Resources for Horticulture
|American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana)||Oct 10, 2018||2901-1033NP|
|American Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea (prior name C. lutea))||Oct 10, 2018||2901-1034NP|
|Evergreen Azalea (Rhododendron species)||Oct 10, 2018||2901-1035NP|
|Beautybush (Kolkwitzia amabilis)||Oct 12, 2018||2901-1036NP|
|Cherrylaurel (Prunus laurocerasus `Otto Luyken')||Oct 12, 2018||2901-1038NP|
|Cotoneaster||Oct 12, 2018||2901-1039NP|
|Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)||Oct 15, 2018||2901-1040NP|
|Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum)||Oct 15, 2018||2901-1041NP|
|Drooping Leucothoe (Leucothoe fontanesiana)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1042NP|
|European White Birch (Betula pendula)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1043NP|
|Flowering Quince||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1044NP|
|Fraser Photinia, Red Tip||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1045NP|
|Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1046NP|
|Goldenraintree||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1047NP|
|Green Ash||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1048NP|
|Japanese Maple||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1049NP|
|Japanese Barberry||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1050NP|
|Japanese Camillia (Camellia japonica)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1051NP|
|Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1052NP|
|Japanese Pagodatree, Sophora||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1053NP|
|Leatherleaf Viburnum (Viburnum rhytidophyllum)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1054NP|
|Littleleaf Linden (Tilia cordata)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1055NP|
|Live Oak (Quercus virginiana)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1056NP|
|London Planetree (Platanus x acerifolia)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1057NP|
|Nandina, Heavenly Bamboo (Nandina domestica)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1058NP|
|Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1059|
|Old Fashioned Weigela (Weigela florida)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1060|
|Oregon Grape Holly (Mahonia) (Mahonia aquifolium)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1061|
|Pin Oak (Quercus palustris)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1062|
|Privet (Ligustrum species)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1063|
|Red Maple (Acer rubrum)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1064|
|Evergreen Rhododendron (Rhododendron species)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1065|
|Rose-of-Sharon, Shrub Althea (Hibiscus syriacus)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1066|
|Scarlet Firethorn, Pyracantha (Pyracantha coccinea)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1067|
|Smokebush, Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1068|
|Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)||Oct 19, 2018||2901-1069|
|Southern Waxmyrtle (Myrica cerifera)||Oct 19, 2018||2901-1070|
|Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)||Oct 19, 2018||2901-1071|
|Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1072|
|Thornless Common Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1073|
|Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1074|
|Vanhoutte Spirea (Spiraea x vanhouttei)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1075|
|White Oak (Quercus alba)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1076|
|Winterberry (Ilex verticillata)||Oct 26, 2018||2901-1077|
|Wintercreeper Euonymus (Eunymus fortunei)||Oct 26, 2018||2901-1078|
|Yaupon Holly Cultivars (Ilex vomitoria )||Oct 26, 2018||2901-1079|
|Do Fall Crucifers Have A Place In Virginia?||Jul 21, 2009||2906-1304|
|Taking Another Look At Globe Artichokes At Virginia Tech||Jul 21, 2009||2906-1306|
|Notes on Harvesting and Handling Melons||Jul 21, 2009||2906-1308|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Pawpaw (part 2)||Jul 22, 2009||2906-1319|
|Displaying in a Farm Market||Jul 24, 2009||2906-1333|
|No-till Organic Culture of Garlic Utilizing Different Cover Crop Residues and Straw Mulch for Over-wintering Protection, Under Two Seasonal Levels of Organic Nitrogen||Aug 17, 2009||2906-1389|
|Off-season Management Tasks and Considerations for Selected Small Fruit Crops||Aug 17, 2009||2906-1390|
|Introduction to Cold-Hardy Tropicals for Virginia Landscapes||May 11, 2010||3005-1446|
|Austrian Pine, Pinus nigra||Oct 26, 2018||3010-1462|
|Bigleaf Hydrangea, Hydrangea macrophylla||Oct 26, 2018||3010-1463|
|Chastetree, Monk’s Pepper Tree, Vitex agnus-castus||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1468|
|Colorado Spruce, Picea pungens var. glauca||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1470|
|Cornelian Cherry Dogwood, Cornus mas||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1472|
|Creeping Juniper, Juniperus horizontalis||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1473|
|Dawn Redwood, Metasequoia glyptostroboides||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1474|
|European Larch, Larix decidua||Nov 6, 2018||3010-1481NP|
|Lilacs||Nov 21, 2018||3010-1493NP|
|Growing Pears in Virginia||
Pears are the second most important deciduous tree fruit after apple, and it has been grown in Europe since prehistoric times. Pears belong to the genus Pyrus and probably originated near the Black and Caspian Seas. French and English colonists brought pears to America and the first record of pears in the North America was in Massachusetts in 1630. Although pear is a popular fruit, it is not grown as widely as apple. Pears can be grown throughout much of North America because they tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions.
