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Warm-Season Annual Grasses for Summer Forage
Virginia’s cool-season grass pastures are highly productive in the spring and fall, but high temperatures and short-term drought stress often limit their growth during summer months. Incorporating warm-season grasses can be a beneficial strategy for meeting feed resources during this period of forage deficit.
Apr 18, 2024 418-004 (SPES-593P)
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer Aug 30, 2019 418-142
Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia Dec 19, 2018 424-006 (SPES-81P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023 Dec 11, 2023 424-100 (SPES-299P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part I. Crop Descriptions Dec 15, 2023 424-100-A (SPES-299P-A)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part II. Forage Crops Dec 15, 2023 424-100-B (SPES-299P-B)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part III. Turfgrass Dec 15, 2023 424-100-C (SPES-299P-C)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part IV. Seed Facts Dec 15, 2023 424-100-D (SPES-299P-D)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part V. Seeds and Stored Grains Dec 15, 2023 424-100-E (SPES-299P-E)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part VI. Soils of Virginia Dec 15, 2023 424-100-F (SPES-299P-F)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part VII. Soil Health Management Dec 18, 2023 424-100-G (SPES-299P-G)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part VIII. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis Dec 18, 2023 424-100-H (SPES-299P-H)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part X. Lime: Common Soil Additives To Raise Soil pH in Virginia Dec 18, 2023 424-100-J (SPES-299P-J)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XI. Fertilizing With Manures Dec 18, 2023 424-100-K (SPES-299P-K)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XII. Land Application of Biosolids Dec 18, 2023 424-100-L (SPES-299P-L)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XIII. Weeds and Weed Management Dec 18, 2023 424-100-M (SPES-299P-M)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XIV. Nutritional Composition of Feeds Dec 18, 2023 424-100-N (SPES-299P-N)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XV. Diagnostic Laboratory Services Dec 18, 2023 424-100-O (SPES-299P-O)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XVI. Commonly Used Weights and Measures Dec 18, 2023 424-100-P (SPES-299P-P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XVII. Calibration of Sprayers Dec 18, 2023 424-100-Q (SPES-299P-Q)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part IX. Conversion Factors Needed for Common Fertilizer Calculations Dec 18, 2023 424-100-I (SPES-299P-I)
Determining Forage Moisture Concentration
Harvesting and storing forage at the proper moisture concentration is essential to producing a high-quality product. Ideally, hay forage should have a moisture concentration between 15 percent and 18 percent during baling. Hay baled at higher moisture levels is subject to heat damage, dry-matter loss, mold spoilage, and hay fires. Protein and total digestible nutrient losses are increased for hay baled at lower moisture levels. Baling at the proper moisture level is critical to making quality hay, especially for larger bales (round and square) since moisture and heat dissipate more slowly in comparison to smaller bales.
Jul 2, 2020 442-106(BSE-330P)
Management Tips for Round Bale Hay Harvesting, Moving, and Storage
Hay production and feeding is one of the most expensive components of forage-livestock systems. Specific management practices are necessary to maintain hay quality and minimize hay loss during harvest, transportation and storage of large round bales.
Jul 1, 2020 442-454 (BSE-332P)
Large Round Bale Safety
This Extension publication covers the safety aspects of equipment used in large round bale packages such as: balers, front-end loaders, bale handling and transport devices. The key to safe and efficient systems for handling large round bales is an operator who knows the hazards involved and who follows safety practices that can prevent accidents. Operators must be constantly alert for situations that may cause injuries to themselves or others. Besides pain and suffering, accidents contribute to higher costs in terms of unnecessary downtime or costly machine repairs. Alertness and safety consciousness can result in more efficient and profitable baling and handling.
May 26, 2020 442-455 (BSE-331P)
Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
Sep 9, 2019 452-702 (CSES-100P)
Soil Test Note No.3 - Liming and Fertilization of Cool-Season Forage Crops Aug 30, 2019 452-703
Powell River Project - Revegetation Species and Practices
This publication describes procedures for revegetating surface coal mine reclamation sites with grasses and herbaceous legumes.
Jul 28, 2023 460-122 (CSES-210P)
AgrAbility Virginia Program Evaluation Brief: 2021 Survey & Interview Results Jun 29, 2021 ALCE-255NP
Taste of Farming: Grazing Math Apr 1, 2022 ALCE-296-11
Taste of Farming: Agroforestry Apr 4, 2022 ALCE-296-13
Silvopasture Systems for Broiler Chickens: Ranging Behavior and Range Use
Domesticated chickens, like their ancestor the Jungle Fowl, will range outdoors when given the opportunity, especially when given shelter or natural overhead cover from bushes and trees. Poultry flocks that get the opportunity to range outdoors can benefit in terms of health and behavioral opportunities. However, many factors impact ranging behavior, including shelters, weather, time of day, early life experiences, fear, group size and genetics. Here we focus on one component that could stimulate poultry to use the range more, which is to provide natural vegetation other than grass.
