Resources for Biological Systems Engineering
|2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||Jan 12, 2011||2810-1017|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about the Air Conditioning System?||
As you begin the process of selecting the most efficient air conditioning system for your home, investigate the critical issues of system size, placement, installation, and contractor experience. Your goal is to obtain an efficient system by: sizing the system for the specific cooling load of your home; selecting and properly installing the thermostats or controls; designing a ductwork system to deliver the correct amount of conditioned air to each space; and sealing and insulating all ductwork.
|Jun 9, 2014||2901-9001 (BSE-142NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What About Using Ceiling Fans?||
Ceiling fans create a breeze, so room occupants feel cooler and more comfortable. With a ceiling fan running, you can raise the thermostat setting by 2 to 4 degrees during the cooling season with no reduction in comfort. Increasing the room temperature by even two degrees can cut your cooling costs 4 to 6%.
|Jun 9, 2014||2901-9002 (BSE-117NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What About the Ductwork?||
Air distribution or duct systems are designed to supply rooms with air that is “conditioned”—that is, heated or cooled by the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment—and to recirculate or return the same volume of air back to the HVAC equipment. Your duct system has two main air transfer systems: 1) supply, and 2) return. The supply side delivers the conditioned air to the home through individual room registers. The return side picks up inside air and delivers it to the air handler of your central system where heat and moisture are either removed or added and then delivered to the supply side. All of the air drawn into the return duct(s) is conditioned and should be delivered back through the supply registers.
|Jun 9, 2014||2901-9003 (BSE-118NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about the Heating System?||
The efficiency of a gas (natural or propane) or oil furnace is measured by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE), which describes the heat produced from the energy used. This rating takes into consideration losses from pilot lights, start-up, and stopping. For example, a furnace with an AFUE rating of 80 converts 80% of the fuel it burns into usable heat. New furnaces usually rate in the mid-70s to low 80s, whereas older furnaces will be in the 50s or 60s. ENERGY STAR® qualified oil and gas furnaces have annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) ratings of 83% and 90%, or higher, making them up to 15% more efficient than standard models. Unlike the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) and Heating Season Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings, the AFUE does not consider the unit’s electricity use for fans and blowers.
|Jun 9, 2014||2901-9005 (BSE-119NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Insulation?||
Insulation is rated in terms of thermal resistance, called R-value, which indicates the resistance to heat flow. Although insulation can slow heat flow—conduction, convection and radiation—its greatest impact is on conduction.
|Jun 10, 2014||2901-9006 (BSE-120NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about the Laundry Area?||
The laundry room can be a big consumer of energy—more than 1,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) a year—and water—and a big producer of unwanted heat and humidity in the summer. It makes good sense to think about both the location and the appliances in it if you want to run an energy-efficient laundry. And there are new washers and dryers on the market now that make it easier than ever to do so.
|Jun 9, 2014||2901-9007 (BSE-121NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Mold?||
Mold has received a lot of attention of late because of high profile lawsuits and television news broadcasts that have highlighted the potential hazards and liabilities associated with indoor mold. What is mold? Molds, along with mildews, yeasts, and mushrooms, all belong to the kingdom fungi. Fungi are unicellular or multicellular organisms that primarily use absorption as a means to obtain energy from their environment, unlike green plants, which use chlorophyll to obtain energy from sunlight. The term “mold” describes unwanted visible fungal growth. “Mildew” is fungi that grows on fabrics or that causes plant disease. The term “yeast” is fungi that are unicellular when cultured.
|Jun 26, 2014||2901-9008 (BSE-122NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about the Water Heater?||
Heating water is the third largest energy expense in your home, after heating and cooling the entire space; and, it can account for 15-25% of your utility bill. It’s not hard to see why a family of four, each taking a 5-minute shower a day under inefficient showerheads, can use 700 gallons of water in a week representing a 3-year supply of drinking water for one person! There are several ways to cut down the amount you spend on heating water: a) insulate your water heater and pipes; b) reduce the amount of hot water you use; and c) turn down the thermostat on your water heater.
|Jun 26, 2014||2901-9009 (BSE-123NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Windows?||
The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) offers a voluntary testing and certification program for thermal performance for windows and residential door products with glass. The NFRC does not conduct structural characteristics, such as impact-resistance, but rather serves as a complementary program that can test the whole window (including frame) for the following characteristics: U-Factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), Visible Transmittance, Air Leakage, and Condensation Resistance (see sample NFRC label) .
|Jun 30, 2014||2901-9010 (BSE-124NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What Are the Differences Between Mobile and Modular Homes?||
Mobile and modular homes are factory-built and generally differ in how much of the construction occurs at the factory. The greater the work at the factory, the less labor is needed where the home will be located.
|Jun 26, 2014||2901-9011 (BSE-125NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What Can Builders Do to Help Prevent Moisture Problems in New Construction?||
Buildings should be designed and built to provide comfortable and healthy levels of relative humidity. They should also prevent both liquid water from migrating through building components and water vapor from being trapped in building assemblies, like walls.
|Jun 26, 2014||2901-9012 (BSE-126NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What Does the Shape of the House Have to Do With Energy Efficiency?||
In a home, heat energy is transferred among all materials and substances that are of different temperatures—within the building materials, inside the building itself, and outside the building envelope. The term “building envelope” refers to all of the external building materials, windows, and walls that enclose the internal space. Heat moves only when there is a difference in temperature, and it always moves from the warm side to the cool side. Heat will continue to “flow” until any touching materials reach the same temperature. However, we usually want the inside of a home to have a different temperature from the outside.