|Feb 19, 2015||422-017 (HORT-97P)|
|Growing Cherries in Virginia||
Cherries are grown in many parts of the world, but they have never gained the popularity in North America that they have in Europe and the Middle East. Cherries probably originated in the region between the Caspian and Black Seas, where trees still grow in the wild.
|Feb 26, 2015||422-018 (HORT-166P)|
|Growing Peaches & Nectarines in Virginia||
An orchard is a long-term investment and careful planning is essential to ensure economic success. Establishing and maintaining a peach planting to bearing age (three years) costs about $3,500 per acre. Mistakes made at planting often cannot be corrected; other mistakes that can be corrected could seriously jeopardize the economic success of the orchard. Because profit margins for commercial fruit plantings are small, orchards should be established only under the most favorable conditions for success.
|Feb 17, 2015||422-019 (HORT-96P)|
|Pruning Peach Trees||
Annual pruning is a critical management practice for producing easily harvested, heavy crops of high quality peaches. However, pruning is not a substitute for other orchard practices such as fertilization, irrigation, and pest control. Pruning practices vary slightly in different regions of the United States, but have changed little in the East during the past 70 years. Although pruning may vary slightly for different varieties and localities, certain general practices should be followed. The successful pruner must understand the principles of plant growth, the natural growth habit of the tree, and how the tree will respond to certain types of pruning cuts. Improper pruning will reduce yield and fruit quality.
|Jul 15, 2020||422-020 (SPES-221P)|
|Training and Pruning Apple Trees||
Proper training and pruning of trees is a major component of a profitable apple orchard operation. Successful pruning is an art based upon scientific principles of tree growth and physiology and an experienced understanding of tree response to various pruning cuts and practices. Each tree is an individual and should be treated accordingly. Varieties differ in growth characteristics and response to pruning cuts, rootstocks, soil, and growing conditions. It is important that orchard designs, objectives, and goals be clearly defined and that pruning principles are developed accordingly. Mediumto high-density plantings require greater commitment to detailed training and pruning than low-density orchards and should not be attempted unless such a commitment is made.
|Jul 15, 2020||422-021(SPES-222P)|
|Growing Apples in Virginia||
Growing apples in the home garden can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience, but consistent production of high quality fruit requires knowledge of tree and fruit growth and a willingness to perform certain practices at the appropriate time. Virginia is on the southern fringe of the U. S. apple producing region. Most apple varieties produce the highest quality fruit when night-time temperatures are cool (less than 60°F) at harvest time. Apples grown under warmer conditions tend to be large, soft, poorly colored, and less flavorful than when grown under cooler conditions. Our warm humid summers are also conducive for infection of many diseases. For these reasons, the best Virginia apples are grown at elevations higher than 800 feet above sea level in the western part of the state. However, even apples grown in eastern Virginia usually have quality superior to apples purchased in the supermarkets.
|Feb 16, 2015||422-023 (HORT-95P)|
|Training and Pruning Apple Trees in Intensive Orchards||
Since the mid 1970s in the U. S., the number of apple trees per acre in new orchards has gradually been increasing. Orchard intensification is motivated by the desire to produce fruit early in the life of the orchard to rapidly recover establishment costs. Intensification is possible by using dwarfing rootstocks that control tree size, induce early cropping, and produce large quantities of fruit relative to the amount of wood produced.
|Feb 24, 2015||422-024 (HORT-99P)|
|Physiology of Pruning Fruit Trees||
Woody plants are pruned to maintain a desired size and shape and to promote a certain type of growth. Ornamental plants are pruned to improve the aesthetic quality of the plant, but fruit trees are pruned to improve fruit quality by encouraging an appropriate balance between vegetative (wood) and reproductive (fruiting) growth.
|Feb 26, 2015||422-025 (HORT-98P)|
|1995 Apple Variety Evaluations||
There are more than 2,000 apple varieties and new varieties are becoming available each year. Some apple varieties perform optimally under specific climatic conditions. Therefore, varieties must be evaluated in many geographical locations to determine adaptation to local conditions. Results from one such evaluation trial are presented in this bulletin. Fifty apple varieties on the dwarfing rootstocks M.9, MARK, or M.26 were planted in 1986 or 1988 near Blacksburg, Virginia. Blacksburg is located in the Allegheny mountains at 2,200 feet above sea level. All varieties were evaluated for at least three years.
