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Resources for Natural Resources

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
The Effects of Mineral Dissolution on Water Quality
Acid-base reactions and the concept of pH are critical concepts in chemistry, environmental sciences and Earth science. First, students will present hypotheses of whether the pH will increase or decrease when calcite or pyrite are dissolved in water. Second, in a facilitated activity, students (in groups) will dissolve pyrite and calcite in water and measure the pH after the minerals dissolve. Third, they will hypothesize what happens to the pH when they mix the pyrite and calcite together (in water). Fourth, they will then test their hypotheses by mixing them and measuring pH. Fifth they will discuss if their results support their hypotheses. Last, they will expand what they learned in the experiments to how minerals can be used in water treatment.
Nov 8, 2023 4H-1024NP
Exotic Invasive Plants
Invasive exotic species are plants that are not native to a given area and have the ability to out-compete indigenous plant species. Invasive exotics are often brought into their non-native surroundings by humans with good intentions.
Apr 29, 2020 420-320 (CNRE-105NP)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Snail Biodiversity and Conservation
Six hundred fifty different species of snails are widely distributed across the streams, rivers, and lakes of North America. There are unique species associated with every type of aquatic habitat from the Canadian Arctic to the Everglades of Florida.
Nov 5, 2019 420-530 (CNRE-76P)
What Is a Watershed?
This publication defines watersheds, why they are important to everyone, and how people positively and negatively impact them.
Sep 11, 2023 426-041 (SPES-2P)
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be! Jun 26, 2023 426-109 (SPES-510P)
Using Compost in Your Landscape Mar 13, 2021 426-704 (SPES-304P)
Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment Mar 2, 2022 465-341 (CNRE-136P)
Enterprise Budgets for Trout Production in Idaho Feb 8, 2021 AAEC-276NP
The Effects of Regulations on the U.S. Shellfish Industry: Pacific Coast Findings Jun 16, 2021 AAEC-285NP
The Effects of Regulations on the U.S. Shellfish Industry: California Findings Jun 16, 2021 AAEC-286NP
The Effects of Regulations on the U.S. Shellfish Industry: Washington Findings Jun 16, 2021 AAEC-288NP
Consider Logging Residue Needs for BMP Implementation When Harvesting Biomass for Energy
Utilization of woody biomass for energy has increased substantially in Virginia. While there are a number of definitions for biomass, woody biomass from forest harvesting operations typically refers to logging residues such as limbs, tops, and other unmerchantable material that would otherwise be left behind on-site after the logging operation is complete. Logging residues are typically chipped and then transported to facilities where they are used for fuel. Biomass harvesting in Virginia most commonly occurs on integrated harvesting operations where roundwood and biomass are harvested and utilized at the same time in a single operation.
Dec 13, 2019 ANR-108NP
Virginia Citizen’s Guide to Environmental Credit Trading Programs: An Overview Apr 22, 2022 ANR-173P (AAEC-291P)
New market idea: Selling woody materials from landscaping projects to craft industry Jun 30, 2021 ANR-215NP
What is a Virginia Master Naturalist? Jun 8, 2022 ANR-242NP
Whitethorne Agroforestry Research and Demonstration Site at Virginia Tech’s Kentland Farm Jul 17, 2017 ANR-277
A characterization of large-scale swine production and manure generation in Virginia counties and cities located within or outside of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Feb 14, 2023 APSC-182P
Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture
In this publication, information is presented on how to increase farm productivity while potentially reducing greenhouse gas* (GHG) contributions from agricultural production. Some of the practices may be familiar to many producers, such as building soil organic matter (SOM) or increasing nitrogen fertilization efficiency, but many producers may not know that these same productivity-boosting activities also help to reduce GHG emissions and their impact on climate change. While informative to the producer, this publication will also inform those with an interest in both agriculture and the environmental impact of GHG emissions on the atmosphere.
Apr 3, 2019 BSE-105 (BSE-251P)
Greywater Reuse
Greywater is any household wastewater other than that used for toilet flushing. This water could be reused around the home (for purposes other than drinking water). An example of greywater use is landscape irrigation. Wastewater that comes in contact with human waste is referred to as blackwater. However, the definition of greywater varies according to state regulations.
