Resources for Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Five: Understanding Ammonia Volatilization from Fertilizers
Loss of nitrogen (N) as ammonia gas (NH3) is known as volatilization. While volatilization directly from soil can occur, such loss is generally relatively small compared to the amount that can be lost from fertilizers. Volatilization losses can be significant with granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) sources, but the amount of loss varies greatly depending on placement of the fertilizer, soil pH, soil texture, and climatic conditions after application.
Sep 29, 2020 2908-1404 (SPES-264NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Six - Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Properties Nov 16, 2018 2908-1405 (SPES-78NP)
Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn Nov 16, 2018 3002-1438 (SPES-77NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Two: Nitrogen Fertilizer Injection in No-Till Systems
Liquid nitrogen fertilizers have typically been surface applied. This method of application places the fertilizer where the urea nitrogen component of the solution is susceptible to volatilization losses.
Sep 22, 2020 3011-1516 (SPES-265NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Three: Manure Injection Aug 30, 2019 3011-1517
Nitrogen Soil Testing For Corn in Virginia Feb 7, 2019 418-016 (SPES-64P)
Potassium Fertilization of Cotton May 1, 2009 418-025
Sod Source Selection, Installation, Maintenance, and Producers in Virginia
While high-quality sod is available outside of the VCIA-certified sod program, the consumer is encouraged to be aware of factors that are important in determining sod quality. Quality sod contains excellent turf varieties with good sod strength (i.e., easy to handle for both harvest and installation) and has no serious insect, weed, or disease problems.
Feb 19, 2016 418-040 (CSES-151P)
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer Aug 30, 2019 418-142
Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia Dec 19, 2018 424-006 (SPES-81P)
Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic Mar 20, 2019 424-022
Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region Mar 20, 2019 424-024
Nitrogen Management for Winter Wheat: Principles and Recommendations Mar 20, 2019 424-026(SPES-82P)
Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilization of Corn Mar 20, 2019 424-027
Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment Jan 24, 2019 424-029
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Mar 20, 2019 424-030
Corn Planting Dates in the Piedmont and Valley Regions of Virginia: How Early is Early? Mar 29, 2019 424-032
Corn Planting Dates in the Virginia Coastal Plain: How early is early? Feb 13, 2019 424-033
Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates Aug 30, 2019 424-035
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials Mar 29, 2019 424-040
Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations Mar 29, 2019 424-053
Understanding Pre-harvest Sprouting of Wheat Mar 29, 2019 424-060
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Nitrogen Fertilization of Winter Barley: Principles and Recommendations Jan 24, 2019 424-801
Fertilizing the Vegetable Garden
The amount of fertilizer to apply to a garden depends on the natural fertility of the soil, the amount of organic matter present, the type of fertilizer used, and the crop being grown. The best way to determine fertilizer needs is to have the soil tested. Soil testing is available through your local Extension agent, through private labs, and with soil test kits which can be purchased from garden shops and catalogs.
Apr 16, 2015 426-323 (HORT-144P)
Summer Lawn Management: Watering the Lawn Apr 1, 2019 430-010 (SPES-126P)
Fertilización del Césped en Virginia Jan 20, 2017 430-011s (CSES-166P)
Urban Nutrient Management Handbook Aug 16, 2019 430-350
Nutrient Management for Golf Courses May 1, 2009 430-399
Mowing To Recycle Grass Clippings: Let the Clips Fall Where They May! May 1, 2009 430-402
Fall Lawn Care
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
Jul 20, 2020 430-520(SPES-223P)
"Leave" Them Alone: Lawn Leaf Management Jul 10, 2020 430-521 (SPES-212P)
Maintenance Calendar for Warm-Season Lawns in Virginia Sep 25, 2019 430-522 (SPES-161P)
Maintenance Calendar for Cool-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia Sep 25, 2019 430-523 (SPES-162P)
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-532
Determining Forage Moisture Concentration
Harvesting and storing forage at the proper moisture concentration is essential to producing a high-quality product. Ideally, hay forage should have a moisture concentration between 15 percent and 18 percent during baling. Hay baled at higher moisture levels is subject to heat damage, dry-matter loss, mold spoilage, and hay fires. Protein and total digestible nutrient losses are increased for hay baled at lower moisture levels. Baling at the proper moisture level is critical to making quality hay, especially for larger bales (round and square) since moisture and heat dissipate more slowly in comparison to smaller bales.
