Resources for Lawns

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs
Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings
Dec 19, 2018 2802-7027 (ENTO-296NP)
Balsam Woolly Adelgid
Native to central Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid is now distributed throughout eastern and western North America. It attacks all true firs, Abies spp., including balsam and Fraser fir.
Mar 1, 2021 3006-1452 (ENTO-434NP)
Redheaded Sawfly
The redheaded pine sawfly occurs from S.E. Canada throughout the eastern U.S. Feeding is primarily restricted to the two and three-needled pines, such as Jack, red, shortleaf, loblolly, slash, longleaf, and pitch pines. White pine and Norway spruce may also be defoliated.
Mar 5, 2021 3006-1453 (ENTO-429NP)
Sap Beetles
Adults are usually black or brown beetles with an oval to oblong shape. They have clubbed or knobbed antennae and the economically important species typically measure 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 inch) long. Some sap beetles have short wing covers that do not cover the entire abdomen. Some species have flattened bodies while others are more convex. Many sap beetles are a dull color, sometimes with mottling or spots. One common sap beetle, the picnic beetle [Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say)], is an attractive shiny black beetle with four yellow-orange bands or spots on the wing covers.
Mar 5, 2021 3104-1546 (ENTO-431NP)
Agromyzid Leafminers Mar 1, 2021 3104-1554 (ENTO-437NP)
Pickleworm Mar 5, 2021 3104-1559 (ENTO-439NP)
Rose Chafer Mar 1, 2021 3104-1564 (ENTO-436NP)
Wheel Bug Sep 29, 2021 3104-1585 (ENTO-458NP)
Yellow Ant Sep 30, 2021 3104-1587 (ENTO-458NP)
Sod Source Selection, Installation, Maintenance, and Producers in Virginia
While high-quality sod is available outside of the VCIA-certified sod program, the consumer is encouraged to be aware of factors that are important in determining sod quality. Quality sod contains excellent turf varieties with good sod strength (i.e., easy to handle for both harvest and installation) and has no serious insect, weed, or disease problems.
Feb 3, 2021 418-040 (CSES-151P)
Fertilizing the Vegetable Garden
The amount of fertilizer to apply to a garden depends on the natural fertility of the soil, the amount of organic matter present, the type of fertilizer used, and the crop being grown. The best way to determine fertilizer needs is to have the soil tested. Soil testing is available through your local Extension agent, through private labs, and with soil test kits which can be purchased from garden shops and catalogs.
Jan 14, 2021 426-323 (SPES-295P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Rare and Unusual Trees
There are many tree species that can be successfully grown in Virginia, but are rarely seen in our landscapes. Although not ordinarily recommended or readily available, these trees may be useful to carry out a specific landscape theme, to substitute for an exotic type which is not locally adapted, or may be prized for unusual form, flowers, fruits, bark, or foliage.
May 19, 2021 426-604 (SPES-320P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees May 19, 2021 426-611 (SPES-321P)
Making Compost from Yard Waste Jun 23, 2022 426-703 (SPES-393P)
Using Compost in Your Landscape Mar 13, 2021 426-704 (SPES-304P)
Creating a Water-Wise Landscape Feb 2, 2021 426-713 (HORT-200P)
Establishing Lawns Jun 1, 2017 426-718 (HORT-247NP)
Selecting Turfgrass Jun 1, 2017 426-719 (HORT-249NP)
Summer Lawn Management: Watering the Lawn Apr 1, 2019 430-010 (SPES-126P)
Lawn Fertilization in Virginia Jun 21, 2021 430-011 (SPES-334NP)
Fertilización del Césped en Virginia Jan 20, 2017 430-011s (CSES-166P)
Fertilización de árboles y arbustos
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
Jul 12, 2021 430-018S (SPES-338P)
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
Aug 19, 2021 430-031 (SPES-342P)
Urban Nutrient Management Handbook Aug 16, 2019 430-350
Mowing To Recycle Grass Clippings: Let the Clips Fall Where They May! Jul 8, 2021 430-402 (SPES-337P)
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Deciduous Tree Pruning Calendar Jun 16, 2021 430-460 (SPES-328P)
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Evergreen Tree Pruning Calendar Jun 16, 2021 430-461 (SPES-324P)
Fall Lawn Care
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
Jul 20, 2020 430-520(SPES-223P)
"Leave" Them Alone: Lawn Leaf Management Jul 10, 2020 430-521 (SPES-212P)
Maintenance Calendar for Warm-Season Lawns in Virginia Sep 25, 2019 430-522 (SPES-161P)
Maintenance Calendar for Cool-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia Sep 25, 2019 430-523 (SPES-162P)
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-532
Insect Identification and Diagnosis Request Feb 27, 2020 444-113 (ENTO-196NP)
Periodical Cicada
In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.