|Jun 26, 2014||2901-9013 (BSE-127NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use||
If you're trying to decide whether to invest in a more energy-efficient appliance or if you'd like to determine your electricity loads, you may want to estimate appliance energy consumption.
|Jun 26, 2014||2901-9014 (BSE-137NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Appliances?||
When shopping for appliances, remember that there are actually three prices to consider. The first is the one everyone considers: the purchase price. The second price is for repairs and maintenance. The third price is often forgotten, but equally important: the operating cost of the appliance. Operating cost depends on the cost of fuel (kilowatt-hour, cubic foot, therm, etc.) in your region, how much you use the appliance as well as the way you use it, and the overall energy efficiency of the appliance. Operating cost shows up on your utility bill each month for the life of the appliance. Your refrigerator, for example, may operate effectively for 15–20 years and your dishwasher for about 10 years. You'll need to consider how any given appliance will affect your utility usage.
|Jun 26, 2014||2908-9015 (BSE-128NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about the Bathroom?||
Did you know the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that private homes account for more than 20 percent of the energy and about 55 percent of publicly supplied water consumed in the United States? We all know that we can save water if we just turn off the tap while brushing our teeth. We also know that when we reduce the amount of hot water used we also decrease the energy needed to heat the water. But, did you know there are products that can help you save water even when you have to use water?
|Jul 1, 2014||2908-9016 (BSE-129NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Caulking and Weather-Stripping?||
The greatest source of wasted heating and cooling energy in a home is air leaks. If you have a pair of 6' 8" exterior doors in your home that do not have weather-stripping, you can easily have an opening of ¼" all along the edge where the doors meet. This ¼" gap adds up to a 20-square-inch opening to the outside. If you saw a hole this big in your wall, wouldn’t you want it fixed?
|Jul 1, 2014||2908-9017 (BSE-130NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Dishwashers?||
It may come as a surprise that washing a load of dishes in the dishwasher uses less water than doing the same number of dishes by hand. (Dishwashers also do a better job of killing germs, because they use hotter water than you would normally use if washing by hand.) For each cycle, an ENERGYSTAR qualified dishwasher model uses about 4 gallons of water; a non-qualified model uses about 6 gallons.
|Jul 1, 2014||2908-9018 (BSE-131NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES:What about House Design and Room Location?||
While a good heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and other energy saving features can provide you with a comfortable indoor environment, it is even more efficient to prevent heat from entering the house in the first place. By designing a house with the right shape and orientation, and strategically locating rooms, you can save on energy costs for cooling and heating. If renting or purchasing, look for these same features in an existing home.
|Jul 1, 2014||2908-9019 (BSE-132NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES:What about Moisture?||
Air is made up of a mixture of gases including oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. It also contains water vapor—water in the form of a gas. The temperature of the air determines how much water vapor it can hold: warm air can hold more than cool air. When the air is saturated, it cannot hold any more, and any extra water vapor will condense into liquid form.
|Jul 2, 2014||2908-9020 (BSE-133NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Radiant Barriers?||
Reflective insulation systems are made from aluminum foils with a variety of backings such as roof sheathing, kraft paper, plastic film, cardboard, bubble wrap, etc. The resistance to heat flow depends on the direction of heat flow with this type of insulation most effective in reducing downward heat flow and requiring an air space next to the reflective side. Reflective systems are usually located between roof rafters, floor joists, or wall studs. Reflective insulation placed in walls or on the attic floor must be perforated to allow water vapor to pass through it.
|Jul 7, 2014||2908-9021 (BSE-138NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Refrigerators and Freezers?||
Your refrigerator is the only appliance that works continuously in your home 24 hours a day. In most households, the refrigerator is the single biggest energy consuming kitchen appliance. According to ENERGY STAR, replacing a refrigerator bought in 1990 with a new ENERGY STAR qualified model can save enough to pay for lighting an average household for nearly four months.
|Jul 2, 2014||2908-9022 (BSE-143NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about the Roof?||
Roofing is more than shingles, tile, or metal. A roof system consists of several components, properly assembled to provide the appropriate shelter for a structure. These include structural elements, moisture barriers, and possibly insulation or ventilation.
|Jul 2, 2014||2908-9023 (BSE-134NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Ventilation?||
“Ventilation” is “the natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing air from, any space.” “Infiltration” is the uncontrolled leakage of air through cracks and gaps in the building envelope, especially around windows and doors. Infiltration deals with uncontrolled situations. In our homes we want to be able to control air movement.
|Jul 7, 2014||2908-9024 (BSE-135NP)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What is the Whole-House Systems Approach to Energy Efficiency?||
The whole-house systems approach looks at the entire house as an energy system with interdependent parts. Like a human body, when one part functions poorly it affects the performance of the entire system. For instance, the benefits of an energy-efficient air conditioner are lessened when a duct system leaks, windows don’t close tightly, the attic is uninsulated, and humid summer breezes are drifting in under the door.
|Jul 7, 2014||2908-9025 (BSE-136NP)|
|A Summary of Agricultural Air Quality Perceptions in Virginia||Apr 20, 2010||3004-1442|
|Lighting and Marking Recommendations for Animal-Drawn Carriages, Buggies and Wagons||
Horse-drawn buggies or wagons and other animal-drawn carriages have been used by the Plain Communities as the primary means of transportation for generations. Equestrian sports and tourism business enterprises have also increased the number of horse-drawn carriages on streets and highways.