|Feb 24, 2015||422-760 (AREC-130P)|
|1988-1995 Apricot Variety Evaluations in Virginia||
Many apricot varieties are available to tree fruit producers. Therefore, growers should become acquainted with characteristics of various varieties grown under Virginia climatic conditions. Currently, apricots are not produced commercially in the mid-Atlantic area because trees bloom early and are susceptible to spring frost. Flower buds are quite resistant to low winter temperatures and there are active apricot breeding programs in Ontario, New York, West Virginia, New Jersey, and Arkansas, as well as in California. If late-blooming productive varieties are planted on the most frost-free sites, and bloom delaying techniques are employed, Virginia fruit growers may be able to profitably produce limited acreages of high-quality apricots.
|Feb 24, 2015||422-761 (HORT-100P)|
|Peach and Nectarine Varieties for Virginia||
Peach and nectarine are both members of the genus and species Prunus persica, and probably differ by only a single gene for skin pubescence (hairs on the fruit surface). One probably originated as a mutation of the other, but we do not know which came first. The species originated in China and was taken by traders from there into Persia, Greece, Italy, and other temperate areas of Europe. Peach and nectarine varieties may have yellow or white flesh. In Virginia different varieties ripen over a wide range of dates, from early June until mid-September. Varieties also differ in fruit size, susceptibility to some diseases and susceptibility to low winter temperatures, chilling requirements, and fruit disorders such as fruit cracking and split-pit. Descriptions of some of these characteristics are included in the next section of this publication.
|Feb 23, 2015||422-762 (AREC-128P)|
|Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia||Dec 19, 2018||424-006 (SPES-81P)|
|Container and Raised-Bed Gardening||Nov 5, 2018||426-020|
|Daylilies in Virginia||May 1, 2009||426-030|
|Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration||
Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment — an important part of the natural water cycle (VADEQ 2010).
|Jun 2, 2020||426-046(HORT-160P)|
|Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners||May 1, 2009||426-059|
|Gardening & Your Health, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome||
Gardening with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can be very difficult, especially when a long day of shoveling, raking, or weed pulling leaves you with a painful or “tingling” hand or wrist. These aches and pains are often caused in part by improper techniques or tools used in gardening.
|Jun 1, 2017||426-060 (HORT-245NP)|
|Gardening and Your Health: Protecting Your Hands and Feet||
The skin on hands and feet is like most ornamental plants. Neither likes the extremes of being dried out or kept too wet. Treat skin as tenderly as the most sensitive plants and safeguard your horticultural health.
|Apr 29, 2015||426-061 (HORT-135P)|
|Gardening and Your Health: Sunburn & Skin Cancer||
Most people have suffered from at least one bad sunburn. The beginning of a sunburn is shown by hot, pink skin. Later comes swelling, burning pain, and possibly blistering. As the burn leaves, peeling inevitably appears. Peeling means that the skin is thickening up to protect itself from further sun damage. If burned skin continues to get exposed to sun, damage can’t be repaired. Even if damage is not visible, skin cells mutate with each sun exposure. Over a lifetime these mutations may add up to cancer, a problem seen on gardeners who work unprotected in the sun. A severe sunburn is one of the biggest risk factors in getting a melanoma skin cancer.
|Mar 18, 2015||426-063 (HORT-133P)|
|Gardening and Your Health: Protecting Your Knees and Back||
Many gardening tasks require knee strength and stability, whether kneeling, sitting, standing, or walking. The best way to protect knees from the stress and strain is to condition them with strengthening exercises and stretching.
|May 22, 2015||426-065(HORT-128P)|
|Gardening and Your Health: Plant Allergies||
Allergic reactions are caused by an overactive immune system response to a foreign substance such as pollen, dust, or molds. When this reaction affects the eyes or nose, it results in allergic rhinitis. Typical symptoms include sneezing, a runny nose, and itchy watery eyes. When an inflammation affects the bronchial tubes, it results in asthma. Typical symptoms include wheezing and shortness of breath.
|Mar 18, 2015||426-067 (HORT-129P)|
|Backyard Wildlife Habitats||Mar 6, 2015||426-070 (HORT-155P)|
|Invasive Plants -- A Horticultural Perspective||Apr 28, 2009||426-080|
|Home Hydroponics||May 1, 2009||426-084|
|The Effect of Landscape Plants on Perceived Home Value||Nov 5, 2018||426-087|
|Indoor Plant Culture||Nov 5, 2018||426-100|
|Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!||May 9, 2018||426-109 (HORT-292P)|
|Patriotic Gardens: How to Plant a Red, White and Blue Garden||Jul 9, 2020||426-210 (HORT-185)|
|America's Anniversary Garden: A Statewide Corridor and Entrance Enhancement Program||Jul 9, 2020||426-211 (HORT-186P)|
|Patriotic Gardens: Bulbs for a Red, White, and Blue Spring Garden||
Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden™ to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden. This is the third in a series of VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for America’s Anniversary Garden™.