Jul 2, 2020 442-106(BSE-330P)
Planning Fencing Systems For Controlled Grazing Feb 11, 2019 442-130 (BSE-247P)
Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans Aug 30, 2019 442-310
Management Tips for Round Bale Hay Harvesting, Moving, and Storage
Hay production and feeding is one of the most expensive components of forage-livestock systems. Specific management practices are necessary to maintain hay quality and minimize hay loss during harvest, transportation and storage of large round bales.
Jul 1, 2020 442-454 (BSE-332P)
Large Round Bale Safety
This Extension publication covers the safety aspects of equipment used in large round bale packages such as: balers, front-end loaders, bale handling and transport devices. The key to safe and efficient systems for handling large round bales is an operator who knows the hazards involved and who follows safety practices that can prevent accidents. Operators must be constantly alert for situations that may cause injuries to themselves or others. Besides pain and suffering, accidents contribute to higher costs in terms of unnecessary downtime or costly machine repairs. Alertness and safety consciousness can result in more efficient and profitable baling and handling.
May 26, 2020 442-455 (BSE-331P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Hardness in Household Water May 10, 2019 442-664 (BSE-258P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Corrosive Household Water May 3, 2019 442-665 (BSE-259P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in Household Water Apr 26, 2019 442-666 (BSE-260P)
On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives Mar 27, 2018 448-407 (CSES-222P)
Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose.
Aug 29, 2018 452-014 (SPES-1)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Crop Production Feb 6, 2020 452-124 (SPES-174NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Home Lawns, Gardens, Fruits, and Ornamentals Nov 15, 2019 452-125 (SPES-172NP)
Forma Para el Muestreo de Suelos de Céspedes, jardines, frutas y ornamentales en el hogar May 30, 2018 452-125S (SPES-8NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Greenhouse and Nursery Production Jun 23, 2017 452-126(CSES-190NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Surface-Mined Areas Jun 23, 2017 452-127 (CSES-189NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial Lawns Jun 23, 2017 452-128(CSES-187NP)
Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener
This publication explains how to obtain representative soil samples and to submit them for analysis to the Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory.
Feb 6, 2020 452-129 (SPES-176P)
Mid-Atlantic Composting Directory
This directory is intended to provide contact information for service and equipment suppliers, along with sources for information and education. Every attempt has been made to present accurate information. Contents are for informational purposes only and are based on details provided by the organizations and entities listed. Inclusion in this directory does not constitute an endorsement by the publishers of the products or services of any business organization or individual listed herein.
Aug 30, 2018 452-230 (SPES-51P)
Compost: What Is It and What's It To You Feb 28, 2018 452-231 (CSES-204P)
Sources of Lime for Acid Soils in Virginia
Acid soil limits crop yields on many Virginia farms. This soil acidity can be directly toxic to plants, but more often it reduces the plants' efficiency at nutrient utilization.
Aug 9, 2019 452-510 (SPES-158P)
Explanation of Soil Tests
The accompanying Soil Test Report will help you assess your plant's need for fertilizer and lime.
Dec 7, 2018 452-701 (SPES-75NP)
Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
Sep 9, 2019 452-702 (CSES-100P)
Soil Test Note No.3 - Liming and Fertilization of Cool-Season Forage Crops Aug 30, 2019 452-703
Soil Test Note #4 - Trace Elements Dec 7, 2018 452-704 (SPES-76NP)
Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures Aug 30, 2019 452-705
Soil Test Note 17: Lawn Fertilization for Cool Season Grasses May 1, 2009 452-717
Soil Test Note 18: Lawn Fertilization for Warm Season Grasses May 1, 2009 452-718
Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report) Oct 11, 2019 452-719
Soil Test Note 23: Christmas Tree Crops Jul 14, 2009 452-723
Laboratory Procedures: Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory
The procedures for soil analysis used in the Soil Testing Laboratory were established in the early 1950s A routine test, consisting of eleven separate analyses, is performed on all samples.
