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Resources for Farm Health & Safety

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying? 5 Factors that Impact Egg Production Jul 12, 2022 2902-1097 (APSC-180NP)
Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying? 5 Factors that Impact Egg Production Jul 12, 2022 2902-1097 (APSC-180NP)
Lighting and Marking Recommendations for Animal-Drawn Carriages, Buggies and Wagons
Horse-drawn buggies or wagons and other animal-drawn carriages have been used by the Plain Communities as the primary means of transportation for generations. Equestrian sports and tourism business enterprises have also increased the number of horse-drawn carriages on streets and highways.
May 13, 2020 3006-1454 (BSE-333NP)
Driving Safely in Plain Communities Nov 6, 2017 3102-1533 (BSE-219NP)
Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide Mar 24, 2020 420-122 (BSE-288P)
Arthritis and Farming
Approximately 52.2 million, or more than 1 in 5 Americans, suffer from arthritis. This chronic disease is more prevalent among farmers. A survey of Virginia farmers revealed that about 30 percent of the respondents have been diagnosed with arthritis.
Apr 10, 2020 442-083 (BSE-317P)
Assistive Technologies in Agriculture
The goal of this publication is to introduce readers to the Assistive Technologies (ATs) used in agriculture and to the steps involved in the design of a successful AT system. This publication also discusses both common and operation-specific AT systems used in agriculture and how they influence secondary injuries, and it provides lists of agencies and resources that can help farmers and ranchers with the implementation of ATs.
May 13, 2020 442-084 (BSE-325P)
Preventing Secondary Injuries in Agricultural Workplaces
The intent of this fact sheet is to reduce the number of secondary injuries by familiarizing the readers with secondary injuries and the steps they can adopt to minimize them. In addition to identifying common secondary injuries and the most vulnerable groups, the publication discusses steps that can be taken to prevent such injuries. The fact sheet also provides a list of agencies that farmers can contact for assistance when they experience secondary injuries.
Apr 16, 2020 442-085 (BSE-316P)
Machinery Safety on the Farm
Machines; no farm or ranch can function without them. They save valuable time and are essential to agricultural productivity. They also represent an ever-present danger to the people who operate them. There are a host of hazards that makes agricultural machinery the leading cause of injury and death on American farms and ranches.
May 28, 2020 442-092 (BSE-324P)
Safe Operation of Compact Tractors
Follow these safety tips and maintenance procedures for checking, servicing, and operating compact tractors to extend their life and reduce breakdowns and accidents.
Apr 14, 2020 442-093 (BSE-313)
Management Tips for Round Bale Hay Harvesting, Moving, and Storage
Hay production and feeding is one of the most expensive components of forage-livestock systems. Specific management practices are necessary to maintain hay quality and minimize hay loss during harvest, transportation and storage of large round bales.
Jul 1, 2020 442-454 (BSE-332P)
Large Round Bale Safety
This Extension publication covers the safety aspects of equipment used in large round bale packages such as: balers, front-end loaders, bale handling and transport devices. The key to safe and efficient systems for handling large round bales is an operator who knows the hazards involved and who follows safety practices that can prevent accidents. Operators must be constantly alert for situations that may cause injuries to themselves or others. Besides pain and suffering, accidents contribute to higher costs in terms of unnecessary downtime or costly machine repairs. Alertness and safety consciousness can result in more efficient and profitable baling and handling.
May 26, 2020 442-455 (BSE-331P)
Respiratory Protection in Agriculture
Farm workers can encounter a variety of respiratory problems ranging from temporary discomfort caused by allergic reactions to fatal asphyxiation. However, the risk of contracting serious lung diseases or death can be significantly decreased by using respiratory protection (fig. 1). See the sidebar for a list of farm work that requires respiratory protection.
Feb 28, 2020 442-601 (BSE-286P)
Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness
Farmers account for more than 30 percent of adults dis- abled by respiratory illness. Yet, a large percentage of farmers are nonsmokers. If smoking is not to blame for these ailments, then what is? The answer is farmer’s lung.
