Resources for Horticulture

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) Oct 10, 2018 2901-1033NP
American Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea (prior name C. lutea)) Oct 10, 2018 2901-1034NP
Evergreen Azalea (Rhododendron species) Oct 10, 2018 2901-1035NP
Beautybush (Kolkwitzia amabilis) Oct 12, 2018 2901-1036NP
Cherrylaurel (Prunus laurocerasus `Otto Luyken') Oct 12, 2018 2901-1038NP
Cotoneaster Oct 12, 2018 2901-1039NP
Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) Oct 15, 2018 2901-1040NP
Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum) Oct 15, 2018 2901-1041NP
Drooping Leucothoe (Leucothoe fontanesiana) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1042NP
European White Birch (Betula pendula) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1043NP
Flowering Quince Oct 23, 2018 2901-1044NP
Fraser Photinia, Red Tip Oct 23, 2018 2901-1045NP
Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree Oct 23, 2018 2901-1046NP
Goldenraintree Oct 23, 2018 2901-1047NP
Green Ash Oct 23, 2018 2901-1048NP
Japanese Maple Oct 23, 2018 2901-1049NP
Japanese Barberry Oct 23, 2018 2901-1050NP
Japanese Camillia (Camellia japonica) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1051NP
Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1052NP
Japanese Pagodatree, Sophora Oct 5, 2018 2901-1053NP
Leatherleaf Viburnum (Viburnum rhytidophyllum) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1054NP
Littleleaf Linden (Tilia cordata) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1055NP
Live Oak (Quercus virginiana) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1056NP
London Planetree (Platanus x acerifolia) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1057NP
Nandina, Heavenly Bamboo (Nandina domestica) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1058NP
Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1059
Old Fashioned Weigela (Weigela florida) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1060
Oregon Grape Holly (Mahonia) (Mahonia aquifolium) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1061
Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) Oct 5, 2018 2901-1062
Privet (Ligustrum species) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1063
Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1064
Evergreen Rhododendron (Rhododendron species) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1065
Rose-of-Sharon, Shrub Althea (Hibiscus syriacus) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1066
Scarlet Firethorn, Pyracantha (Pyracantha coccinea) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1067
Smokebush, Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) Oct 17, 2018 2901-1068
Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Oct 19, 2018 2901-1069
Southern Waxmyrtle (Myrica cerifera) Oct 19, 2018 2901-1070
Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Oct 19, 2018 2901-1071
Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1072
Thornless Common Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1073
Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1074
Vanhoutte Spirea (Spiraea x vanhouttei) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1075
White Oak (Quercus alba) Oct 24, 2018 2901-1076
Winterberry (Ilex verticillata) Oct 26, 2018 2901-1077
Wintercreeper Euonymus (Eunymus fortunei) Oct 26, 2018 2901-1078
Yaupon Holly Cultivars (Ilex vomitoria ) Oct 26, 2018 2901-1079
Austrian Pine, Pinus nigra Oct 26, 2018 3010-1462
Bigleaf Hydrangea, Hydrangea macrophylla Oct 26, 2018 3010-1463
Bradford Callery Pear (and other cultivars) Pyrus calleryana ‘Bradford’ Oct 26, 2018 3010-1464
Canadian Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Oct 31, 2018 3010-1465
Carolina Silverbell, Halesia carolina (formerly H. tetraptera) Oct 31, 2018 3010-1466
Cedars, Cedrus spp. Oct 31, 2018 3010-1467
Chastetree, Monk’s Pepper Tree, Vitex agnus-castus Oct 31, 2018 3010-1468
Chinese Juniper, Juniperus chinensis Oct 31, 2018 3010-1469