|Apr 9, 2015||426-220(HORT-163P)|
|Patriotic Gardens: Red, White, and Blue Native Plants||
In 2007, Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape, garden, or container planting. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden.
|Jan 14, 2015||426-223 (HORT-86P)|
|America's Anniversary Garden: Red, White, and Blue in Fall and Winter Gardens||
Virginia Cooperative Extension developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Other VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for patriotic gardens are listed in the Resources section.
|Apr 10, 2015||426-228(HORT-164P)|
|Planning the Vegetable Garden||
How much time will you be able to devote to your garden on a regular basis? The answer to this question will dictate the size of your garden. You must remember that, once planted, the garden will have to be weeded once a week, irrigated during droughts, and vegetables harvested when ripe. Depending on the type of vegetables, you may also need to undertake pest control measures.
|Dec 11, 2015||426-312 (HORT-209P)|
|Intensive Gardening Methods||Nov 5, 2018||426-335|
|Weeds in the Home Vegetable Garden||Apr 22, 2015||426-364 (HORT-157P)|
|Season Extenders||Apr 22, 2015||426-381 (HORT-159P)|
|Asparagus||Mar 6, 2015||426-401(HORT-152P)|
|Beans||Apr 16, 2015||426-402 (HORT-145P)|
|Cole Crops or Brassicas||Apr 21, 2015||426-403 (HORT-156P)|
|Sweet Corn||Mar 16, 2015||426-405 (HORT-151P)|
|Cucumbers, Melons and Squash||
Varieties include both the slicer or fresh salad type and the pickle type (which can also be used fresh); vined, dwarfvined and bush varieties; all female or all-female seedless (no pollination required); burpless; and, various mixtures of these characteristics. Disease resistance is available in many varieties.
|Mar 16, 2015||426-406 (HORT-147P)|
|Leafy Green Vegetables||
Lettuce, a cool-season vegetable crop, is one of the easiest to grow. Lettuce withstands light frost; however, sunlight and high summer temperatures usually cause seedstalk formation (bolting) and bitter flavor. Slow-bolting or heat-resistant varieties are available and are recommended for extending the lettuce-growing season.
|Mar 16, 2015||426-408 (HORT-148P)|
|Onions, Garlic, and Shallots||
Onions are often grouped according to taste. The two main types of onions are strong flavored (American) and mild (often called European). Each has three distinct colors, yellow, white, and red. In general, the American onion produces bulbs of smaller size, denser texture, stronger flavor, and better keeping quality than European types. Globe varieties tend to keep longer in storage.
|Mar 16, 2015||426-411(HORT-143P)|
|Potatoes, Peppers and Eggplant||Apr 16, 2015||426-413 (HORT-146P)|
Tomatoes are valuable garden plants in that they require relatively little space for large production. Each standard tomato plant, properly cared for, yields 10 to 15 pounds or more of fruit.Diane Relf, Retired Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Alan McDaniel, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Ronald Morse, Former Associate Professor, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Reviewed by John Freeborn, Assistant Master Gardener Coordinator, Horticulture, Virginia Tech
|Sep 29, 2016||426-418 (HORT-288P)|
|Root Crops||Mar 5, 2015||426-422 (HORT-150P)|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Boxwoods||Mar 23, 2018||426-603 (HORT-290P)|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Groundcovers||Nov 19, 2018||426-609 (HORT-31P)|
|Planting on Your Septic Drain Field||Oct 15, 2010||426-617|
|Getting Started in the Production of Field-Grown, Specialty Cut Flowers||
Specialty cut flowers are one of the most profitable field crops you can grow. Lynn Byczynski, editor of Growing For Market newsletter (see Resources section), estimates a value of $25,000 to $35,000 per acre for field-grown cuts. The most basic requirements are at least half an acre of open, arable land, a rototiller, and, of course, time and effort. This publication is directed to those new to market gardening, but commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Even grain and livestock farmers have increased profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slower, relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.
|Nov 13, 2019||426-618 (SPES-171P)|
|Field Production of Cut Flowers: Potential Crops||May 1, 2009||426-619|
|Shrubs: Functions, Planting, and Maintenance||Nov 5, 2018||426-701|
|Choosing Pesticides Wisely||
Healthy plants are less susceptible to attack by pests, and good cultural practices can reduce pest outbreaks.
|Jan 15, 2016||426-706 (HORT-202P)|
|Understanding Pesticide Labels||Jan 14, 2016||426-707 (HORT-201P)|
|Applying Pesticides Safely||Jan 19, 2016||426-710 (HORT-199P)|
|Conserving Energy with Landscaping||
Well-placed plantings can significantly alter the microclimate around a home, resulting in a more comfortable environment and significant savings in heating and cooling costs over time.
