Resources for Pasture & Forage - Crops & Soils
|Warm-Season Annual Grasses for Summer Forage||Apr 1, 2019||418-004 (SPES-88P)|
|Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer||Aug 30, 2019||418-142|
|Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia||Dec 19, 2018||424-006 (SPES-81P)|
|Agronomy Handbook, 2000||May 1, 2009||424-100||
|Determining Forage Moisture Concentration||
Harvesting and storing forage at the proper moisture concentration is essential to producing a high-quality product. Ideally, hay forage should have a moisture concentration between 15 percent and 18 percent during baling. Hay baled at higher moisture levels is subject to heat damage, dry-matter loss, mold spoilage, and hay fires. Protein and total digestible nutrient losses are increased for hay baled at lower moisture levels. Baling at the proper moisture level is critical to making quality hay, especially for larger bales (round and square) since moisture and heat dissipate more slowly in comparison to smaller bales.
|Jul 2, 2020||442-106(BSE-330P)|
|Management Tips for Round Bale Hay Harvesting, Moving, and Storage||
Hay production and feeding is one of the most expensive components of forage-livestock systems. Specific management practices are necessary to maintain hay quality and minimize hay loss during harvest, transportation and storage of large round bales.
|Jul 1, 2020||442-454 (BSE-332P)|
|Large Round Bale Safety||
This Extension publication covers the safety aspects of equipment used in large round bale packages such as: balers, front-end loaders, bale handling and transport devices. The key to safe and efficient systems for handling large round bales is an operator who knows the hazards involved and who follows safety practices that can prevent accidents. Operators must be constantly alert for situations that may cause injuries to themselves or others. Besides pain and suffering, accidents contribute to higher costs in terms of unnecessary downtime or costly machine repairs. Alertness and safety consciousness can result in more efficient and profitable baling and handling.
|May 26, 2020||442-455 (BSE-331P)|
|Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops||
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
|Sep 9, 2019||452-702 (CSES-100P)|
|Soil Test Note No.3 - Liming and Fertilization of Cool-Season Forage Crops||Aug 30, 2019||452-703|
|Powell River Project - Revegetation Species and Practices||
This publication describes procedures for revegetating surface coal mine reclamation sites with grasses and herbaceous legumes.
|Jul 28, 2023||460-122 (CSES-210P)|
|AgrAbility Virginia Program Evaluation Brief: 2021 Survey & Interview Results||Jun 29, 2021||ALCE-255NP|
|Taste of Farming: Grazing Math||Apr 1, 2022||ALCE-296-11|
|Taste of Farming: Agroforestry||Apr 4, 2022||ALCE-296-13|
|Managing Irrigation with Saline Water||May 9, 2023||BSE-348P|
|Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes||May 6, 2021||CSES-146P|
|Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands||
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
|Apr 20, 2021||CSES-155P|
|Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Planting Trees in Pastures||May 1, 2023||CSES-185P|
|Using a Summer Stockpiling System to Extend the Grazing Season||Nov 14, 2017||CSES-201NP|
|Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems||May 1, 2023||CSES-22P (SPES-5P)|
|Pest Alert: Asian Longhorned Beetle||Apr 17, 2023||ENTO-556NP|
|Tall Fescue, Endophytes and Alkaloids, and Fescue Toxicosis||Apr 12, 2019||SPES-114P|
|Converting Pastures to Native Warm Season Grasses: Forage for Drought in Bedford County||Mar 31, 2020||SPES-196NP|
|Sampling Tall Fescue for Endophyte Infection and Ergot Alkaloid Concentration||Oct 19, 2018||SPES-21P|
|Soil, Conservation and Place -- C.J. Isbell of Keenbell Farm||Jun 8, 2020||SPES-216NP|
|Biofortification: Creating a Healthier Food Supply||Nov 23, 2020||SPES-267P|
|Converting pastures to native warm season grasses: Summer forage and wildlife habitat in Caroline County||Mar 5, 2021||SPES-308NP|
|Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2021||Jun 28, 2021||SPES-335NP|
|2023 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||Jan 3, 2023||SPES-367NP (SPES-451NP)|
|Giant Hogweed: Identification and Control||
This publication provides information on giant hogweed identification, including how to distinguish between look alike species, and what to do if you think you have found giant hogweed.