Colorado Spruce, Picea pungens var. glauca Oct 31, 2018 3010-1470
Cornelian Cherry Dogwood, Cornus mas Oct 31, 2018 3010-1472
Creeping Juniper, Juniperus horizontalis Oct 31, 2018 3010-1473
Dawn Redwood, Metasequoia glyptostroboides Oct 31, 2018 3010-1474
Eastern Arborvitae, American Arborvitae, White Cedar, Thuja occidentalis Oct 31, 2018 3010-1476
Eastern Redcedar, Juniperus virginiana Oct 31, 2018 3010-1477
English Ivy, Hedera helix Oct 24, 2018 3010-1478NP
European Cranberrybush Viburnum (Guelder Rose), Viburnum opulus Nov 27, 2018 3010-1479NP
European Hornbeam, Carpinus betulus Nov 6, 2018 3010-1480NP
European Larch, Larix decidua Nov 6, 2018 3010-1481NP
Evergreen Hollies, (Ilex spp.) Nov 8, 2018 3010-1482NP
Flowering Crabapple Nov 8, 2018 3010-1483NP
Franklinia Nov 21, 2018 3010-1485NP
Garden Sumacs, Rhus spp. Nov 21, 2018 3010-1486NP
Giant Arborviatae, Western Arborvitae Nov 21, 2018 3010-1487NP
Glossy Abelia Nov 21, 2018 3010-1488NP
Heaths (several species of Erica) and Heathers (Calluna vulgaris) Nov 21, 2018 3010-1489NP
Japanese Garden Juniper Nov 21, 2018 3010-1490NP
Japanese Pachysandra, Japanese Spurge Nov 21, 2018 3010-1491NP
Japanese Pieris Nov 21, 2018 3010-1492NP
Lilacs Nov 21, 2018 3010-1493NP
Mountain-Laurel Nov 21, 2018 3010-1494NP
Mugo Pine, Pinus mugo Sep 17, 2018 3010-1495NP
Oriental Arborvitae, Thuja orientalis (also known as Platycladus orientalis) Sep 18, 2018 3010-1496NP
Red Twig Dogwoods, Tatarian Dogwood (Cornus alba) and Redosier Dogwood (Cornus sericea) Sep 21, 2018 3010-1497NP
Shore Juniper Nov 21, 2018 3010-1498NP
White Fringetree, Old-man’s-beard Nov 22, 2018 3010-1499NP
Yews, Taxus spp. Nov 22, 2018 3010-1500NP
Yuccas, Yucca spp. Nov 23, 2018 3010-1501NP
Growing Pears in Virginia
Pears are the second most important deciduous tree fruit after apple, and it has been grown in Europe since prehistoric times. Pears belong to the genus Pyrus and probably originated near the Black and Caspian Seas. French and English colonists brought pears to America and the first record of pears in the North America was in Massachusetts in 1630. Although pear is a popular fruit, it is not grown as widely as apple. Pears can be grown throughout much of North America because they tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions.
Sep 14, 2020 422-017 (SPES-257P)
Growing Cherries in Virginia
Cherries are grown in many parts of the world, but they have never gained the popularity in North America that they have in Europe and the Middle East. Cherries probably originated in the region between the Caspian and Black Seas, where trees still grow in the wild.
Sep 21, 2020 422-018 (SPES-258P)
Growing Peaches and Nectarines in Virginia
An orchard is a long-term investment and careful planning is essential to ensure economic success. Establishing and maintaining a peach planting to bearing age (three years) costs about $3,500 per acre. Mistakes made at planting often cannot be corrected; other mistakes that can be corrected could seriously jeopardize the economic success of the orchard. Because profit margins for commercial fruit plantings are small, orchards should be established only under the most favorable conditions for success.
Aug 17, 2020 422-019 (SPES-232P)
Pruning Peach Trees
Annual pruning is a critical management practice for producing easily harvested, heavy crops of high quality peaches. However, pruning is not a substitute for other orchard practices such as fertilization, irrigation, and pest control. Pruning practices vary slightly in different regions of the United States, but have changed little in the East during the past 70 years. Although pruning may vary slightly for different varieties and localities, certain general practices should be followed. The successful pruner must understand the principles of plant growth, the natural growth habit of the tree, and how the tree will respond to certain types of pruning cuts. Improper pruning will reduce yield and fruit quality.