|Nov 4, 2014||3006-1454 (BSE-184NP)|
|Driving Safely in Plain Communities||Nov 6, 2017||3102-1533 (BSE-219NP)|
|Preparing for an Emergency: The Smart Thing to Do||
Preparing for emergencies is not new. Your grandparents probably have extra supplies, such as: soap and shampoo in the bathroom closets, onions and potatoes stored in the basement, and canned goods on pantry shelves in their home. They understood the value of having a little extra on hand in case of emergencies.
|Oct 1, 2014||3104-1590 (VCE-467NP/VCE-468NP)|
|Virginia Agriculture - Relating to Farmers||Nov 8, 2017||3104-1591 (BSE-218NP)|
|Preventing Falls In and Around Homes||Nov 3, 2017||3307-1592 (BSE-217NP)|
|Preventing Work Place Falls||Nov 3, 2017||3307-1593 (BSE-220NP)|
|Questions to Ask When Purchasing Water Treatment Equipment||May 1, 2009||356-480|
|Household Water Quality: Water Quality Problems - Causes and Treatments||May 1, 2009||356-482|
|Microalgae as a Feedstock for Biofuel Production||Feb 9, 2011||442-886|
|Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations||May 1, 2009||424-053|
|Urban Stormwater: Terms and Definitions||Sep 5, 2013||426-119 (BSE-78P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Disconnection||Sep 5, 2013||426-120 (BSE-93P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 2: Sheet Flow to Open Space||
Sheet flow to open space (SOS) is a group of best management practices (BMPs) designed to disperse concentrated runoff to sheet flow into filter strips or a riparian buffer. An SOS reduces runoff volume and associated sediment and nutrients that are carried with it (see figure 1). It is used as a stormwater treatment practice in both urban and rural areas. This practice is often used after another treatment practice to disperse or eliminate runoff. In a few cases, an SOS can be used as a pretreatment to remove small amounts of sediment via a vegetated filter strip — prior to a bioretention device, for example.
|Sep 6, 2013||426-121 (BSE-83P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 3: Grass Channels||Sep 6, 2013||426-122 (BSE-88P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 4: Soil Restoration||
Soil restoration (SR) is the technique of enhancing compacted soils to improve their porosity and nutrient retention. It includes biological (worms) and mechanical aeration, mechanical loosening (tilling), planting dense vegetation, and applying soil amendments. Soil amendments involve the spreading and mixing of mature compost into disturbed and compacted urban soils (see Figure 1).
|Sep 6, 2013||426-123 (BSE-80P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 5: Vegetated Roofs||
A vegetated roof (VR) is a best management practice (BMP) that reduces stormwater runoff and pollution. Vegetation and media create a permeable system on a previously impervious surface. The VR intercepts rainfall and filters runoff while reducing the volume and velocity. Vegetated roofs consist of a waterproofing barrier, drainage system, and engineered growing media. There are two types of VRs: intensive and extensive. Intensive vegetated roofs are deeper and heavier, while extensive vegetated roofs are shallower, lighter, and more common (see Figure 1). The type of VR determines the amount of maintenance necessary to maintain the vegetation.
|Sep 6, 2013||426-124 (BSE-81P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 6: Rainwater Harvesting||
Rainwater harvesting (RWH), also known as rainwater harvesting systems or cisterns, are devices that intercept, divert, store, and release collected roof runoff from rainfall for later use as an alternative water supply (see figure 1). RWH can also be designed to provide runoff reduction benefits. Therefore, it is classified as a best management practice (BMP) for treatment of urban stormwater. Because of its dual purpose and benefit, RWH is often classified as a sustainable urban BMP.
|Sep 6, 2013||426-125 (BSE-90P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 7: Permeable Pavement||
Permeable pavement (PP) is a modified form of asphalt or concrete with a top layer that is pervious to water due to voids intentionally created during mixing. PPs include pervious concrete, porous asphalt, and interlocking concrete pavers. These materials are used as stormwater treatment practices in urban areas. They are used in place of traditionally impervious surfaces to allow infiltration and storage, thus reducing runoff (see figure 1).
|Sep 6, 2013||426-126 (BSE-84P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 8: Infiltration Practices||
Infiltration practices provide temporary surface and/or subsurface storage, allowing infiltration of runoff into soils. In practice, an excavated trench is usually filled with gravel or stone media, where runoff is stored in pore spaces or voids between the stones (see figure 1). These systems can reduce significant quantities of stormwater by enhancing infiltration, as well as provide filtering and adsorption of pollutants within the stone media and soils. Infiltration practices are part of a group of stormwater treatment practices, also known as best management practices (BMPs)
|Mar 2, 2012||426-127 (BSE-85P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 9: Bioretention||
A bioretention cell, or rain garden, is a best management practice (BMP) designed to treat stormwater runoff from roofs, driveways, walkways, or lawns. They are a shallow, landscaped depression that receives and treats polluted stormwater with the goal of discharging water of a quality and quantity similar to that of a forested watershed (figure 1).
|Sep 6, 2013||426-128(BSE-92P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 10: Dry Swale||
A dry swale (DS) is a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad, vegetated, side slopes. Water flow is slowed by a series of check dams (see figure 1). A DS provides temporary storage, filtration, and infiltration of stormwater runoff. Dry swales function similarly to bioretention, and are comparable to wet swales; however, unlike a wet swale, a DS should remain dry during periods of no rainfall. A DS is an engineered best management practice (BMP) that is designed to reduce pollution through runoff reduction and pollutant removal and is part of a site’s stormwater treatment practice (see figure 2).