May 23, 2024 APSC-198P
Managing Irrigation with Saline Water May 9, 2023 BSE-348P
Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes May 6, 2021 CSES-146P
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
Apr 20, 2021 CSES-155P
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Planting Trees in Pastures May 1, 2023 CSES-185P
Using a Summer Stockpiling System to Extend the Grazing Season Nov 14, 2017 CSES-201NP
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems May 1, 2023 CSES-22P (SPES-5P)
Pest Alert: Asian Longhorned Beetle Apr 17, 2023 ENTO-556NP
Tall Fescue, Endophytes and Alkaloids, and Fescue Toxicosis Apr 12, 2019 SPES-114P
Converting Pastures to Native Warm Season Grasses: Forage for Drought in Bedford County Mar 31, 2020 SPES-196NP
Sampling Tall Fescue for Endophyte Infection and Ergot Alkaloid Concentration
Endophyte-infected tall fescue is the dominant forages in Virginia. As such, it is imperative to manage this important forage resource wisely. Ergot alkaloids produced by fescue’s fungal endophyte create challenges to accomplishing this. Tests for endophyte presence and alkaloid levels are important management tools that producers can use to minimize alkaloid consumption and the negative impacts of on animal performance. Consistent testing methods are important for adequately assessing alkaloid levels and for making comparisons among pastures over time. These results then can be used to develop a custom grazing strategy to avoid severe incidences of fescue toxicosis. Repeated testing during a grazing season can help determine possible benefits to pasture renovation or addition of legumes. Similar to testing forages for nutrient concentrations and devising a winter feeding and supplement plan, testing fescue-based pastures for endophyte infection level and for ergot alkaloid concentrations at various times during the year can facilitate management to reduce alkaloid consumption and also help determine if further mitigation is needed.
Aug 1, 2024 SPES-21P
Soil, Conservation and Place -- C.J. Isbell of Keenbell Farm Jun 8, 2020 SPES-216NP
Biofortification: Creating a Healthier Food Supply
Humans and livestock require a broad range of nutrients to maintain a healthy diet. However, the lack of diversity in diets due to price, geography, and availability makes it difficult to create a well-rounded food supply from staple crops. Biofortification is the process of improving the nutritional quality of food and feed through management practices, plant breeding, and genetic modification. The history, types, and implications of biofortification are discussed with an emphasis on producer, livestock, and human health considerations.
Nov 23, 2020 SPES-267P
Converting pastures to native warm season grasses: Summer forage and wildlife habitat in Caroline County Mar 5, 2021 SPES-308NP
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2021 Jun 28, 2021 SPES-335NP
2023 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 3, 2023 SPES-367NP (SPES-451NP)
Giant Hogweed: Identification and Control
This publication provides information on giant hogweed identification, including how to distinguish between look alike species, and what to do if you think you have found giant hogweed.
Jul 10, 2023 SPES-48NP (SPES-245NP)
Weed Management Planner - Before Planting Aug 2, 2023 SPES-268NP (SPES-506NP-A)
Weed Management Planner - After Planting Feb 13, 2024 SPES-268NP (SPES-570NP-B)
Chemical Options for Defruiting Young Apple Trees
Apple trees can produce plenty of fruits in the first two years of planting. If kept on the tree until harvest, these fruits would have a negative effect on tree growth and structure. Defruting newly planted and young apple trees (e.g., 2nd and 3rd leaf), particularly those on dwarfing rootstocks, allows the trees to fill their allotted bearing space and become structurally capable of bearing a decent crop by the fourth and fifth year. Although defruting can be achieved manually by removing flower clusters and small fruitlets, several chemical options can make defruting much faster and less labor-intensive. This publication aims to provide information about the rates and application timing of chemical materials apple growers can use to effectively defrut young trees.
