Resources by Louis A. Helfrich

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Stocking Sportfish in Virginia Ponds: Methods and Commercial Supply Sources
Prior to 1945, fewer than 250 farm ponds had been constructed in Virginia. Since that time, the construction of small impoundments has increased at a rapid rate. Over 50,000 farm ponds in Virginia serve as sources of water for livestock, crop irrigation, and fire protection; provide flood and erosion control, and furnish recreational swimming, boating, and fishing.
May 1, 2009 420-009
Freshwater Fish Farming in Virginia: Selecting the Right Fish to Raise
In Virginia and throughout the United States, interest in fish farming for profit or as a hobby has increased in the past few years. Encouraged by the success of trout farmers in western states and catfish farmers in southern states, prospective fish farmers question if similar opportunities exist in Virginia's fresh waters.
May 1, 2009 420-010
Pond Construction: Some Practical Considerations
Conservative estimates place the correct number of farm ponds in Virginia at over 50,000. These ponds range in size from less than one acre to over 30 acres in size. Unfortunately, many of these ponds are so poorly constructed that they fail to serve the purpose for which they were originally designed; some may be unsafe.
May 1, 2009 420-011
Planning for Commercial Aquaculture
Aquaculture, the practice of growing finfish and shellfish under controlled conditions, is not a new concept. The Japanese, Chinese, Romans, Egyptians, and Mayan Indians of South America farmed fish for food and recreation prior to 2000 BC. They constructed ponds and raised fish much as fish are raised today. Both freshwater and saltwater fish are currently raised commercially throughout the world. Other fisheries-related products, such as shrimp, crayfish, oysters, clams, and frogs, are also raised commercially.
May 1, 2009 420-012
Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems
Fisheries and aquatic resources (ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, and oceans) are exceptionally valuable natural assets enjoyed by millions of Americans. They provide citizens with generous long-term benefits in return for minimal care and protection.
May 1, 2009 420-013
Help Save America's Pearly Mussels
Nearly 300 species of mussels inhabit freshwater rivers, streams, and lakes in the United States. This is the richest diversity of mussels found in the world and an extraordinary natural heritage that needs protection.
May 1, 2009 420-014
Landowner's Guide to Managing Streams in the Eastern United States
two streams are alike, but many share certain problems and characteristics. For example, all streams are products of the land they drain, and their waters reflect streamside land management practices, good and poor. Much can be done to protect clean streams and restore damaged ones. Since most streams originate on private lands, their fate depends largely on wise management by streamside landowners. This publication provides general information and management guidelines to help stream property owners and their neighbors protect, improve, and restore these valuable running waters.
May 1, 2009 420-141
Clearing Muddy Pond Waters
Muddy, cloudy water is not only unattractive, but can be harmful to aquatic life. Although high sediment loads in ponds seldom kill sport fish directly, muddy waters can seriously reduce fish production.
May 1, 2009 420-250
Control Methods For Aquatic Plants in Ponds and Lakes
Aquatic plants growing in ponds and lakes are beneficial for fish and wildlife. They provide food, dissolved oxygen, and spawning and nesting habitat for fish and waterfowl.
May 1, 2009 420-251
Fish Kills: Their Causes and Prevention
Fish die as a result of a wide variety of natural and unnatural causes. Fish may die of old age, starvation, body injury, stress, suffocation, water pollution, diseases, parasites, predation, toxic algae, severe weather, and other reasons.
May 1, 2009 420-252
The Control of Burrowing Crayfish in Ponds
At times landowners may be confronted with serious water losses resulting from the sudden collapse or gradual deterioration of earthen pond dams, irrigation canals, and drainage ditches. Although the loss of water from small earthen impoundments is frequently due to faulty construction, it may also be the result of undetected biological forces.
May 1, 2009 420-253
Liming Acidified Lakes and Ponds
“Liming,” as the word suggests, is the addition of limestone (calcite), primarily calcium carbonate (CaCO3), to neutralize acid waters and soils and buffer them from rapid fluctuations in pH. Limestone typically is applied to lawns, gardens, pastures, and croplands to supply calcium, an essential plant nutrient, and to decrease soil acidity.