|Sep 6, 2013||426-129 (BSE-86P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 11: Wet Swale||
A wet swale (WS) is an engineered, best management practice (BMP) arranged in a straight line that is designed to reduce stormwater pollution. A WS consists of a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad, vegetated, side slopes and slow flows (see figure 1). Wet swales typically stay wet because the bottom of the swale is below the water table. This is done to encourage the growth of wetland vegetation, providing water quality treatment similar to a natural wetland. This stormwater treatment practice also functions as part of the stormwater conveyance system. Wet swales have a relatively low capital cost; however, maintenance can be is intensive and expensive when compared to other BMPs.
|Sep 9, 2013||426-130 (BSE-89P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 12: Filtering Practices||
A stormwater filtering practice (FP) treats stormwater runoff by passing it through an engineered filter media consisting of either sand, gravel, organic matter, and/ or a proprietary manufactured product, collecting it in an underdrain, and then discharging the effluent to a stormwater conveyance system. FPs are stormwater treatment practices that are often obtained from the marketplace due to unique proprietary technologies (see figure 1).
|Sep 9, 2013||426-131 (BSE-87P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 13: Constructed Wetlands||
A constructed wetland (CW) is a low-cost and sustainable, engineered, best management practice (BMP) designed to reduce stormwater pollution. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the most reliable stormwater treatment practices. They are designed to function similarly to a self-sustaining natural wetland, and should require only moderate maintenance to function (figure 1).
|Sep 9, 2013||426-132 (BSE-91P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 14: Wet Ponds||
Wet ponds (WP) are ponds or lakes which provide treatment and storage of stormwater. The water depth is set by a structure known as an outlet structure. Wet ponds are probably the most well-known best management practice for treatment of stormwater. Because of their size, they are usually designed to include storage above the normal pool elevation. This added storage can provide reductions in downstream flooding and assist in protecting stream channels. They tend to be large; in some cases, they can become a passive community amenity (See Figure 1).
|Sep 9, 2013||426-133 (BSE-79P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 15: Extended Detention Ponds||
Extended detention ponds (EDs) are dry detention ponds that provide 12 to 24 hours of runoff storage during peak runoff events (see figure 1). Releases from the ED ponds are controlled by an outlet structure. During a storm event, as the discharge restriction is reached, water backs up into the ED pond. The pool slows flow velocities and enables particulate pollutants to settle. Peak flows are also reduced. ED ponds have the lowest overall pollutant- removal rate of any stormwater treatment option, so they are often combined with other upstream, lowimpact development (LID) practices to better maximize pollutant-removal rates. Due to their placement at the exit point of the watershed, ED is often the last opportunity to treat stormwater before it is discharged to a stream. Because of its low treatment performance, an ED should be viewed as the treatment option of last resort.
|Sep 9, 2013||426-134 (BSE-82P)|
|Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter||May 1, 2009||442-004|
|Droplet Chart / Selection Guide||
When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.
|Sep 25, 2014||442-031 (BSE-149P)|
|Nozzles: Selection and Sizing||
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
|Jan 31, 2014||442-032 (BSE-103P)|
|Composting Dead Poultry||May 1, 2009||442-037|
|Troubleshooting Poultry Mortality Composters||May 1, 2009||442-038|
|Storing and Handling Poultry Litter||May 1, 2009||442-054|
|Curing Quality Peanuts in Virginia||Feb 28, 2019||442-062 (BSE-246P)|
|Using Tractor Test Data for Selecting Farm Tractors||
The Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory (NTTL) at the University of Nebraska is the official U.S. tractor testing station for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This laboratory has the responsibility for testing all models of tractors sold in the state of Nebraska, and it publishes the results of all tests it conducts. It also tests tractors manufactured in the United States and sold in international markets.
|Mar 11, 2015||442-072 (BSE-176P)|
|Predicting Tractor Diesel Fuel Consumption||
Ability to predict tractor fuel consumption is very useful for budgeting and management. The objective of this factsheet is to develop relationships using field measurements and Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory results to estimate tractor fuel consumption. Using these equations, farmers can estimate and compare the fuel consumption for different operating and loading conditions.
|Oct 14, 2014||442-073 (BSE-175P)|
|Arthritis and Farming||Aug 19, 2014||442-083 (BSE-139P)|
|Assistive Technologies in Agriculture||
In terms of work-related injuries, farming remains one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. In 2012, 374 farmers and farm workers died from a work-related injury, resulting in a fatality rate of 20.2 deaths per 100,000 farm workers – from accidents resulting from agriculture-related activities (NIOSH 2014). Statistics also reveal that agriculture-related activities result in nonfatal injuries. For example, in 2006, crop and animal-production activities resulted in 22,400 and 13,100 injuries, respectively (U.S. Department of Labor 2006). These nonfatal injuries may include primary as well as secondary injuries.
|Dec 3, 2014||442-084 (BSE-183P)|
|Preventing Secondary Injuries in Agricultural Workplaces||
The intent of this fact sheet is to reduce the number of secondary injuries by familiarizing the readers with secondary injuries and the steps they can adopt to minimize them. In addition to identifying common secondary injuries and the most vulnerable groups, the publication discusses steps that can be taken to prevent such injuries. The fact sheet also provides a list of agencies that farmers can contact for assistance when they experience secondary injuries.