Jul 15, 2020 422-020 (SPES-221P)
Training and Pruning Apple Trees
Proper training and pruning of trees is a major component of a profitable apple orchard operation. Successful pruning is an art based upon scientific principles of tree growth and physiology and an experienced understanding of tree response to various pruning cuts and practices. Each tree is an individual and should be treated accordingly. Varieties differ in growth characteristics and response to pruning cuts, rootstocks, soil, and growing conditions. It is important that orchard designs, objectives, and goals be clearly defined and that pruning principles are developed accordingly. Mediumto high-density plantings require greater commitment to detailed training and pruning than low-density orchards and should not be attempted unless such a commitment is made.
Jul 15, 2020 422-021(SPES-222P)
Growing Apples in Virginia
Growing apples in the home garden can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience, but consistent production of high quality fruit requires knowledge of tree and fruit growth and a willingness to perform certain practices at the appropriate time. Virginia is on the southern fringe of the U. S. apple producing region. Most apple varieties produce the highest quality fruit when night-time temperatures are cool (less than 60°F) at harvest time. Apples grown under warmer conditions tend to be large, soft, poorly colored, and less flavorful than when grown under cooler conditions. Our warm humid summers are also conducive for infection of many diseases. For these reasons, the best Virginia apples are grown at elevations higher than 800 feet above sea level in the western part of the state. However, even apples grown in eastern Virginia usually have quality superior to apples purchased in the supermarkets.
Aug 17, 2020 422-023 (SPES-233P)
Training and Pruning Apple Trees in Intensive Orchards
Since the mid 1970s in the U. S., the number of apple trees per acre in new orchards has gradually been increasing. Orchard intensification is motivated by the desire to produce fruit early in the life of the orchard to rapidly recover establishment costs. Intensification is possible by using dwarfing rootstocks that control tree size, induce early cropping, and produce large quantities of fruit relative to the amount of wood produced.
Aug 17, 2020 422-024 (SPES-234P)
Physiology of Pruning Fruit Trees
Woody plants are pruned to maintain a desired size and shape and to promote a certain type of growth. Ornamental plants are pruned to improve the aesthetic quality of the plant, but fruit trees are pruned to improve fruit quality by encouraging an appropriate balance between vegetative (wood) and reproductive (fruiting) growth.
Aug 17, 2020 422-025 (SPES-235P)
Peach and Nectarine Varieties for Virginia
Peach and nectarine are both members of the genus and species Prunus persica, and probably differ by only a single gene for skin pubescence (hairs on the fruit surface). One probably originated as a mutation of the other, but we do not know which came first. The species originated in China and was taken by traders from there into Persia, Greece, Italy, and other temperate areas of Europe. Peach and nectarine varieties may have yellow or white flesh. In Virginia different varieties ripen over a wide range of dates, from early June until mid-September. Varieties also differ in fruit size, susceptibility to some diseases and susceptibility to low winter temperatures, chilling requirements, and fruit disorders such as fruit cracking and split-pit. Descriptions of some of these characteristics are included in the next section of this publication.
Aug 17, 2020 422-762 (SPES-236P)
Container and Raised-Bed Gardening Nov 5, 2018 426-020
Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration
Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment — an important part of the natural water cycle (VADEQ 2010).
Jun 2, 2020 426-046(HORT-160P)
Gardening & Your Health, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Gardening with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can be very difficult, especially when a long day of shoveling, raking, or weed pulling leaves you with a painful or “tingling” hand or wrist. These aches and pains are often caused in part by improper techniques or tools used in gardening.