|Apr 6, 2015||426-712 (HORT-110P)|
|Creating a Water-Wise Landscape||Feb 3, 2016||426-713 (HORT-200P)|
|Diagnosing Plant Problems||Nov 6, 2018||426-714|
|Calibrating Your Lawn Spreader||May 1, 2009||430-017|
|Fertilización de árboles y arbustos||
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
|Feb 18, 2016||430-018S (HORT-165P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- The Walnut Tree: Allelopathic Effects and Tolerant Plants||Apr 10, 2015||430-021(HORT-113P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution||Apr 8, 2015||430-022 (HORT-123P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Landscape Containers and Planters||
Planting trees in aboveground containers and planters is becoming a common practice on sites that are not suited for inground planting. Containers differ from raised planters in that they are usually smaller in volume and moveable, whereas planters are generally larger, and often built as part of the permanent hardscape (paving, etc.). The greatest challenge in selecting trees for containers and planters is in choosing trees that can survive temperature extremes, and that can establish roots in a limited volume of substrate (potting soil). Consider several factors when selecting containers and trees including environmental influences, container and planter design, substrate type, and tree characteristics.
|Apr 9, 2015||430-023 (HORT-119P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Hot Sites||
Hot landscape sites require special consideration before trees are planted. Trees can survive, and even thrive, in hot sites if the site is prepared correctly, if heat-tolerant species are selected, and if the trees are properly maintained. A variety of different locations and situations qualify as hot landscape sites.
|Apr 9, 2015||430-024 (HORT-118P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Screening||
Using trees as living screens can easily enhance living and working spaces. Before selecting trees for screening, first determine the screen’s purpose, whether functional or environmental. Screening can be used to define an area, modify or hide a view, create privacy, block wind, dust, salt and snow, control noise, filter light, and direct traffic flow.
|Apr 9, 2015||430-025 (HORT-117P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Wet and Dry Sites||
To grow, all trees require air, light, water and nutrients. Some trees can survive over a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, whereas others are very site specific. Both wet and dry sites present establishment and growth challenges, making selection of the right tree for the right site very important.
|Apr 8, 2015||430-026 (HORT-114P)|
|Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils||
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
|Apr 8, 2015||430-027 (HORT-115P)|
|Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas||May 1, 2009||430-028|
|Getting Started in the Nursery Business: Nursery Production Options||
The nursery industry in Virginia has enjoyed an extended period of growth and expansion. Consequently, there is considerable interest in and some potential for new business opportunities in the industry. Another consequence of this period of economic growth is an increase in competition within the industry to supply the growing demand for landscape plants. Those interested in getting into the nursery business are strongly encouraged to invest their time and energy into learning as much as they can about the modern nursery industry, and the many options now available in nursery production, before they invest any money in facilities and operations.
|Apr 27, 2015||430-050 (HORT-89P)|
|Monitoring Nutrients in Large Nursery Containers||May 1, 2009||430-070|
|The Basics of Fertilizer Calculations for Greenhouse Crops||Sep 21, 2015||430-100 (HORT-187P)|
|Dealing with the High Cost of Energy for Greenhouse Operations||Mar 16, 2018||430-101 (HORT-284P)|
|Using Plant Growth Regulators on Containerized Herbaceous Perennials||Mar 22, 2018||430-103 (HORT-281)|
|Resources for Greenhouse and Nursery Operations and Operators||May 6, 2016||430-104 (HORT-188P)|
|Virginia Firescapes: Firewise Landscaping for Woodland Homes||
When the forest becomes a community, forest fires and homes are inseparable. A home in a woodland setting is surrounded by flammable vegetation. Firewise landscaping can help you create a defensible space or buffer zone around your home. This not only helps to keep fire from approaching your woodland home, but it also provides a safe space in which firefighters can work.
|Jul 14, 2015||430-300(HORT-136P)|
|Pruning Crapemyrtles||May 1, 2009||430-451|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Pumpkins||May 1, 2009||438-100|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Ornamental Gourds||May 1, 2009||438-101|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Asparagus||
Asparagus, (Asparagus officinalis), is a hardy perennial vegetable belonging to the Lily Family. It is grown for its succulent early spring vegetative shoots that originate from an underground crown (Figure 1). Nutritionally, asparagus is almost 92 percent water, and it provides fairly high amounts of carbohydrates, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, thiamine, and phosphorus. A native of coastal Europe, asparagus has naturalized over much of the eastern United States. With the assistance of man and birds that have spread the seeds, asparagus can be found in gardens, old homesteads, fencerows, roadsides, and railroad right of ways across the state. It is well adapted to most of Virginia, preferring well-drained loam soils and easily tolerating winter cold and summer heat. Asparagus is long lived, and a well-managed planting can last 10 to 15 years. For those considering it as a potential crop, good planning and soil preparation are essential for long-term success.