|Aug 8, 2014||442-085 (BSE-150P)|
|Machinery Safety on the Farm||
Machines; no farm or ranch can function without them. They save valuable time and are essential to agricultural productivity. They also represent an ever-present danger to the people who operate them. There are a host of hazards that makes agricultural machinery the leading cause of injury and death on American farms and ranches.
|Dec 3, 2014||442-092 (BSE-179P)|
|Safe Operation of Compact Tractors||
Follow these safety tips and maintenance procedures for checking, servicing, and operating compact tractors to extend their life and reduce breakdowns and accidents.
|Aug 8, 2014||442-093 (BSE-148P)|
|Site Selection for Dairy Housing Systems||May 1, 2009||442-096|
|Determining Forage Moisture Concentration||May 1, 2009||442-106|
|Compost Bedded-pack Dairy Barns||May 16, 2018||442-124 (BSE-228P)|
|Fencing Materials For Livestock Systems||May 1, 2009||442-131|
|Nutrient Management for Small Farms||Dec 17, 2018||442-305 (BSE-241P)|
|Selecting a Treatment Technology for Manure Management||
Animal manure has been used for centuries as a fertilizer and a soil builder because it contains nutrients and organic matter. However, as animal production shifts toward fewer but larger operations, the number of confined animals has increased in some geographical locations, resulting in more manure produced than can be assimilated by the available farmland where the animals are raised.
|Dec 19, 2018||442-306 (BSE-242P)|
|Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage||Jan 17, 2019||442-307 (BSE-243P)|
|Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage: Management and Safety||Jan 16, 2019||442-308 (BSE-244P)|
|Manure Management and Environmental Stewardship||Jan 16, 2019||442-309 (BSE-245NP)|
|Biochar in Agricultural Systems||Aug 20, 2010||442-311|
|“Gear Up and Throttle Down” to Save Fuel||
“Gear-up and throttle-down” (GUTD) is a fuel-saving practice that can be used for saving fuel when drawbar loads are lighter (<75 percent of rated power) and PTO (power takeoff) speed can be reduced.
|Oct 9, 2014||442-450 (BSE-177P)|
|Five Strategies for Extending Machinery Life||
Machinery ownership and operation is a major crop and livestock production cost. Several strategies when combined can significantly affect costs, improve machine reliability, and improve profit margins.
|Oct 9, 2014||442-451 (BSE-174P)|
|Plumbing Systems of Agricultural Sprayers||
The plumbing systems of agricultural sprayers are usually considered foolproof. Sprayer problems may occur if plumbing and/or modifications are improperly done or maintenance is ignored. Retrofitting, addition of electrical control systems, and replacement of pumps or nozzles require proper knowledge of the plumbing system and the implications of these changes to sprayer performance. Routine maintenance of the plumbing system is essential.
|Oct 1, 2014||442-452 (BSE-171P)|
|Fine Tuning a Sprayer with “Ounce” Calibration Method||
This extension publication discusses guidelines to quickly evaluate the performance of a sprayer. Sprayer calibration, nozzle discharge, spray pattern uniformity, speed checks, pump performance, and plumbing arrangements are evaluated with minimal calculations.
|Dec 3, 2014||442-453 (BSE-178P)|
|Management Tips for Round Bale Hay Harvesting, Moving, and Storage||
Hay production and feeding is one of the most expensive components of forage-livestock systems. Specific management practices are necessary to maintain hay quality and minimize hay loss during harvest, transportation and storage of large round bales.
|Oct 9, 2014||442-454 (BSE-173P)|
|Large Round Bale Safety||
This Extension publication covers the safety aspects of equipment used in large round bale packages such as: balers, front-end loaders, bale handling and transport devices. The key to safe and efficient systems for handling large round bales is an operator who knows the hazards involved and who follows safety practices that can prevent accidents. Operators must be constantly alert for situations that may cause injuries to themselves or others. Besides pain and suffering, accidents contribute to higher costs in terms of unnecessary downtime or costly machine repairs. Alertness and safety consciousness can result in more efficient and profitable baling and handling.
|Oct 13, 2014||442-455 (BSE-172P)|
|Planter/Drill Considerations for Conservation Tillage Systems||
No-till planters and drills must be able to cut and handle residue, penetrate the soil to the proper seeding depth, and establish good seed-to-soil contact. Many different soil conditions can be present in the Mid-Atlantic region at planting time. Moist soils covered with residue, which may also be wet, can dominate during the late fall and early spring and, occasionally, in the summer. Although this condition provides an ideal environment for seed germination, it can make it difficult to cut through the residue. In contrast, hard and dry conditions may also prevail. Although cutting residue is easier during dry conditions, it is more difficult to penetrate the hard, dry soils. Proper timing, equipment selection and adjustments, and crop management can overcome these difficult issues.
|Aug 8, 2014||442-457 (BSE-147P)|
|Respiratory Protection in Agriculture||
Farm workers can encounter a variety of respiratory problems ranging from temporary discomfort caused by allergic reactions to fatal asphyxiation. However, the risk of contracting serious lung diseases or death can be significantly decreased by using respiratory protection (fig. 1). See the sidebar for a list of farm work that requires respiratory protection.
|Jul 1, 2014||442-601 (BSE-140P)|
|Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness||
Farmers account for more than 30 percent of adults dis- abled by respiratory illness. Yet, a large percentage of farmers are nonsmokers. If smoking is not to blame for these ailments, then what is? The answer is farmer’s lung.