Jun 1, 2017 426-060 (HORT-245NP)
Backyard Wildlife Habitats Oct 28, 2020 426-070 (SPES-247P)
The Effect of Landscape Plants on Perceived Home Value Nov 5, 2018 426-087
Indoor Plant Culture Nov 5, 2018 426-100
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be! May 9, 2018 426-109 (HORT-292P)
Patriotic Gardens: How to Plant a Red, White and Blue Garden Jul 9, 2020 426-210 (HORT-185)
America's Anniversary Garden: A Statewide Corridor and Entrance Enhancement Program Jul 9, 2020 426-211 (HORT-186P)
Intensive Gardening Methods Nov 5, 2018 426-335
Asparagus Sep 16, 2020 426-401 (SPES-250P)
Sweet Corn Sep 16, 2020 426-405 (SPES-251P)
Cucumbers, Melons and Squash
Varieties include both the slicer or fresh salad type and the pickle type (which can also be used fresh); vined, dwarfvined and bush varieties; all female or all-female seedless (no pollination required); burpless; and, various mixtures of these characteristics. Disease resistance is available in many varieties.
Sep 16, 2020 426-406 (SPES-252P)
Leafy Green Vegetables
Lettuce, a cool-season vegetable crop, is one of the easiest to grow. Lettuce withstands light frost; however, sunlight and high summer temperatures usually cause seedstalk formation (bolting) and bitter flavor. Slow-bolting or heat-resistant varieties are available and are recommended for extending the lettuce-growing season.
Mar 16, 2015 426-408 (SPES-253P)
Onions, Garlic, and Shallots
Onions are often grouped according to taste. The two main types of onions are strong flavored (American) and mild (often called European). Each has three distinct colors, yellow, white, and red. In general, the American onion produces bulbs of smaller size, denser texture, stronger flavor, and better keeping quality than European types. Globe varieties tend to keep longer in storage.
Sep 16, 2020 426-411 (SPES-254P)
Tomatoes
Tomatoes are valuable garden plants in that they require relatively little space for large production. Each standard tomato plant, properly cared for, yields 10 to 15 pounds or more of fruit.Diane Relf, Retired Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Alan McDaniel, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Ronald Morse, Former Associate Professor, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Reviewed by John Freeborn, Assistant Master Gardener Coordinator, Horticulture, Virginia Tech
May 5, 2021 426-418 (HORT-288P)
Root Crops Sep 16, 2020 426-422 (SPES-249P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Boxwoods Mar 23, 2018 426-603 (HORT-290P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Groundcovers Nov 19, 2018 426-609 (HORT-31P)
Getting Started in the Production of Field-Grown, Specialty Cut Flowers
Specialty cut flowers are one of the most profitable field crops you can grow. Lynn Byczynski, editor of Growing For Market newsletter (see Resources section), estimates a value of $25,000 to $35,000 per acre for field-grown cuts. The most basic requirements are at least half an acre of open, arable land, a rototiller, and, of course, time and effort. This publication is directed to those new to market gardening, but commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Even grain and livestock farmers have increased profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slower, relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.
Nov 13, 2019 426-618 (SPES-171P)
Field Production of Cut Flowers: Potential Crops May 1, 2009 426-619
Shrubs: Functions, Planting, and Maintenance Nov 5, 2018 426-701
Using Compost in Your Landscape Mar 13, 2021 426-704 (SPES-304P)
Creating a Water-Wise Landscape Feb 2, 2021 426-713 (HORT-200P)
Diagnosing Plant Problems Nov 6, 2018 426-714
Fertilización de árboles y arbustos
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
Jul 12, 2021 430-018S (SPES-338P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution Aug 10, 2020 430-022 (HORT-123P)
Getting Started in the Nursery Business: Nursery Production Options
The nursery industry in Virginia has enjoyed an extended period of growth and expansion. Consequently, there is considerable interest in and some potential for new business opportunities in the industry. Another consequence of this period of economic growth is an increase in competition within the industry to supply the growing demand for landscape plants. Those interested in getting into the nursery business are strongly encouraged to invest their time and energy into learning as much as they can about the modern nursery industry, and the many options now available in nursery production, before they invest any money in facilities and operations.