|Jan 28, 2015||438-102 (HORT-91P)|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Blueberries||May 1, 2009||438-103|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Horseradish||May 1, 2009||438-104|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Ribes (Currants and Gooseberries)||May 1, 2009||438-107|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Globe Artichoke||
Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is an herbaceous perennial that is grown for its tender, edible, immature flower buds. The globe artichoke should not be confused with Jerusalem artichoke, another member of the composite family native to North America, which is grown for its fleshy tubers. Globe artichoke plants can become large: four to five feet tall and wide, with long, heavily serrated silvery green leaves (Figure 1a).
|Jan 28, 2015||438-108 (HORT-92P)|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Rhubarb||May 1, 2009||438-110|
|Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity||Oct 11, 2019||445-004|
|Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes||
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
|Jun 27, 2016||450-236 (PPWS-69P)|
|Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes||
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
|Oct 19, 2016||450-237 (PPWS-70P)|
|Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report)||Oct 11, 2019||452-719|
|Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2020||
This 2019 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for controlling diseases, insects, and weeds for home grounds and animals. The chemical controls in this guide are based on the latest pesticide label information at the time of writing. Because pesticide labels change, read the label directions carefully before buying and using any pesticide. Regardless of the information provided here, always follow the latest product label instructions when using any pesticide.
|Feb 5, 2020||456-018 (ENTO-336P)|
|2020-2021 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations||
This guide lists vegetable varieties that are available and are adapted to the mid-Atlantic region, gives an overview of cultural practices, and list chemicals recommended to manage pests, diseases and weeds in vegetable crops. New varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. While all efforts are made to have comprehensive lists, not all varieties that are adapted will be listed.
|Mar 9, 2020||456-420 (SPES-193P)|
|User Notes for Small-scale Virginia Commercial Hops Production Enterprise Budgets and Financial Statements||Feb 26, 2019||AAEC-170NP|
|VCE Model of Community, Local, Regional Food Systems||Oct 7, 2016||ALCE-154NP|
|Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems||Nov 2, 2016||ALCE-155NP|
|Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Report||Oct 7, 2016||ALCE-156NP|
|Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Executive Summary||
Virginia’s food system directly impacts the survival and viability of farms and farmland; the economic development of rural and urban communities; the care, restoration, and resilience of ecological resources such as local waterways; and critical health issues. We use the language of community, local, and regional food systems to broadly define a complex and interconnected set of systems and pathways that comprise sustainable food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management to bring about social, economic, and ecological change that benefits all residents.
|Oct 7, 2016||ALCE-157NP|
|Lawn Care Safety for the Whole Family During COVID-19||Apr 9, 2020||ALCE-193NP|
|Impact of Composting on Drug Residues in Large Animal Mortality||
Mortalities are inevitable in animal agriculture. For most animal operations in the United States, the average annual mortality is estimated to be between 4.5 and 6 percent of the livestock population. Common methods of mortality disposal include burial, rendering, incineration, and use of a landfill. The availability of options for disposing of mortality, particularly rendering, have changed in recent years, and financially and environmentally sound alternatives are needed
|Sep 25, 2014||APSC-59P|
|Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia||
In the Commonwealth of Virginia, water resources are increasingly being scrutinized due to changing surface water or groundwater availability. Access to good quality water is a continuing concern, and in many communities, managing water use — particularly consumptive use — is a priority to conserve public water supplies to meet the needs of a growing population.
|Sep 23, 2016||BSE-198P|
|Viticulture Management||Oct 22, 2019||ENTO-339NP|
|Manejo Del Viñedo||Oct 22, 2019||ENTO-339S|
|Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule: Worker Health, Hygiene and Training||Jun 5, 2017||FST-278NP|
|Goldenchain tree, Laburnum × watereri||Sep 20, 2018||HORT-10NP|
|Hinoki Falsecypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa||Sep 20, 2018||HORT-11NP|
|Japanese Cryptomeria, Cryptomeria japonica||Sep 27, 2018||HORT-12NP|
|Japanese Stewartia, Stewartia pseudocamellia||Sep 27, 2018||HORT-13NP|
|Japanese Zelkova, Zelkova serrata||Sep 27, 2018||HORT-14NP|
|Katsuratree, Cercidiphyllum japonicum||Sep 27, 2018||HORT-15NP|
|Kousa Dogwood, Cornus kousa||Oct 1, 2018||HORT-16NP|
|Lacebark Pine, Pinus bungeana||Oct 1, 2018||HORT-17NP|
|Leyland Cypress, Cupressocyparis leylandii||Oct 2, 2018||HORT-18NP|
|Hops in Virginia: Need-to-Know Information about Extension Resources||Jan 24, 2018||HORT-182NP (HORT-287NP)|
|Hops in Virginia: Need-to-Know Information about the Industry||
Background: Hops were grown in Virginia even in the days of Thomas Jefferson, but production eventually shifted away from the east coast in favor of the Pacific Northwest. For the past few decades, hops have not been grown commercially on a substantial level in Virginia. However, beginning several years ago when the craft brewing industry surged, renewed interest in hops production led to a rapid increase in the number of hobby and commercial hops growers. A fall 2014 survey showed approximately 50 growers in the state, but as of 2015 many new growers have been added to the ranks. Much of the production is clustered in Northern Virginia and the I-81 and I-64 corridors, but growers can be found in all regions of the state stretching from Southeast to Southwest Virginia.