|Aug 18, 2014||442-602 (BSE-141P)|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Iron and Manganese in Household Water||Dec 2, 2011||442-656|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Heavy Metals in Household Water||Dec 2, 2011||442-657|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Sulfate and Hydrogen Sulfide in Household Water||Dec 2, 2011||442-658|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Nitrate in Household Water||Dec 2, 2011||442-659|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Fluoride in Household Water||Dec 2, 2011||442-660|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Sodium and Chloride in Household Drinking Water||Dec 2, 2011||442-661|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Bacteria and Other Microorganisms in Household Water||May 17, 2011||442-662|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Shock Chlorination: Disinfecting Private Household Water Supply Systems||May 17, 2011||442-663|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Hardness in Household Water||May 17, 2011||442-664|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Corrosive Household Water||May 17, 2011||442-665|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in Household Water||May 17, 2011||442-666|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Household Water Treatment||Aug 22, 2013||442-670 (BSE-75P)|
|Planning for a Farm Storage Building||Mar 8, 2019||442-760 (BSE-248P)|
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be made from vegetable oil, animal fat, and recycled cooking oils. Oils produced from algae, fungi, bacteria, molds, and yeast can also be used to produce biodiesel.
|Jan 14, 2015||442-880 (BSE-180P)|
|Biomethane Production Technology||Dec 17, 2018||442-881 (BSE-240P)|
|Investing in GPS Guidance Systems?||May 26, 2009||448-076|
|Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation||
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose.
|Aug 29, 2018||452-014 (SPES-1)|
|Virginia Citizen’s Guide to Environmental Credit Trading Programs: An Overview||May 4, 2016||ANR-173P|
|2017 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||
The primary considerations when selecting peanut varieties are yield, grade factors, disease, pests, and drought and heat response. A good practice is recording for each field the variety, yield, rainfall, and disease and insect incidence every year. This will allow producers to identify the most productive and less problematic fields, also the most productive varieties for each field.
|Jan 6, 2017||AREC-197NP|
|2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||
The primary considerations when selecting peanut varieties are yield, grade factors, disease, pests, and drought and heat response. A good practice is recording for each field the variety, yield, rainfall, and disease and insect incidence every year. This will allow producers to identify the most productive and less problematic fields, also the most productive varieties for each field.
|May 2, 2014||AREC-58NP|
|Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture||
In this publication, information is presented on how to increase farm productivity while potentially reducing greenhouse gas* (GHG) contributions from agricultural production. Some of the practices may be familiar to many producers, such as building soil organic matter (SOM) or increasing nitrogen fertilization efficiency, but many producers may not know that these same productivity-boosting activities also help to reduce GHG emissions and their impact on climate change. While informative to the producer, this publication will also inform those with an interest in both agriculture and the environmental impact of GHG emissions on the atmosphere.
|Apr 2, 2014||BSE-105P|
|Climate Change Adaptation for Agriculture: Mitigating Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Climate on Crop Production||
Climate change and climate variability pose a great risk to agricultural production and farm livelihoods, and producers will need to adapt to a changing climate that is expected to be significantly more variable in order to meet these challenges.
|Sep 24, 2014||BSE-109P|
Greywater is any household wastewater other than that used for toilet flushing. This water could be reused around the home (for purposes other than drinking water). An example of greywater use is landscape irrigation. Wastewater that comes in contact with human waste is referred to as blackwater. However, the definition of greywater varies according to state regulations.
|Apr 30, 2014||BSE-114NP|
|Using Reclaimed Water||
Reclaimed water, sometimes referred to as “water reuse” or “recycled water,” is water recovered from domestic, municipal, or industrial wastewater treatment plants that has been treated to standards that allow it to be safely used for designated purposes. Reclaimed water should not be confused with “wastewater,” untreated liquid industrial waste or domestic sewage. However, “gray water,” untreated water from bathing or washing, is considered one form of wastewater (Water Reuse, VCE Publication 452-014).
|Apr 30, 2014||BSE-115NP|
|Rainwater Harvesting Systems||
Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting, storing, and later reusing rainwater from surfaces such as roofs. Rainwater harvesting has long been used for agricultural irrigation and as a source of drinking water, and allowed ancient civilizations to flourish in semi-arid and arid regions. Rainwater harvesting systems are in use today in many water-limited locations, especially in several western US regions. As population growth increases pressure on water resources in the more humid eastern US, rainwater harvesting is being considered to reduce the demand for potable water.
|May 9, 2014||BSE-116NP|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Landscaping and Energy Efficiency?||
Landscaping has always played an important role in modifying the home environment for thermal comfort. Throughout the history of civilization, housing has been designed to offer protection from the most severe conditions imaginable. Until the invention of mechanical cooling and heating systems, people relied heavily on their ability to modify their surroundings to deal with extreme climates.
|Jul 7, 2014||BSE-145NP|
|Household Water Quality in Albemarle County, Virginia||
In April 2013, residents from Albemarle County participated in a drinking water clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program. Clinic participants received a confidential water sample analysis and attended educational meetings where they learned how to interpret their water test results and address potential issues. According to survey data collected, 67 samples were tested, serving 156 individuals. The most common household water quality issues identified were lead and sodium, as well as the presence of acidic water and total coliform bacteria. The figure found at the end of this report shows these common water quality issues along with basic information on standards, causes, and treatment options.
|Aug 14, 2014||BSE-151NP|
|Household Water Quality in Caroline County, Virginia||
In October 2013, residents from Caroline County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program. Clinic participants received a confidential water sample analysis and attended educational meetings where they learned how to interpret their water test results and how to address potential issues. According to survey data, 41 samples were tested, serving 94 individuals. The most common household water quality issues identified were high levels of lead and sodium, as well as the presence of acidic water and total coliform bacteria.