Apr 27, 2015 430-050 (HORT-89P)
The Basics of Fertilizer Calculations for Greenhouse Crops Oct 23, 2020 430-100 (SPES-263P)
Dealing with the High Cost of Energy for Greenhouse Operations Mar 16, 2018 430-101 (HORT-284P)
Using Plant Growth Regulators on Containerized Herbaceous Perennials Mar 22, 2018 430-103 (HORT-281)
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity Oct 11, 2019 445-004
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
Jun 27, 2022 450-236 (PPWS-69P)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
Oct 19, 2016 450-237 (PPWS-70P)
Explanation of Soil Tests
The accompanying Soil Test Report will help you assess your plant's need for fertilizer and lime.
Dec 7, 2018 452-701 (SPES-75NP)
Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report) Oct 11, 2019 452-719
2022-2023 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations
This guide lists vegetable varieties that are available and are adapted to the mid-Atlantic region, gives an overview of cultural practices, and list chemicals recommended to manage pests, diseases and weeds in vegetable crops. New varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. While all efforts are made to have comprehensive lists, not all varieties that are adapted will be listed.
Feb 17, 2022 456-420 (SPES-391P)
User Notes for Small-scale Virginia Commercial Hops Production Enterprise Budgets and Financial Statements Feb 26, 2019 AAEC-170NP
VCE Model of Community, Local, Regional Food Systems May 20, 2022 ALCE-154NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems Apr 22, 2022 ALCE-155NP (ALCE-291NP)
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Report Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-156NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Executive Summary
Virginia’s food system directly impacts the survival and viability of farms and farmland; the economic development of rural and urban communities; the care, restoration, and resilience of ecological resources such as local waterways; and critical health issues. We use the language of community, local, and regional food systems to broadly define a complex and interconnected set of systems and pathways that comprise sustainable food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management to bring about social, economic, and ecological change that benefits all residents.
Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-157NP
Lawn Care Safety for the Whole Family During COVID-19 Apr 9, 2020 ALCE-193NP
Viticulture Management Poster Oct 22, 2019 ENTO-339NP
Manejo Del Viñedo Oct 22, 2019 ENTO-339S
Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule: Worker Health, Hygiene and Training Jun 5, 2017 FST-278NP
Goldenchain tree, Laburnum × watereri Sep 20, 2018 HORT-10NP
Hinoki Falsecypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa Sep 20, 2018 HORT-11NP
Japanese Cryptomeria, Cryptomeria japonica Sep 27, 2018 HORT-12NP
Japanese Stewartia, Stewartia pseudocamellia Sep 27, 2018 HORT-13NP
Japanese Zelkova, Zelkova serrata Sep 27, 2018 HORT-14NP
Katsuratree, Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sep 27, 2018 HORT-15NP
Kousa Dogwood, Cornus kousa Oct 1, 2018 HORT-16NP
Lacebark Pine, Pinus bungeana Oct 1, 2018 HORT-17NP
Leyland Cypress, Cupressocyparis leylandii Oct 2, 2018 HORT-18NP
Hops in Virginia: Need-to-Know Information about Extension Resources Jan 24, 2018 HORT-182NP (HORT-287NP)
Hops in Virginia: Need-to-Know Information about the Industry
Background: Hops were grown in Virginia even in the days of Thomas Jefferson, but production eventually shifted away from the east coast in favor of the Pacific Northwest. For the past few decades, hops have not been grown commercially on a substantial level in Virginia. However, beginning several years ago when the craft brewing industry surged, renewed interest in hops production led to a rapid increase in the number of hobby and commercial hops growers. A fall 2014 survey showed approximately 50 growers in the state, but as of 2015 many new growers have been added to the ranks. Much of the production is clustered in Northern Virginia and the I-81 and I-64 corridors, but growers can be found in all regions of the state stretching from Southeast to Southwest Virginia.