|Jul 10, 2023||SPES-48NP (SPES-245NP)|
|Control of Common Grassy Weeds in Pastures and Hayfields||
Grassy weeds in pastures and hayfields compete with desired forage species and reduce the productivity of forage systems. Lack of selective herbicides makes grassy weed species, such as Johnsongrass, Japanese stiltgrass, broomsedge, and foxtail species difficult to control. Proper soil fertility, grazing management, and correct timing and placement of herbicide application can effectively control these species.
|Nov 6, 2018||SPES-58P|
|Weed Management Planner - Before Planting||Aug 2, 2023||SPES-268NP (SPES-506NP-A)|
|Weed Management Planner - After Planting||Aug 2, 2023||SPES-268NP (SPES-506NP-B)|
|Chemical Options for Defruiting Young Apple Trees||
Apple trees can produce plenty of fruits in the first two years of planting. If kept on the tree until harvest, these fruits would have a negative effect on tree growth and structure. Defruting newly planted and young apple trees (e.g., 2nd and 3rd leaf), particularly those on dwarfing rootstocks, allows the trees to fill their allotted bearing space and become structurally capable of bearing a decent crop by the fourth and fifth year. Although defruting can be achieved manually by removing flower clusters and small fruitlets, several chemical options can make defruting much faster and less labor-intensive. This publication aims to provide information about the rates and application timing of chemical materials apple growers can use to effectively defrut young trees.
|Apr 14, 2022||SPES-396NP|
|Rootstock Effects on Tree Growth and Yield of ‘Honeycrisp’ Apple under Virginia State Climatic Conditions||May 4, 2022||SPES-398NP|
|Effective Tiller Management for Winter Wheat||Jan 4, 2023||SPES-431P|
|Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2022||Dec 9, 2022||SPES-453NP|
|Edamame in Virginia I: Products and Marketing||Mar 29, 2023||SPES-454NP|
|Edamame in Virginia II. Producing a High-Quality Product||Apr 13, 2023||SPES-455P|
|2022 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research||Jan 6, 2023||SPES-460NP|
|Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots 2022||Jan 27, 2023||SPES-477NP|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2022||Feb 13, 2023||SPES-478NP|
|Apple Blotch Disease||
In this publication, we describe apple blotch disease, also known as Marssonina leaf blotch, an emerging apple disease in the Eastern United States. This disease leads to severe apple tree crown defoliation that indirectly affects the apple fruit size, color, yield and twig development. The causal gent of this disease is a fungus Diplocarpon coronariae (also known as Marssonina coronaria).
|Jun 14, 2023||SPES-509NP|
|Converting pastures to native warm season grasses: Filling the summer forage slump in Orange County||
A farmer's experience of converting a tall fescue field into native warm season grasses for improved forage production in the summertime.
|Aug 11, 2023||SPES-514NP|
|2023 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots||
This is the thirtieth year of this ongoing annual project. Further work is planned for the upcoming 2023-2024 growing season. The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by eight Virginia Cooperative Extension ANR agents, one retired agent, and the EVAREC superintendent. We are proud to present this year’s on-farm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2024.
|Oct 13, 2023||SPES-523NP|
|Aerial multispectral imagery for high-throughput mapping of spatial corn yield potentials.||
Drone-based spectral imaging is a nondestructive approach for estimating corn grain yield efficiently prior to harvest. Such spatial estimations if done early in the season could help growers to identify lower performing areas of the field. This will guide them to adopt prompt, precise and cost-effective crop management operations (e.g., irrigation, fertilizer or fungicide applications) in the same season or before/during next cropping season. Pre-harvest yield estimates would help in better planning and allocation of harvest, storage, and sales resources for higher profitability and crop value. This article summarizes a recent exploration on drone-based multispectral imagery to estimate grain yield potential of corn.
|Oct 24, 2023||SPES-526NP|
|No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes||May 6, 2019||SPES-92P|
|VCE Ag Today: Late Summer Pasture Management||Apr 12, 2021||VCE-1027-20NP|
|VCE AG Today: Understanding Soil Test Reports||Apr 9, 2021||VCE-1027-43NP|
|VCE Ag Today: Grow Award - Winning Hay||May 5, 2021||VCE-1027-47NP|
|VCE Ag Today: Weed Control in Pastures||Nov 10, 2021||VCE-1027-55NP|
|Pesticide Applicator Manuals||Dec 17, 2021||VTTP-2|