Apr 14, 2022 SPES-396NP
Rootstock Effects on Tree Growth and Yield of ‘Honeycrisp’ Apple under Virginia State Climatic Conditions May 4, 2022 SPES-398NP
Effective Tiller Management for Winter Wheat Jan 4, 2023 SPES-431P
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2022 Dec 9, 2022 SPES-453NP
Edamame in Virginia I: Products and Marketing Mar 29, 2023 SPES-454NP
Edamame in Virginia II. Producing a High-Quality Product Apr 13, 2023 SPES-455P
2022 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research Jan 6, 2023 SPES-460NP
Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots 2022 Jan 27, 2023 SPES-477NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2022 Feb 13, 2023 SPES-478NP
Apple Blotch Disease
In this publication, we describe apple blotch disease, also known as Marssonina leaf blotch, an emerging apple disease in the Eastern United States. This disease leads to severe apple tree crown defoliation that indirectly affects the apple fruit size, color, yield and twig development. The causal gent of this disease is a fungus Diplocarpon coronariae (also known as Marssonina coronaria).
Jun 14, 2023 SPES-509NP
Converting pastures to native warm season grasses: Filling the summer forage slump in Orange County
A farmer's experience of converting a tall fescue field into native warm season grasses for improved forage production in the summertime.
Aug 11, 2023 SPES-514NP
2023 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots
This is the thirtieth year of this ongoing annual project. Further work is planned for the upcoming 2023-2024 growing season. The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by eight Virginia Cooperative Extension ANR agents, one retired agent, and the EVAREC superintendent. We are proud to present this year’s on-farm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2024.
Oct 13, 2023 SPES-523NP
Aerial multispectral imagery for high-throughput mapping of spatial corn yield potentials.
Drone-based spectral imaging is a nondestructive approach for estimating corn grain yield efficiently prior to harvest. Such spatial estimations if done early in the season could help growers to identify lower performing areas of the field. This will guide them to adopt prompt, precise and cost-effective crop management operations (e.g., irrigation, fertilizer or fungicide applications) in the same season or before/during next cropping season. Pre-harvest yield estimates would help in better planning and allocation of harvest, storage, and sales resources for higher profitability and crop value. This article summarizes a recent exploration on drone-based multispectral imagery to estimate grain yield potential of corn.
Oct 24, 2023 SPES-526NP
Native warm season grass variety trial, 2021-2023
Native warm season grasses may provide valuable forage resources for farmers in the summer months, while also providing habitat for wildlife, among other conservation benefits. This report provides the results of a three-year forage yield variety trial of 20 different cultivars and ecotypes of native warm season grasses at five different locations in Virginia.
Dec 1, 2023 SPES-562NP
Stone Burier Implement
Demonstration and explanation of operation and use of a stone burier implement for tractor. The tool buries stones in a field and makes raised beds at the same time. Burying stones prevents cultivation and planting equipment from skipping and causing loss of production. The stone burier can also be used to bury cover crops allowing quicker field turnovers.
Feb 26, 2024 SPES-572NP
Demonstrating conversion of tall fescue pastures to native warm season grasses
Native warm season grasses may provide farms with summer forage and improved animal performance, while also providing habitat for wildlife species. This paper describes the conversion process of a tall fescue-based pasture at the Southern Piedmont AREC to native warm season grasses. Subsequent beef cattle performance on this pasture was compared to cattle performance on nearby novel-endophyte tall fescue pastures, indicating the potential for good animal performance in the summer on these grasses.
Jan 4, 2024 SPES-573NP
2023 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research
These demonstration and research results are a collaborative effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, Virginia producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunities to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
Jan 12, 2024 SPES-577NP
Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots 2023
These demonstrations and replicated studies provide information that can be used by Virginia corn growers to make better management decisions on their farm. These results should be used along with data from other replicated studies when making decisions. Refer to individual location results for additional detail.
Feb 14, 2024 SPES-579NP
Control of Common Grassy Weeds in Pastures and Hayfields
This publication reviews options for controlling common grassy weeds in grass forages including chemical and cultural management options. Specific weeds are discussed in detail including johnsongrass, Japanese stiltgrass, broomsedge, and foxtail species.
Jan 17, 2024 SPES-58P (SPES-563P)
4 The Soil Feb 14, 2024 SPES-583NP
4 The Soil: A Conversation podcast Feb 14, 2024 SPES-584NP
No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes May 6, 2019 SPES-92P
VCE Ag Today: Late Summer Pasture Management Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-20NP
VCE AG Today: Understanding Soil Test Reports Apr 9, 2021 VCE-1027-43NP
VCE Ag Today: Grow Award - Winning Hay May 5, 2021 VCE-1027-47NP
VCE Ag Today: Weed Control in Pastures Nov 10, 2021 VCE-1027-55NP
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Dec 17, 2021 VTTP-2