Jan 24, 2018 HORT-183NP (HORT-288NP)
Vertical Gardening Using Trellises, Stakes, and Cages
Vertical gardening is the practice of “gardening up,” in which a variety of structures are used to elevate plant growth to take advantage of vertical space. Vertical gardening is well-suited to urban areas where space is limited and gardeners are interested in using space most efficiently. Balconies, decks, patios, windowsills, fence lines, and backyard gardens are excellent places to practice vertical gardening. This publication will describe the use of vertical gardening techniques to get the most out of growing vegetables and other plants in these small spaces.
Jun 17, 2020 HORT-189NP
Mimosa (Silk-tree or Albizia), Albizia julibrissin Oct 2, 2018 HORT-19NP
Norway Spruce, Picea abies Oct 2, 2018 HORT-20NP
Paperbark Maple, Acer griseum Oct 8, 2018 HORT-21NP
Red Buckeye, Aesculus pavia Oct 9, 2018 HORT-22NP
River Birch, Betula nigra Oct 3, 2018 HORT-23NP
GAPs and FSMA – an Overview for Hop Growers in Virginia
Food safety is a hot topic for hop growers and brewers. With multiple acronyms for various practices, standards, and regulations: GAPs, FSMA, PSR, PCR, and more; the confusion is understandable. Let’s examine where the small-acreage hop grower fits in. This fact sheet serves as an orientation to these standards,regulations, and practices as they may apply to hops; it is in no way a complete set of guidelines or substitute for training.
Dec 20, 2016 HORT-237NP
Saucer Magnolia, Magnolia ×soulangeana Oct 3, 2018 HORT-24NP
Sawara Falsecypress (Japanese Falsecypress), Chamaecyparis pisifera Oct 3, 2018 HORT-25NP
A Guide to the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Certification Process Jan 24, 2018 HORT-252NP (HORT-285NP)
Guide to Identifying Food Safety Hazards in Greenhouse Systems
According to the United States Department of Agriculture 2012 Census of Agriculture, sales from greenhouse-grown food crops equaled around $800 million in the U.S. Crops grown included tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, peppers, and berries, with hydroponic production operations making up about 64% of the total production (cwt) (USDA Census of Agriculture, 2012). Demand for greenhouse-grown produce continues to increase, providing growers with unique opportunities to tap into this expanding market. Although greenhouse systems provide a more protected environment than field-grown systems, it is important to understand the unique food safety risks and possible sources of contamination when growing produce in these systems. Identifying food safety hazards are necessary to implementing practices that reduce the risk of contamination during the pre-plant, production, harvest, and post-harvest handling stages. Use the checklist below to guide you in asking important questions targeting possible risks at each of the greenhouse system stages.