|Jan 24, 2018||HORT-183NP (HORT-288NP)|
|Vertical Gardening Using Trellises, Stakes, and Cages||
Vertical gardening is the practice of “gardening up,” in which a variety of structures are used to elevate plant growth to take advantage of vertical space. Vertical gardening is well-suited to urban areas where space is limited and gardeners are interested in using space most efficiently. Balconies, decks, patios, windowsills, fence lines, and backyard gardens are excellent places to practice vertical gardening. This publication will describe the use of vertical gardening techniques to get the most out of growing vegetables and other plants in these small spaces.
|Jun 17, 2020||HORT-189NP|
|Mimosa (Silk-tree or Albizia), Albizia julibrissin||Oct 2, 2018||HORT-19NP|
|Norway Spruce, Picea abies||Oct 2, 2018||HORT-20NP|
|Paperbark Maple, Acer griseum||Oct 8, 2018||HORT-21NP|
|Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Application||Feb 9, 2016||HORT-211NP|
|Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Re-Enrollment Form||
volunteer re-enrolment form
|Feb 11, 2016||HORT-212NP|
|Wine Making for the Home Gardener||
Wine making has increased in popularity as a hobby for home gardeners who have taken the science and craft beyond the grape vineyard to the bramble patch, vegetable garden, and flower garden. The American Homebrewers Association estimates that more than one million Americans brew beer or make wine at home at least once a year.
|Feb 4, 2016||HORT-213NP|
|Red Buckeye, Aesculus pavia||Oct 9, 2018||HORT-22NP|
|What in the World? International Produce Takes a Stand at Virginia Farmers Markets||May 25, 2016||HORT-225NP|
|Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia||
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are of interest among strawberry and vegetable growers in Virginia looking to diversify their crops. Including blackberries in farm plans could allow these growers to keep their farms and pick-your-own activities open to customers for a longer duration, increasing agritourism and sales; however, Virginia growers lack information on blackberry varieties that perform well in the state.
|Oct 7, 2016||HORT-226P|
|GroZone Tracker||Sep 21, 2016||HORT-227P|
|River Birch, Betula nigra||Oct 3, 2018||HORT-23NP|
|GAPs and FSMA – an Overview for Hop Growers in Virginia||
Food safety is a hot topic for hop growers and brewers. With multiple acronyms for various practices, standards, and regulations: GAPs, FSMA, PSR, PCR, and more; the confusion is understandable. Let’s examine where the small-acreage hop grower fits in. This fact sheet serves as an orientation to these standards,regulations, and practices as they may apply to hops; it is in no way a complete set of guidelines or substitute for training.
|Dec 20, 2016||HORT-237NP|
|Saucer Magnolia, Magnolia ×soulangeana||Oct 3, 2018||HORT-24NP|
|Sawara Falsecypress (Japanese Falsecypress), Chamaecyparis pisifera||Oct 3, 2018||HORT-25NP|
|A Guide to the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Certification Process||Jan 24, 2018||HORT-252NP (HORT-285NP)|
|Guide to Identifying Food Safety Hazards in Greenhouse Systems||
According to the United States Department of Agriculture 2012 Census of Agriculture, sales from greenhouse-grown food crops equaled around $800 million in the U.S. Crops grown included tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, peppers, and berries, with hydroponic production operations making up about 64% of the total production (cwt) (USDA Census of Agriculture, 2012). Demand for greenhouse-grown produce continues to increase, providing growers with unique opportunities to tap into this expanding market. Although greenhouse systems provide a more protected environment than field-grown systems, it is important to understand the unique food safety risks and possible sources of contamination when growing produce in these systems. Identifying food safety hazards are necessary to implementing practices that reduce the risk of contamination during the pre-plant, production, harvest, and post-harvest handling stages. Use the checklist below to guide you in asking important questions targeting possible risks at each of the greenhouse system stages.