Jul 23, 2019 BSE-114NP (BSE-267NP)
Using Reclaimed Water
Reclaimed water, sometimes referred to as “water reuse” or “recycled water,” is water recovered from domestic, municipal, or industrial wastewater treatment plants that has been treated to standards that allow it to be safely used for designated purposes. Reclaimed water should not be confused with “wastewater,” untreated liquid industrial waste or domestic sewage. However, “gray water,” untreated water from bathing or washing, is considered one form of wastewater (Water Reuse, VCE Publication 452-014). The level of treatment and disinfection reclaimed water receives is dictated by its intended (and permitted) use. Many states encourage and promote the use of reclaimed water to conserve freshwater supplies and preserve rivers, streams, lakes, and aquifers.
Jul 23, 2019 BSE-115NP (BSE-266NP)
Rainwater Harvesting Systems
Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting, storing, and later reusing rainwater from surfaces such as roofs. Rainwater harvesting has long been used for agricultural irrigation and as a source of drinking water, and allowed ancient civilizations to flourish in semi-arid and arid regions. Rainwater harvesting systems are in use today in many water-limited locations, especially in several western US regions. As population growth increases pressure on water resources in the more humid eastern US, rainwater harvesting is being considered to reduce the demand for potable water.
Jul 23, 2019 BSE-116NP (BSE-265NP)
Hydrology Basics and the Hydrologic Cycle
This fact sheet presents and explains some common concepts in hydrology and the hydrologic cycle. The science or study of hydrology focuses on the distribution, occurrence, circulation, and properties of water in the environment.
Nov 4, 2020 BSE-191P
Soil and Soil Water Relationships
This publication presents and discusses concepts that are fundamental to understanding soil, water, and plant relationships and the soil water balance. Knowledge about soil water relationships can inform the decision-making process in agricultural operations or natural resource management, such as determining what crops to plant, when to plant them, and when various management practices should be scheduled. Understanding these concepts is useful for addressing both agronomic and policy issues related to agricultural water management.Zachary M. Easton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech Emily Bock, Graduate Research Assistant, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
Mar 1, 2021 BSE-194P
Using Groundwater for Agricultural Irrigation in Virginia
Virginia usually receives ample rainfall to support agriculture, but droughts in 2002, 2007, and 2010 led to severe problems for farms in many regions. Using groundwater for irrigation can help manage drought risks on farms without access to ponds or streams. However, installing groundwater wells can be expensive and time-consuming. The amount of water obtained from wells can vary in different regions of the state. This bulletin is intended to provide agricultural producers with information on technical and regulatory issues related to irrigating with groundwater.
Jun 22, 2023 BSE-215P (BSE-353P)
Soil Moisture Sensors for Agricultural Irrigation: An Overview on Sensor Types Jul 21, 2021 BSE-338P
Scheduling Agricultural Irrigation Based on Soil Moisture Content: Interpreting and Using Sensor Data Aug 10, 2021 BSE-339P
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 16: Step Pool Stormwater Conveyance Sep 3, 2021 BSE-341P
The Socrates Project - Poisonous Plants in Virginia Jun 29, 2018 CNRE-13NP (CNRE-21NP)
Total Employment on Logging Operations Based on a Survey of Virginia Loggers Jan 30, 2022 CNRE-140NP
Virginia Master Naturalist Basic Training Course: Ichthyology Oct 8, 2019 CNRE-73P
Woodland Health Practices Handbook Dec 13, 2022 CNRE-109NP
Managing Human-Wildlife Interactions: Coyote (Canis latrans)
Because of the coyote's versatility, adaptability, and its current wide distribution throughout Virginia, the likelihood of encountering a coyote is real. Thus, residents of the Commonwealth should become more aware and informed about the traits and behaviors of this species to avoid undesirable interactions. This publication provides basic information about the coyote, its expected and normal behaviors and other life history aspects, and suggestions on how to minimize or avoid problems that can arise from our interactions with this fascinating creature.