|Aug 19, 2014||BSE-152NP|
|Household Water Quality in Floyd County, Virginia||
In March 2013, residents from Floyd County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Aug 29, 2014||BSE-153NP|
|Household Water Quality in Franklin County, Virginia||
In October 2013, residents from Franklin County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 2, 2014||BSE-154NP|
|Household Water Quality in Goochland and Powhatan Counties, Virginia||
In February 2013, residents from Goochland and Powhatan Counties participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 3, 2014||BSE-155NP|
|Household Water Quality in Halifax County, Virginia||
In August 2013, residents from Halifax County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 3, 2014||BSE-156NP|
|Household Water Quality in Hanover County, Virginia||
In April 2013, residents from Hanover County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program
|Sep 3, 2014||BSE-157NP|
|Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia||
In October 2013, residents from Loudoun County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 5, 2014||BSE-158NP|
|Household Water Quality in Montgomery County, Virginia||
In March 2013, residents from Montgomery County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 5, 2014||BSE-159NP|
|Household Water Quality in New Kent and Charles City Counties, Virginia||
In July 2013, residents from New Kent and Charles City Counties participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 5, 2014||BSE-160NP|
|Household Water Quality in Nottoway County, Virginia||
In September 2013, residents from Nottoway County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 5, 2014||BSE-161NP|
|Household Water Quality in Pittsylvania County, Virginia||
In October 2013, residents from Pittsylvania County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension(VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 5, 2014||BSE-162NP|
|Household Water Quality in Pulaski and Wythe Counties Virginia||
In May 2013, residents from Pulaski and Wythe Counties participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 8, 2014||BSE-163NP|
|Household Water Quality in Roanoke County, Virginia||
In May 2013, residents from Roanoke County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 8, 2014||BSE-164NP|
|Household Water Quality in Clarke County, Virginia||
In June 2013, residents from Clarke County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 8, 2014||BSE-166NP|
|Household Water Quality in Shenandoah County, Virginia||
In June 2013, residents from Shenandoah County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the localVirginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 8, 2014||BSE-167NP|
|Household Water Quality in Warren County, Virginia||
In June 2013, residents from Warren County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 8, 2014||BSE-168NP|
|Household Water Quality in Page County, Virginia||
In June 2013, residents from Page County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program. Erin Ling, Water Quality Extension Associate, and Brian Benham, Extension Specialist and Professor, Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Tech
|Sep 8, 2014||BSE-169NP|
|Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia||
In June 2013, residents from Frederick County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension(VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
|Sep 9, 2014||BSE-170NP|
|Parkinson’s Disease - Life Experiences||
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a part of your life whether you have it or if someone you love has it. In either case, it has already changed certain parts of your life whether you know it or not and the changes will continue to happen in varying degrees over time. Two things are certain with PD, you will progress and it will be at your own pace. Everything else is up for grabs!
|Oct 17, 2014||BSE-181NP|
|Grape Production Injuries and Prevention||
Grape acreage and production have been steadily increasing in the US. In 2010 there were approximately 23,000 farms with a total of 944,800 acres producing grapes. Ninety percent of these farms are smaller than 100 acres and about 16,000 of these were vineyards. California accounts for about 90% of the total production in the US. The next two largest grape producing states are Washington and New York and they produce approximately 6% and 2% respectively (NASS-USDA, 2014)
|Jun 30, 2015||BSE-186NP|
|IMPACT: Virginia Household Water Quality Program||
One in five Virginians, or nearly 1.7 million people, rely on private water supplies such as wells, springs, and cisterns for their household water. In the U.S., municipal systems are regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act, which requires routine water testing and treatment.
|Jul 23, 2015||BSE-187NP|
|Hydrology Basics and the Hydrologic Cycle||
This fact sheet presents and explains some common concepts in hydrology and the hydrologic cycle. The science or study of hydrology focuses on the distribution, occurrence, circulation, and properties of water in the environment.
|Nov 9, 2015||BSE-191P|
|Soil and Soil Water Relationships||
This publication presents and discusses concepts that are fundamental to understanding soil, water, and plant relationships and the soil water balance. Knowledge about soil water relationships can inform the decision-making process in agricultural operations or natural resource management, such as determining what crops to plant, when to plant them, and when various management practices should be scheduled. Understanding these concepts is useful for addressing both agronomic and policy issues related to agricultural water management.Zachary M. Easton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech Emily Bock, Graduate Research Assistant, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
|Mar 22, 2016||BSE-194P|
|Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia||
In the Commonwealth of Virginia, water resources are increasingly being scrutinized due to changing surface water or groundwater availability. Access to good quality water is a continuing concern, and in many communities, managing water use — particularly consumptive use — is a priority to conserve public water supplies to meet the needs of a growing population.
|Sep 23, 2016||BSE-198P|
|Communicating Climate Change to Agricultural Audiences||
The objectives of this publication are (1) to outline some climate-related challenges facing agriculture, (2) to address challenges in communicating climate change issues, and (3) to propose best practices when attempting to communicate climate change issues to agricultural stakeholders. Extension educators and agricultural service providers can use the information presented here to develop outreach and educational programs focused on the impacts of climate change, the effects of climate change on agricultural production, and the best ways to motivate behavior change.