Feb 28, 2020 442-602 (BSE-287P)
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity Oct 11, 2019 445-004
Impacts of COVID-19 on U.S. aquaculture, aquaponics, and allied businesses: Quarter 1 Results Apr 29, 2020 AAEC-218NP
Sometimes, Half the Road Is Not Enough™: A Public Safety Awareness Message to Improve Farm Equipment Safety on Public Roadways
This fact sheet is a product of the 2014 Spring Kohl Centre Experience. To find out more about this project team and related information, please go to the Kohl Centre at Virginia Tech’s website:
May 20, 2020 AAEC-70NP
An Introduction to Drones : On - Farm Use and Safety Implications Jan 15, 2018 ALCE-169NP (ALCE-172NP)
AgrAbility Virginia Program Evaluation Brief: 2016 Survey Results Dec 5, 2022 ALCE-170NP
AgrAbility Virginia’s Mixed-Method Program Evaluation Approach and Considerations Dec 5, 2022 ALCE-171NP
Agricultural Education Teacher Facility Management & Risk Assessment Guide Feb 2, 2023 ALCE-173NP
Farm Safety, Health, and Wellness Resource: Decision-Making Guide for Farm Service Providers and Educators Feb 10, 2020 ALCE-187NP
Farm Safety, Health, and Wellness Resource: Mental Health Case Studies - The Dunlap’s Beef Cattle: The Impact of Intergenerational Farm Transfer Mar 16, 2020 ALCE-188NP
Farm Safety, Health, and Wellness Resource: Mental Health Case Studies - The Cooper Family Story Feb 12, 2020 ALCE-189NP
Farm Safety, Health, and Wellness Resource: Mental Health Case Studies - The Johnsons’ Broiler Farm Feb 12, 2020 ALCE-190NP
Farm Safety, Health, and Wellness Resource: Mental Health Case Studies - The Montel Family: An Intergenerational Farm Feb 12, 2020 ALCE-191NP
Farm Safety, Health, and Wellness Resource: Mental Health Case Studies - The Family Vegetable Farm in Roanoke, Virginia Feb 12, 2020 ALCE-192NP
Lawn Care Safety for the Whole Family During COVID-19
As it is every year at this time, it’s finally spring and the grass is growing. What is different about this year though, is that the kids are home. It might seem like a good idea to send them outside to do some yard work while practicing social distancing—and it is! Fresh air and exercise can help ease the stress of being cooped up inside for months on end.
Apr 9, 2020 ALCE-193NP
Virginia Farm Emergency Plan Sep 2, 2020 ALCE-219NP
Managing Farm Financial Stress for a Healthy Farm and a Healthy Farm Family May 24, 2021 ALCE-220NP (ALCE-249NP)
Best Practices to Managing Farm Financial Health and Wellbeing Sep 2, 2020 ALCE-222NP
Farmer Financial Health and Wellbeing Assessment: A Tool for Fostering Supportive Financial Conversations
Extension agents are closely involved in advising farmers and farm families on identification and mitigation of financial risks unique to the agricultural industry. Financial decisions are often time-sensitive and complicated, and the source of many sleepless nights to farmers and advisors alike. This tool is intended for use as a communication aid to foster safe, productive conversations between farmers and service providers. It is designed to complement related resources aimed at supporting the mental health of our farmers who make tough decisions under conditions of uncertainty on a daily basis.
Sep 28, 2020 ALCE-226NP
Assistive Technologies for Upper Extremity Mobility on the Farm Oct 14, 2021 ALCE-260NP
Assistive Technologies to Improve Safety & Accessibility on Small Scale Diversified Vegetable Farms & Home Gardens Sep 7, 2021 ALCE-269NP
What is an Agricultural Exoskeleton? Jan 12, 2023 ALCE-303NP
The Role of Farmer Input in the Design of Assistive Technologies: A Focus on Agricultural Exoskeletons ALCE-304NP
U.S. Swine Health Improvement Plan: Background, Benefits, and How to Enroll Sep 29, 2022 APSC-181P
Grape Production Injuries and Prevention
Grape acreage and production have been steadily increasing in the US. In 2010 there were approximately 23,000 farms with a total of 944,800 acres producing grapes. Ninety percent of these farms are smaller than 100 acres and about 16,000 of these were vineyards. California accounts for about 90% of the total production in the US. The next two largest grape producing states are Washington and New York and they produce approximately 6% and 2% respectively (NASS-USDA, 2014)
Oct 23, 2020 BSE-186NP (BSE-355NP)
Lawn Care: Hand Tools Safety
Many hand tools such as shovels, hoes, rakes, trimmers, and pruners are widely used in lawn care and landscaping. While these tools appear to be harmless, when used improperly, they can cause injuries that sometimes require medical treatment. In 2006, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported nearly 205,000 cases of injuries and/or illnesses resulting from the use of hand tools.