Mar 18, 2019 452-881 (SPES-91P)
Powell River Project - Foundations for Housing on Reclaimed Mined Lands Mar 16, 2018 460-115 (CSES-218P)
Powell River Project - Conversion of Sericea Lespedeza-dominant Vegetation to Quality Forages for Livestock Use Mar 15, 2018 460-119 (CSES-219P)
Powell River Project - Creation and Management of Productive Minesoils Mar 15, 2018 460-121 (CSES-209P)
Powell River Project - Revegetation Species and Practices Mar 26, 2018 460-122 (CSES-210P)
Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land Mar 16, 2018 460-123 (CSES-211P)
Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses Mar 15, 2018 460-124 (CSES-212P)
Powell River Project - Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-mined Land Mar 15, 2018 460-127 (CSES-213P)
Powell River Project - Stabilizing Reclaimed Mines to Support Buildings and Development Mar 27, 2018 460-130 (CSES-214P)
Powell River Project - Reclamation of Coal Refuse Disposal Areas Mar 16, 2018 460-131 (CSES-215P)
Powell River Project - Reclaiming Mined Lands as Industrial Sites Mar 16, 2018 460-132 (CSES-217P)
Powell River Project - Passive Treatment of Acid-Mine Drainage Mar 16, 2018 460-133 (CSES-216P)
Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining Mar 20, 2018 460-140 (CSES-220P)
Powell River Project - Reforestation Guidelines for Unused Surface Mined Lands in the Eastern United States Mar 16, 2018 460-144 (CSES-221P)
Powell River Project - Enhancing Wildlife Habitat on Reclaimed Mine Lands Mar 15, 2018 460-145 (CSES-208P)
VCE Model of Community, Local, Regional Food Systems Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-154NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems Nov 2, 2016 ALCE-155NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Report Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-156NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Executive Summary
Virginia’s food system directly impacts the survival and viability of farms and farmland; the economic development of rural and urban communities; the care, restoration, and resilience of ecological resources such as local waterways; and critical health issues. We use the language of community, local, and regional food systems to broadly define a complex and interconnected set of systems and pathways that comprise sustainable food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management to bring about social, economic, and ecological change that benefits all residents.
Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-157NP
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Jan 9, 2019 ANR-48NP
Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide Mower Care and Safe Use
Mowing lawns continues to be one of the most popular summer job opportunities for youth given the affordable cost and ease in operation of most rotary mowers. However, easy access and widespread use of mowers often creates a false sense of security among the users of these machines. Data from a seven-year period (1996-2003) showed the highest rate of hospitalization from lawn mower injuries was for youth workers ages 15 to 19. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that more than 37,000 riding mower injuries occurred from 2003 through 2005 alone. During the same period, there were 95 fatalities due to riding mower tip-over. The purpose of this training guide is to reduce the number of mower accidents and injuries by familiarizing young workers with rotary mowers and their safe operation.
Apr 16, 2020 BSE-110P(BSE-315P)
Lawn Care: Hand Tools Safety May 16, 2019 BSE-40NP (BSE-98P)
Lawn Care: Powered Hand Tool Safety May 16, 2019 BSE-41NP (BSE-97P)
Lawn Care: Rotary Mower Safety May 16, 2019 BSE-42NP (BSE-96P)
Lawn Care: Tractor Safety May 16, 2019 BSE-43NP (BSE-100P)
Lawn Care: Utility-Type Vehicle Safety May 16, 2019 BSE-44NP (BSE-99P)
Guidelines for Protecting Youth Workers: Promote Safe Practices and Protect Youth Workers
The goal of this training guide is to reduce the number of accidents and related injuries among the youth workers in the green industry by making workplaces safer. This guide is primarily for employers or supervisors of youth workers in the green industry. In addition to familiarizing the employers/supervisors with the regulations associated with hiring youth workers, the guide discusses the steps they can take to make their work environments safer. It also covers the responsibilities of guardians and youth workers for making workplaces safer.
Apr 17, 2020 BSE-46NP (BSE-314P)
Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide
Mowing lawns continues to be one of the most popular summer job opportunities for youth given the affordable cost and ease in operation of most rotary mowers. However, easy access and widespread use of mowers often creates a false sense of security among the users of these machines. Data from a seven-year period (1996-2003) showed the highest rate of hospitalization from lawn mower injuries was for youth workers ages 15 to 19. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that more than 37,000 riding mower injuries occurred from 2003 through 2005 alone. During the same period, there were 95 fatalities due to riding mower tip-over. The purpose of this training guide is to reduce the number of mower accidents and injuries by familiarizing young workers with rotary mowers and their safe operation.
Apr 16, 2020 BSE-47P (BSE-315P)
Tractor Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide, Safe Use of Tractors
Tractors are versatile equipment used in a variety of jobs ranging from hauling goods to lawn care to agriculture. While they are extremely versatile, they can be very dangerous unless they are used with care following safe practices
Apr 7, 2020 BSE-48P (BSE-321P)
Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
Aug 21, 2019 BSE-49P (BSE-264P)
Powered Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide
In addition to rotary mowers, many powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in lawn care. While these devices are very useful in making jobs easier and more efficient, they can be dangerous if used without proper training and care. In 1989 the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that power lawn trimmers and edgers alone have caused about 4,600 injuries annually that required medical attention. About one-third of these were eye-related.