Jul 7, 2021 444-276 (ENTO-455NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Home Lawns, Gardens, Fruits, and Ornamentals May 25, 2021 452-125 (SPES-322NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial Lawns Aug 19, 2021 452-128 (SPES-346NP)
Soil Test Note 14: Athletic Fields, Golf Course Fairways, Sod Production, and Large Industrial/Recreational Lawns Mar 3, 2022 452-244 (SPES-362NP)
Soil Test Note 17: Lawn Fertilization for Cool Season Grasses Mar 16, 2021 452-717 (SPES-306P)
Soil Test Note 18: Lawn Fertilization for Warm Season Grasses Mar 25, 2021 452-718 (SPES-305P)
Soil Test Note: 20 Home Shrubs and Trees Jun 29, 2021 452-720 (SPES-336P)
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Jan 7, 2021 ANR-48NP (SPES-284NP)
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Soil Testing Oct 24, 2019 CSES-34NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Watering The Lawn Oct 24, 2019 CSES-35NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dethatching Your Lawn Oct 24, 2019 CSES-36NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Lawn Composting Oct 14, 2019 CSES-37NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Aerating Your Lawn Oct 14, 2019 CSES-38NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Mowing Your Lawn Oct 14, 2019 CSES-39NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Weeds Oct 14, 2019 CSES-40NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Choosing The Right Grass Oct 14, 2019 CSES-41NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Lawn Pests Oct 14, 2019 CSES-42NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dealing With Lawn Disease Oct 14, 2019 CSES-43NP
Banded Ash Borer Jan 29, 2021 ENTO-133NP (ENTO-406NP)
Blow Flies
Adult blow flies are generally medium to large, robust flies. They vary in length, with the largest species measuring about 16 mm (0.6 inches) long.
Jan 29, 2021 ENTO-134NP (ENTO-407NP)
Brown Recluse Spider
Brown recluse spiders belong to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. Their name refers to a characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern on their head region directly behind their eyes (never on the abdomen). Brown recluse spiders range in color from tan to dark brown, but often they are a golden brown.
Jan 29, 2021 ENTO-135NP (ENTO-408NP)
Imported Willow Leaf Beetle
Imported willow leaf beetle was identified in the United States in 1915. It likely arrived on landscape plants shipped from Europe, where it is native.
Mar 2, 2021 ENTO-139NP (ENTO-417NP)
Iris Borer
Adult iris borers are stout, medium sized moths with a wingspan of 3.8–5 cm (1.5–2 inches). The head and forewings are covered with purplish brown scales and the hind wings are yellowish. The forewings have thin dark zigzag lines, a more conspicuous dark kidney-shaped spot, and variable sooty shading around the margins
Mar 2, 2021 ENTO-140NP (ENTO-418NP)
Locust Borer
The locust borer is a native insect that attacks black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and its ornamental cultivars. Adult locust borers are conspicuous black and yellow beetles with long black antennae and reddish legs. There is a yellow W-shaped band across the wing covers with other yellow stripes.
Feb 12, 2021 ENTO-141NP (ENTO-423NP)
Psocids: Barklice and Booklice
Psocids are small, oval insects with soft bodies that usually measure only several millimeters long. A psocid measuring 6 mm (0.25 inches) long is rather large for this group of insects. Psocids generally occur in shades of brown, black, or pale colors; some have distinctive mottled or striped markings.
Mar 5, 2021 ENTO-143NP (ENTO-440NP)
Galls Made by Aphids, Adelgids, Phylloxerans, Psyllids, and Midges
Galls made by made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges occur on many different plants. Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Most are harmless to trees, but a few are pests.
Jun 2, 2022 ENTO-146NP (ENTO-506NP)
Large and Unusual Insects Found in Virginia
Several different insects are found in Virginia that cause concern due to their large size and coloration. They are for the most part harmless and just curiosities of nature.
