packaged as FarMore F1400, which also includes three proven and complementary fungicides that provide the first line of defense against several key seed and seedling diseases including Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium, general damping-off and seedling blight.
Dec 21, 2015 ENTO-174NP
Stink Bugs Oct 13, 2017 ENTO-242NP
Flea Beetles Attacking Brassica Plants in Virginia Mar 27, 2018 ENTO-267NP
Critical updates for the 2021 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Recommendations Mar 10, 2021 ENTO-446NP
Pesticide Drift Series: Using Buffers to Reduce the Impact of Spray Drift Jun 22, 2021 ENTO-454NP
Broad-Headed Bugs Jul 23, 2021 ENTO-457NP
UPDATED List of Commercial Suppliers and Insectaries/Laboratories Selling Predators and Parasitoids for Augmentative Biocontrol Feb 4, 2022 ENTO-480NP
Identification and Life Cycle of Spotted Lanternfly in Virginia Mar 18, 2022 ENTO-268NP (ENTO-494NP)
Nanobubbles as an Emerging Sanitation Technology Jan 27, 2021 FST-383NP
Assessing On-Farm Produce Safety Risks: Production Stage Jan 31, 2022 FST-403NP
Marinated Tomatoes Apr 15, 2022 HNFE-978NP
Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia May 6, 2022 HORT-226P (SPES-400P)
USDA Edamame Project Feb 15, 2019 SPES-104NP
Changes to USDA GAP & GHP, Produce Harmonized GAP, and Harmonized GAP Plus+ Audit Billing and Scheduling Jun 17, 2019 SPES-132NP (SPES-147NP)
A Survey of Strawberry Production Practices in Virginia Aug 12, 2019 SPES-150P
Kitchen Garden Presentation by Henrico Master Gardeners Jul 14, 2020 SPES-225NP
Strawberry Variety Evaluation, Opportunities, and Challenges of High Tunnel Production Feb 9, 2021 SPES-273P
Lime: Common Soil Additives to Raise Soil pH in Virginia Feb 16, 2021 SPES-298NP
2021 Virtual Eastern Shore Agricultural Conference and Trade Show Mar 12, 2021 SPES-312NP
Fungicide Spray Guidelines for Non-bearing Vineyards Jul 14, 2021 SPES-315NP
Assessing On-Farm Risks and Documenting Food Safety Practices to Meet Farm to School Requirements May 7, 2021 SPES-319NP
An Overview of Southern Blight, Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Aug 24, 2021 SPES-325NP
Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation for Management of Soilborne Pests in Vegetables Jul 6, 2021 SPES-326NP
Protective Agriculture Production Series: Fundamentals Sep 16, 2021 SPES-355NP
2021 Eastern Shore AREC Interactive Research Field Day Oct 8, 2021 SPES-359NP
Frost/Freeze Protection in Strawberry Aug 27, 2018 SPES-56NP
Blackberry Fruit: Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits Mar 16, 2022 SPES-366P
How to develop a planting plan for vegetables in Virginia: A sample spreadsheet May 11, 2022 SPES-401NP