Apr 28, 2020 BSE-50P (BSE-322P)
Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide Hand Tool Care and Safe Use
Many hand tools such as rakes, shovels, and pruners are used widely in lawn care operations. While these non-powered tools are not known to cause major injuries, they have the potential for injuries that may require absence from work and/or medical assistance when they are used improperly.
Apr 17, 2020 BSE-51P (BSE-323P)
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops
The general purpose of a cover crop is to improve the soil, the broader environment, or other crops in rotation, not for direct harvest. Cover crops, depending on which are selected, are capable of providing many diverse assets. This publication provides a short description of these main benefits.
Sep 23, 2020 CSES-120NP (SPES-241NP)
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies
Cover crops increase soil organic matter, reduce erosion, suppress weeds, forage for nutrients, and reduce fertilizer costs (Clark, 2007). Cover crop species vary greatly and provide varied benefits. Performance evaluation of cover crop species and mixtures is needed in Virginia.
Sep 23, 2020 CSES-121NP (SPES-240NP)
The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook
Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and Virginia, the five states in the Mid-Atlantic region, all require Certified Nutrient Management Plans to be completed for certain agricultural programs.
Jun 1, 2020 CSES-122P
Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Soil
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on measuring water movement through in situ saturated soil (saturated hydraulic conductivity, or Ksat) as it relates to dispersal and treatment of on-site sewage (wastewater) through an on-site wastewater dispersal area
Mar 22, 2016 CSES-141P (CSES-164P)
Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes May 23, 2016 CSES-146P
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
Sep 30, 2016 CSES-155P
Understanding the Texture of Your Soil for Agricultural Productivity Jul 20, 2016 CSES-162P
Value and implications of corn stover removal from Virginia fields
There has recently been increased interest in the use of crop residues for different industrial uses in the US and the world. Corn residue is frequently cited as the most likely candidate for alternate industrial uses because of the large area of production and the relatively large amount of residue produced per acre. Among the potential alternate uses for corn stover, biofuel production has received the greatest attention.
Apr 6, 2017 CSES-180 (CSES-182NP)
Soil Judging in Virginia Jan 25, 2018 CSES-183
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Planting Trees in Pastures Dec 11, 2017 CSES-185P
Facts About Industrial Hemp Aug 14, 2017 CSES-196NP
Predicting Soybean Reproductive Stages in Virginia Oct 7, 2017 CSES-197P
Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone Nov 15, 2017 CSES-200P
Using a Summer Stockpiling System to Extend the Grazing Season Nov 14, 2017 CSES-201NP
Virginia Soil Judging Scorecard Feb 13, 2019 CSES- 202P(4H-845P)
Soil Judging Supplemental Information Sheet Dec 1, 2017 CSES- 202P-A
Internationalizing the Land Grant Mission: Lessons from Senegal Mar 20, 2018 CSES-207P
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems Mar 27, 2018 CSES-22P (SPES-5P)
Harvesting and nutrient replacement costs associated with corn stover removal in Virginia Feb 21, 2018 CSES-229NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Soil Testing Oct 24, 2019 CSES-34NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Watering The Lawn Oct 24, 2019 CSES-35NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dethatching Your Lawn Oct 24, 2019 CSES-36NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Lawn Composting Oct 14, 2019 CSES-37NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Aerating Your Lawn Oct 14, 2019 CSES-38NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Mowing Your Lawn Oct 14, 2019 CSES-39NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Weeds Oct 14, 2019 CSES-40NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Choosing The Right Grass Oct 14, 2019 CSES-41NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Lawn Pests Oct 14, 2019 CSES-42NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dealing With Lawn Disease Oct 14, 2019 CSES-43NP
Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
Feb 21, 2020 CSES-98P(SPES-178P)
Soil, Conservation, and Place -- Gerald Garber of Cave View Farms Jun 8, 2020 SPES-213NP
Soil, Conservation, and Place -- Janet Aardema and Dan Gagnon of Broadfork Farm Jun 8, 2020 SPES-214NP
Soil, Conservation and Place -- Ira Wallace of Southern Exposure Seed Exchange Jun 8, 2020 SPES-215NP
Soil, Conservation and Place -- C.J. Isbell of Keenbell Farm Jun 8, 2020 SPES-216NP
Consider Your Whole System: Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia Jun 25, 2018 SPES-39NP
Fescue Toxicosis and Some Strategies to Mitigate Alkaloids May 9, 2018 SPES-6