Mar 2, 2021 ENTO-148NP (ENTO-419NP)
Native and Solitary Bees in Virginia
Although honey bees are well known for pollination and honey production, other bees at times impact humans in various ways. These native bees range from beneficial to annoying, sometimes at the same time. Native bees are important pollinators for fruit and vegetables.
Feb 12, 2021 ENTO-151NP (ENTO-424NP)
Control of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug with Insecticide-Treated Window Screens
In Virginia and other Mid-Atlantic states, the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) has become a serious nuisance pest (Rice et al. 2014). Each fall, these insects aggregate on buildings seeking shelters in which to spend the winter months.
Jan 19, 2021 ENTO-177NP (ENTO-400NP)
Evaluation of the Residual Efficacy of Commercial Slug Baits
Slugs are prevalent pests in no-till and reduced-till crop systems in Virginia. These slimy mollusks utilize plant residue to hide during the day, and at night, they feed on numerous crops causing irregular feeding holes and shredded leaves. Slugs cause the most damage during early plant growth.
Feb 15, 2021 ENTO-178NP (ENTO-401NP)
Fall Cankerworm
Cankerworms are also known as inchworms, loop worms, and spanworms - this is credited to their distinctive way of moving. In order to travel, a cankerworm must grab leaves or branches with its front legs and then pull the rest of its body forward. This causes the abdomen area to contract and gives the worm the appearance of arching its back.
Feb 5, 2021 ENTO-223NP (ENTO-404NP)
Economic Pests of Turfgrass Jan 31, 2018 ENTO-237NP
Reading Pesticide Product Labels Jan 7, 2021 ENTO-390NP
Spiders: An Undeserved Bad Reputation Jan 4, 2021 ENTO-393NP
Lepidopteran Insecticide Menu for Vegetable Growers Jan 7, 2021 ENTO-395NP
Acrobat Ant Jan 29, 2021 ENTO-405NP
Ligurian Leafhopper Feb 12, 2021 ENTO-412NP
Jumping Worms Mar 4, 2021 ENTO-427NP
Buprestid Beetles and Flathead Borers Mar 4, 2021 ENTO-441NP
Box Tree Moth Mar 10, 2021 ENTO-445NP
Identification and Life Cycle of Spotted Lanternfly in Virginia Mar 18, 2022 ENTO-268NP (ENTO-494NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in the Virginia Home Landscape
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Jan 5, 2021 PPWS-29NP (PPWS-85NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in Virginia Production Nurseries WITH Boxwood Blight
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Feb 16, 2021 PPWS-32NP (PPWS-87NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best Management Practices for Virginia Retail Nurseries WITH Boxwood Blight
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Jan 6, 2021 PPWS-34NP (PPWS-89NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management Practices for Virginia Retail Nurseries WITHOUT Boxwood Blight
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Jan 6, 2021 PPWS-35NP (PPWS-88NP)
Glyphosate Q & A Sheet Feb 8, 2019 SPES-113NP
Common Fertilizers Used in Virginia: Secondary and Micronutrients Apr 10, 2020 SPES-200NP
Conversion Factors Needed for Common Fertilizer Calculations Apr 29, 2020 SPES-201NP
2020-21 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations Feb 25, 2021 SPES-237NP (SPES-301NP)
The Right Answer: How to Find Unbiased, Research-Based Answers Horticultural Questions Feb 19, 2021 SPES-275P
How to Evaluate a Tree May 19, 2021 SPES-313P
Maintenance Calendar for Bermudagrass Jun 21, 2021 SPES-329NP
Beetlemania Jul 7, 2021 SPES-333NP
Hurricane Preparedness for Turfgrass Systems Jul 20, 2021 SPES-340NP
Cool-Season Turfgrass Sports Field Maintenance Calendar Jul 22, 2021 SPES-341NP
2021-22 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations Jul 21, 2021 SPES-343NP
Driving Homeowners ‘Nuts’: Sedge in the Lawn Jul 23, 2021 SPES-344NP
Cool Season Lawn Renovation Sep 16, 2021 SPES-353NP
Managing Fall Armyworms on Lawns Aug 31, 2021 SPES-357NP
Your Soil Test Report Simplified A Guide for Homeowners Mar 10, 2022 SPES-384NP
2022-23 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations Aug 17, 2022 SPES-421NP
VCE Ag Today: Fall Armyworm: 2021 Recap Feb 7, 2022 VCE-1027-60NP