Aug 15, 2023 CNRE-172P
Education, Outreach, and Interpretation for Virginia Master Naturalist Volunteers
Virginia Master Naturalist volunteers are well-positioned to help more people of all ages and backgrounds to have regularly occurring, meaningful experiences in nature that meet their personal interests and needs. As volunteer educators, they may provide interpretive talks, lead interpretive walks, develop interpretive brochures and signage, and give formal presentations. The foundation for all of these forms of education includes knowing one's audience; planning topics, themes, goals, and objectives; background research and preparation; communicating clearly; and evaluating. This publication describes these key concepts and provides step-by-step guidelines for planning interpretive programs and other educational interactions.
Feb 22, 2024 CNRE-174P
Education, Outreach, and Interpretation for Virginia Master Naturalist Volunteers
Virginia Master Naturalist volunteers are well-positioned to help more people of all ages and backgrounds to have regularly occurring, meaningful experiences in nature that meet their personal interests and needs. As volunteer educators, they may provide interpretive talks, lead interpretive walks, develop interpretive brochures and signage, and give formal presentations. The foundation for all of these forms of education includes knowing one's audience; planning topics, themes, goals, and objectives; background research and preparation; communicating clearly; and evaluating. This publication describes these key concepts and provides step-by-step guidelines for planning interpretive programs and other educational interactions.
Feb 22, 2024 CNRE-174P
Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands in Virginia
This publication explains how landowners can determine if threatened and endangered animals, plants, or insects are present on their land. It also identifies who to contact, if present, to determine if forest management activities could have a negative impact on these species. Finally, it includes information on a number of voluntary programs private landowners can participate in. These programs facilitate active forest management while protecting threatened and endangered species.
May 3, 2024 CNRE-24NP (CNRE-178NP)
Applications of PXRF for Pedology, Agronomy, and Enviromental Quality Assessment Oct 31, 2022 CSES-186V
Large and Unusual Insects Found in Virginia
Several different insects are found in Virginia that cause concern due to their large size and coloration. They are for the most part harmless and just curiosities of nature.
Mar 2, 2021 ENTO-148NP (ENTO-419NP)
Fall Cankerworm
Cankerworms are also known as inchworms, loop worms, and spanworms - this is credited to their distinctive way of moving. In order to travel, a cankerworm must grab leaves or branches with its front legs and then pull the rest of its body forward. This causes the abdomen area to contract and gives the worm the appearance of arching its back.
Feb 5, 2021 ENTO-223NP (ENTO-404NP)
Jumping Worms (Amynthas spp.) May 24, 2023 ENTO-427NP (ENTO-559NP)
Non-biting Midges Mar 3, 2021 ENTO-438NP
Buprestid Beetles and Flathead Borers Mar 4, 2021 ENTO-441NP
Red Imported Fire Ant Farmer Self-Inspection Checklist Mar 8, 2022 ENTO-493NP
Pollinators in the Out-of-Play Areas of Virginia Golf Courses
This extension publication presents information on how out-of-play areas serve as pollinator-friendly habitats in golf courses. This project also introduces information on the remote sensing approach to monitor the plant health status of this out-of-play areas.
Aug 9, 2023 ENTO-564NP
Converting pastures to native warm season grasses: Summer forage and wildlife habitat in Caroline County Mar 5, 2021 SPES-308NP
2021 Virtual Eastern Shore Agricultural Conference and Trade Show Mar 12, 2021 SPES-312NP
How to Evaluate a Tree May 19, 2021 SPES-313P
Hurricane Preparedness for Turfgrass Systems Jul 20, 2021 SPES-340NP
2021 Eastern Shore AREC Interactive Research Field Day Oct 8, 2021 SPES-359NP
Basic melon (Cucumis melo L.) physiology and morphology
Understanding the fundamental aspects of melon physiology and morphology is essential for optimizing its cultivation, improving yield, and enhancing fruit quality. This document provides a concise overview of the key physiological and morphological characteristics of the basic melon plant, highlighting its growth and development processes. The physiological aspects encompass various essential factors that influence melon growth, including photosynthesis, water relations, nutrient uptake and assimilation, and hormone regulation. Melon plants exhibit distinct physiological responses to environmental stimuli such as light, temperature, and water availability, which directly impact their growth, flowering, and fruiting. An understanding of these physiological processes aids in implementing appropriate cultivation practices and management strategies for maximizing melon productivity.
Jun 9, 2023 SPES-507NP
VCE Ag Today: Timber Market Update Jul 5, 2021 VCE-1027-50NP