|Jul 10, 2017||HORT-254NP|
|Antimicrobial Resistance: What is it and What’s at Stake?||Oct 25, 2017||HORT-257NP|
|How Do We Measure Antimicrobial Resistance?||Oct 25, 2017||HORT-258NP|
|The Phenomenon of Antimicrobial Resistance: A One-Health Issue||Oct 25, 2017||HORT-259NP|
|Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris||Oct 3, 2018||HORT-26NP|
|Understanding the Public Health Risks of Antimicrobial Resistance||Oct 26, 2017||HORT-260NP|
|The Journey of Antibiotics from Farm to Fork||Oct 26, 2017||HORT-261NP|
|What is the Veterinary Feed Directive?||Oct 26, 2017||HORT-262NP|
|Mixed Infection of Strawberry Mottle Virus and Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge Virus in the Southeastern United States||Oct 25, 2017||HORT-268P|
|Sourwood, Oxydendrum arboreum||Oct 5, 2018||HORT-27NP|
|Shoppers Guide for Berry Plants in the Mid-Atlantic and the Carolinas||Sep 22, 2017||HORT-270NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Public School (K-12) Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-275NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Hospital Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-276NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Direct-to-Consumer Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-277NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s College & University Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-278NP|
|Accessing Virginia Market Sectors: Establishing a Marketing Perspective||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-279NP|
|Star Magnolia, Magnolia stellata||Oct 5, 2018||HORT-28NP|
|Sweetpotato Production and Variety Performance in Southeast Virginia, 2015-2016||May 8, 2018||HORT-282P|
|2017 Virginia Hop Grower Survey: Results||Jan 31, 2018||HORT-289NP|
|Umbrella-Pine (Japanese Umbrella-Pine), Sciadopitys verticillata||Oct 4, 2018||HORT-29NP|
|Low Tunnels in Vegetable Crops: Beyond Season Extension||May 30, 2018||HORT-291P|
|Washington Hawthorn, Crataegus phaenopyrum||Oct 4, 2018||HORT-30NP|
|Selecting and Using Plant Growth Regulators on Floricultural Crops||
Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are chemicals that are designed to affect plant growth and/or development (figure 1). They are applied for specific purposes to elicit specific plant responses. Although there is much scientific information on using PGRs in the greenhouse, it is not an exact science. Achieving the best results with PGRs is a combination of art and science — science tempered with a lot of trial and error and a good understanding of plant growth and development. good understanding of plant growth and development.
|Nov 15, 2019||HORT-43P (SPES-149P)|
|Backyard Composting||Feb 27, 2013||HORT-49P|
|American Hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana||Oct 4, 2018||HORT-5NP|
|For the Birds, Butterflies & Hummingbirds: Creating Inviting Habitats||May 13, 2020||HORT-59NP (HORT-74NP)|
|American (Fagus grandifolia) and European (Fagus sylvatica) Beeches||Oct 4, 2018||HORT-6NP|
|Care Sheet for Sabal minor or “Dwarf Palmetto” in Virginia Landscapes||May 29, 2019||HORT-60NP (SPES-137NP)|
|Emerald Ash Borer||
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a wood-boring beetle native to eastern Asia and is now considered the most destructive forest pest ever seen in North America. Since its discovery in Michigan in 2002, it has killed tens of millions of native ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and Canada. This destruction has already cost municipalities, property owners, and businesses tens of millions of dollars in damages.
|May 10, 2020||HORT-69NP|
|Chinese Elm (Lacebark Elm), Ulmus parvifolia||Oct 9, 2018||HORT-7NP|
|Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom||
Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter? The answer is definitely yes! Many people are familiar with the hourglass-shaped vase filled with water and topped with a hyacinth bulb, or a low bowl filled with several Paper White narcissus, and the popular boxed amaryllis bulb as a welcome winter holiday gift. Most bulbs can be forced but additional planning is required in order to have a successful period of blooms.
|Oct 2, 2019||HORT-76NP|
|Chinese Pistache, Pistacia chinensis||Oct 9, 2018||HORT-8NP|
|Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Showy Flowering Shrubs||
This publication features small, medium, and large flowering shrubs (five of each category) with photos. All photos are by the author. There are at least eight shrubs from each category noted in a table (without photos) at the end of this publication. All shrubs — featured or in the table — are landscape worthy and are especially suited to landscapes in Virginia and the Mid-Atlantic States.
|Jul 30, 2020||HORT-84P|
|Douglasfir, Pseudotsuga menziesii||Oct 9, 2018||HORT-9NP|
|Weed Management in Small Fruit Crops||Jan 23, 2018||HORT-286NP|
|2018 Virginia Hop Grower Survey: Results||Apr 10, 2019||SPES-131NP|
|Fresh Hops Harvesting and Handling Tips||Jun 29, 2018||SPES-43NP|
|Glyphosate: Health Controversy, Benefits and Continuing Debate||Sep 20, 2018||SPES-63NP|