|Nov 15, 2016||BSE-203P|
|Factors When Considering an Agricultural Drainage System||Feb 23, 2017||BSE-208P|
|Household Water Quality: Emergency Supplies of Water for Drinking and Food Preparation||Nov 17, 2016||BSE-209NP|
|Indicators Of Lead In Well Water||Dec 13, 2016||BSE-210NP|
|How Do Stream Buffers Reduce the Offsite Impact of Pollution?||Nov 3, 2017||BSE-38NP (BSE-216NP)|
|Lawn Care: Hand Tools Safety||
Many hand tools such as shovels, hoes, rakes, trimmers, and pruners are widely used in lawn care and landscaping. While these tools appear to be harmless, when used improperly, they can cause injuries that sometimes require medical treatment. In 2006, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported nearly 205,000 cases of injuries and/or illnesses resulting from the use of hand tools.
|Nov 5, 2013||BSE-40NP (BSE-98P)|
|Lawn Care: Powered Hand Tool Safety||
In addition to mowers and hand tools, several powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in landscaping work. These machines can be dangerous if they are used improperly. A past study has shown that string trimmers and edgers alone cause more than 4,600 injuries that require emergency room treatment each year. About one-third of these cases are eye injuries.
|Nov 6, 2013||BSE-41NP (BSE-97P)|
|Lawn Care: Rotary Mower Safety||Nov 5, 2013||BSE-42NP (BSE-96P)|
|Lawn Care: Tractor Safety||
Most tractors used in landscaping, lawn care, and golf course maintenance are compact tractors in the 20 to 40 horsepower range. Although these tractors are considerably smaller than farm tractors, they are susceptible to the same types of accidents, with potential for serious injuries or deaths. Causes for such serious accidents are often the same in both cases, and therefore, the steps to take to avoid the accidents are the same.
|Nov 5, 2013||BSE-43NP (BSE-100P)|
|Lawn Care: Utility-Type Vehicle Safety||
Utility-type vehicles are popular, multipurpose equipment used for different applications in the lawn care industry. Their hauling capability and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications.
|Nov 5, 2013||BSE-44NP (BSE-99P)|
|Guidelines for Protecting Youth Workers: Promote Safe Practices and Protect Youth Workers||
A large number of teenage workers in the U.S. engage in summer jobs for reasons such as personal development, gaining work experience, developing work skills, and generating funds for furthering their education and for spending money.
|Aug 13, 2014||BSE-46NP (BSE-107P)|
|Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide||
Mowing lawns continues to be one of the most popular summer job opportunities for youth given the affordable cost and ease in operation of most rotary mowers. However, easy access and widespread use of mowers often creates a false sense of security among the users of these machines. Data from a seven-year period (1996-2003) showed the highest rate of hospitalization from lawn mower injuries was for youth workers ages 15 to 19. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that more than 37,000 riding mower injuries occurred from 2003 through 2005 alone. During the same period, there were 95 fatalities due to riding mower tip-over. The purpose of this training guide is to reduce the number of mower accidents and injuries by familiarizing young workers with rotary mowers and their safe operation.
|Aug 12, 2014||BSE-47P (BSE-110P)|
|Tractor Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide, Safe Use of Tractors||
Tractors are versatile equipment used in a variety of jobs ranging from hauling goods to lawn care to agriculture. While they are extremely versatile, they can be very dangerous unless they are used with care following safe practices
|Sep 25, 2014||BSE-48NP (BSE-111P)|
|Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide||
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
|Jun 6, 2014||BSE-49NP (BSE-108P)|
|Powered Hand Tools Safety: Lawncare Training Guide||
In addition to rotary mowers, many powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in lawn care. While these devices are very useful in making jobs easier and more efficient, they can be dangerous if used without proper training and care. In 1989 the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that power lawn trimmers and edgers alone have caused about 4,600 injuries annually that required medical attention. About one-third of these were eye-related.
|Sep 24, 2014||BSE-50P (BSE-112P)|
|Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide Hand Tool Care and Safe Use||
Many hand tools such as rakes, shovels, and pruners are used widely in lawn care operations. While these non-powered tools are not known to cause major injuries, they have the potential for injuries that may require absence from work and/or medical assistance when they are used improperly.
|Sep 15, 2014||BSE-51P (BSE-113P)|
|Denitrification Management||Mar 27, 2018||BSE-54P (BSE-223P)|
|Denitrifying Bioreaders: An Emerging Best Management Practice to Improve Water Quality||Apr 25, 2018||BSE-55P (BSE-227P)|
|Tractor-Mounted Lifts||Jun 18, 2018||BSE-58NP (BSE-230NP)|
|Tractor-Mounted Vertical Lifts||Jun 22, 2018||BSE-59NP (BSE-232NP)|
|Tractor-Mounted Inclined Lifts||Jun 22, 2018||BSE-60NP (BSE-231NP)|
|Innovative Best Management Fact Sheet No. 1: Floating Treatment Wetlands||Aug 28, 2013||BSE-76P|
|Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems||
Wastewater is a significant source of carbon, sediment, nutrients, pathogens, and other potential pollutants. Reducing the quantity of these contaminants before they are discharged to either groundwater or surface water is essential to preserve or enhance water quality in receiving waters. This is accomplished through the installation of wastewater treatment and collection systems. The form of these systems can vary substantially. In Virginia, they range in size from 5,000 to 50,000 gallons per day; 49 percent are public systems and the remainder are private (Parten 2008).
|Jul 10, 2014||BSE-77P|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program, Water Sample||Sep 16, 2013||BSE-95NP|