May 1, 2009 420-254
Commercial Frog Farming
Raising and selling frogs on a commercial basis has not proven to be successful economically in Virginia or elsewhere in the United States to our knowledge.
May 1, 2009 420-255
Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding
Good nutrition in animal production systems is essential to economically produce a healthy, high quality product. In fish farming, nutrition is critical because feed represents 40-50% of the production costs.
May 1, 2009 420-256
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - What Is Aquatic Biodiversity; Why Is it Important?
Aquatic biodiversity is the rich and wonderful variety of plants and animals—from crayfish to catfish, from mussels to mayflies, from tadpoles to trout—that live in watery habitats. It is the number of different native species, or species richness.
May 1, 2009 420-520
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Why Is Aquatic Biodiversity Declining?
When a species goes extinct, all the genetic information carried by individuals of that species is lost forever, never to be reproduced again. Extinction is a terrible waste of life and a loss of potential solutions to future problems such as possible cures to disease and solutions for survival in a changing world.
May 1, 2009 420-521
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Aquatic Habitats: Homes for Aquatic Animals
Natural aquatic habitats include ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, springs, estuaries, bays, and various types of wetlands. Some of these habitats are shallow and others deep, some are coldwater and others warm-water, some are freshwater and others saltwater, and some have high oxygen levels and others little oxygen.
May 1, 2009 420-522
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation
Nearly 300 species of mussels inhabit freshwater rivers, streams, and lakes in the United States. This is the richest diversity of mussels found in the world and an extraordinary natural heritage that needs protection. Because of the lustrous, pearl-like interior of the shells,
May 1, 2009 420-523
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Crayfish Biodiversity and Conservation
Of the approximately 500 crayfishes (some times called crawdads or crawfish) found on earth, about 400 crayfish species live in waters in North America, and about 353, nearly 70 percent of the world’s total species, inhabit waters in the United States.
May 1, 2009 420-524
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Fish Biodiversity and Conservation
Nearly 800 native fish species in 36 families inhabit the freshwater rivers, streams, and lakes of the United States and Canada. North America has the most diverse temperate freshwater fish fauna in the world.
May 1, 2009 420-525
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Selected Freshwater Fish Families
This is the largest and most ecologically diverse family of freshwater fishes in the world. Minnows are exclusively freshwater, although some species stray into brackish, tidal waters. Over 290 species of minnows occur in North America.
May 1, 2009 420-526
Managing Spring Wetlands For Fish and Wildlife Habitat
Natural springs are important aquatic resources. They are a reliable source of clean, high-quality groundwater that flows at a relatively constant rate and temperature.
May 1, 2009 420-537
Guide to Understanding and Managing Lakes: Part I (Physical Measurements)
Inland lakes constitute one of our greatest natural resources. They are immensely popular features, particularly as recreational community developments.
May 1, 2009 420-538
Fee-fishing Ponds and Streams in Virginia
Fee-fishing, or pay-fishing as the name implies, is buying the right to fish in a private pond, lake, or stream. These are excellent places to practice your fishing skills and teach children the fine art of fishing.
May 1, 2009 420-720
Management of Wood Ducks on Private Lands and Waters
Of the many wildlife management practices the private landowner can do, few are as rewarding as those which favor wood ducks. Wood ducks and a multitude of other wildlife species respond readily to managed wetlands.
May 1, 2009 420-802
Should You Attempt Fish Farming? Considerations for Prospective Fish Growers
Fish farming is an ancient practice that can provide many profitable opportunities today. The raising and selling of fish on a commercial basis has proven to be economically successful throughout the United States.
May 1, 2009 420-897
Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia's Waters
The zebra mussel, a small freshwater shellfish native to Europe, is one of the newest invaders of U.S. waters. They are D-shaped in outline and average one-half inch in length-the size of your fingernail-but can grow to two inches during their five year lifespan.
May 1, 2009 420-900