Jul 10, 2017 HORT-254NP
Antimicrobial Resistance: What is it and What’s at Stake? Oct 25, 2017 HORT-257NP
How Do We Measure Antimicrobial Resistance? Oct 25, 2017 HORT-258NP
The Phenomenon of Antimicrobial Resistance: A One-Health Issue Oct 25, 2017 HORT-259NP
Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris Oct 3, 2018 HORT-26NP
Understanding the Public Health Risks of Antimicrobial Resistance Oct 26, 2017 HORT-260NP
The Journey of Antibiotics from Farm to Fork Oct 26, 2017 HORT-261NP
What is the Veterinary Feed Directive? Oct 26, 2017 HORT-262NP
Mixed Infection of Strawberry Mottle Virus and Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge Virus in the Southeastern United States Oct 25, 2017 HORT-268P
Sourwood, Oxydendrum arboreum Oct 5, 2018 HORT-27NP
Shoppers Guide for Berry Plants in the Mid-Atlantic and the Carolinas Sep 22, 2017 HORT-270NP
Accessing Virginia’s Public School (K-12) Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations Nov 27, 2017 HORT-275NP
Accessing Virginia’s Hospital Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations Nov 27, 2017 HORT-276NP
Accessing Virginia’s Direct-to-Consumer Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations Nov 27, 2017 HORT-277NP
Accessing Virginia’s College & University Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations Nov 27, 2017 HORT-278NP
Accessing Virginia Market Sectors: Establishing a Marketing Perspective Nov 27, 2017 HORT-279NP
Star Magnolia, Magnolia stellata Oct 5, 2018 HORT-28NP
Sweetpotato Production and Variety Performance in Southeast Virginia, 2015-2016 May 8, 2018 HORT-282P
Umbrella-Pine (Japanese Umbrella-Pine), Sciadopitys verticillata Oct 4, 2018 HORT-29NP
Low Tunnels in Vegetable Crops: Beyond Season Extension May 30, 2018 HORT-291P
Washington Hawthorn, Crataegus phaenopyrum Oct 4, 2018 HORT-30NP
Selecting and Using Plant Growth Regulators on Floricultural Crops
Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are chemicals that are designed to affect plant growth and/or development (figure 1). They are applied for specific purposes to elicit specific plant responses. Although there is much scientific information on using PGRs in the greenhouse, it is not an exact science. Achieving the best results with PGRs is a combination of art and science — science tempered with a lot of trial and error and a good understanding of plant growth and development. good understanding of plant growth and development.
Nov 15, 2019 HORT-43P (SPES-149P)
Backyard Composting Feb 27, 2013 HORT-49P
American Hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana Oct 4, 2018 HORT-5NP
For the Birds, Butterflies & Hummingbirds: Creating Inviting Habitats May 13, 2020 HORT-59NP (HORT-74NP)
American (Fagus grandifolia) and European (Fagus sylvatica) Beeches Oct 4, 2018 HORT-6NP
Care Sheet for Sabal minor or “Dwarf Palmetto” in Virginia Landscapes May 29, 2019 HORT-60NP (SPES-137NP)
Emerald Ash Borer
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a wood-boring beetle native to eastern Asia and is now considered the most destructive forest pest ever seen in North America. Since its discovery in Michigan in 2002, it has killed tens of millions of native ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and Canada. This destruction has already cost municipalities, property owners, and businesses tens of millions of dollars in damages.
May 10, 2020 HORT-69NP
Chinese Elm (Lacebark Elm), Ulmus parvifolia Oct 9, 2018 HORT-7NP
Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom
Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter? The answer is definitely yes! Many people are familiar with the hourglass-shaped vase filled with water and topped with a hyacinth bulb, or a low bowl filled with several Paper White narcissus, and the popular boxed amaryllis bulb as a welcome winter holiday gift. Most bulbs can be forced but additional planning is required in order to have a successful period of blooms.
Oct 2, 2019 HORT-76NP
Chinese Pistache, Pistacia chinensis Oct 9, 2018 HORT-8NP
Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Showy Flowering Shrubs
This publication features small, medium, and large flowering shrubs (five of each category) with photos. All photos are by the author. There are at least eight shrubs from each category noted in a table (without photos) at the end of this publication. All shrubs — featured or in the table — are landscape worthy and are especially suited to landscapes in Virginia and the Mid-Atlantic States.
Jul 30, 2020 HORT-84P
Douglasfir, Pseudotsuga menziesii Oct 9, 2018 HORT-9NP
Weed Management in Small Fruit Crops Jan 23, 2018 HORT-286NP
Strawberry Variety Evaluation, Opportunities, and Challenges of High Tunnel Production Feb 9, 2021 SPES-273P
Fresh Hops Harvesting and Handling Tips Jun 29, 2018 SPES-43NP
Glyphosate: Health Controversy, Benefits and Continuing Debate Sep 20, 2018 SPES-63NP
VCE Ag Today: Hot Topics in Commercial Horticulture Mar 25, 2021 VCE-1027-6NP