Jan 30, 2024 BSE-40NP (BSE-98P)
Lawn Care: Powered Hand Tool Safety
In addition to mowers and hand tools, several powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in landscaping work. These machines can be dangerous if they are used improperly. A past study has shown that string trimmers and edgers alone cause more than 4,600 injuries that require emergency room treatment each year. About one-third of these cases are eye injuries.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-41NP (BSE-97P)
Lawn Care: Rotary Mower Safety
Rotary mowers are very useful types of equipment, but they are dangerous, with the potential to cause serious injuries. Their blades rotate at a high speed of 2,000 to 4,000 revolutions per minute. The equivalent speed at the blade tip or the speed of debris thrown by the mower blade may range from 100 to 200 miles per hour. In order to prevent serious injuries, the operator should be able to disengage the blade and turn the engine off quickly.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-42NP (BSE-96P)
Lawn Care: Tractor Safety
Most tractors used in landscaping, lawn care, and golf course maintenance are compact tractors in the 20 to 40 horsepower range. Although these tractors are considerably smaller than farm tractors, they are susceptible to the same types of accidents, with potential for serious injuries or deaths. Causes for such serious accidents are often the same in both cases, and therefore, the steps to take to avoid the accidents are the same.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-43NP (BSE-100P)
Lawn Care: Utility-Type Vehicle Safety
Utility-type vehicles are popular, multipurpose equipment used for different applications in the lawn care industry. Their hauling capability and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-44NP (BSE-99P)
Guidelines for Protecting Youth Workers: Promote Safe Practices and Protect Youth Workers
The goal of this training guide is to reduce the number of accidents and related injuries among the youth workers in the green industry by making workplaces safer. This guide is primarily for employers or supervisors of youth workers in the green industry. In addition to familiarizing the employers/supervisors with the regulations associated with hiring youth workers, the guide discusses the steps they can take to make their work environments safer. It also covers the responsibilities of guardians and youth workers for making workplaces safer.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-46NP (BSE-314P)
Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide
Mowing lawns continues to be one of the most popular summer job opportunities for youth given the affordable cost and ease in operation of most rotary mowers. However, easy access and widespread use of mowers often creates a false sense of security among the users of these machines. Data from a seven-year period (1996-2003) showed the highest rate of hospitalization from lawn mower injuries was for youth workers ages 15 to 19. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that more than 37,000 riding mower injuries occurred from 2003 through 2005 alone. During the same period, there were 95 fatalities due to riding mower tip-over. The purpose of this training guide is to reduce the number of mower accidents and injuries by familiarizing young workers with rotary mowers and their safe operation.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-47P (BSE-315P)
Tractor Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide, Safe Use of Tractors
Tractors are versatile equipment used in a variety of jobs ranging from hauling goods to lawn care to agriculture. While they are extremely versatile, they can be very dangerous unless they are used with care following safe practices. Accidents resulting in fatalities and severe injuries are very common during tractor use. The National Safety Council estimated that approximately 36 percent of all the agricultural fatalities in 1997 involved a tractor. Published data also show that farm accidents cause more than 100 deaths and about 2,600 serious injuries among children annually. Tractors account for about 41 percent of the accidental deaths among children under 15 years of age. In spite of these convincing data, a large number of operators continue to follow unsafe practices that can cause serious accidents.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-48P (BSE-321P)
Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-49P (BSE-264P)
Powered Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide
In addition to rotary mowers, many powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in lawn care. While these devices are very useful in making jobs easier and more efficient, they can be dangerous if used without proper training and care. In 1989 the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that power lawn trimmers and edgers alone have caused about 4,600 injuries annually that required medical attention. About one-third of these were eye-related.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-50P (BSE-322P)
Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide Hand Tool Care and Safe Use
Many hand tools such as rakes, shovels, and pruners are used widely in lawn care operations. While these non-powered tools are not known to cause major injuries, they have the potential for injuries that may require absence from work and/or medical assistance when they are used improperly.
Jan 29, 2024 BSE-51P (BSE-323P)
Tractor-Mounted Lifts Jun 18, 2018 BSE-58NP (BSE-230NP)
Tractor-Mounted Vertical Lifts Jun 22, 2018 BSE-59NP (BSE-232NP)
Tractor-Mounted Inclined Lifts Jun 22, 2018 BSE-60NP (BSE-231NP)
Managing Legal Liability Series: Workers’ Compensation & Liability for Farmers’ Market Vendors & Owners (2020) Dec 10, 2020 CV-24 (AAEC-230NP)
Previniendo accidentes de trabajadores rurales ligados al manejo de silajes (Preventing silage-related injuries and fatalities among farm workers) Jun 24, 2022 DASC-100s
Previniendo accidentes de trabajadores rurales ligados al manejo de silajes (Preventing silage-related injuries and fatalities among farm workers) Jul 7, 2022 DASC-102s
Preventing silage-related injuries and fatalitites among farm workers Jul 5, 2022 DASC-103NP
Preventing injuries and fatalities during the harvesting and chapping of crops for silage Aug 28, 2018 DASC-117NP
Previniendo daños y muertes durante la cosecha y picado de maíz y sorgo para silaje (Preventing injuries and fatalities during the harvesting and chopping of crops for silage.) Aug 28, 2018 DASC-118S
Management of compost-bedded pack barns Mar 11, 2016 DASC-78NP
Preventing silage-related injuries and fatalities among farm workers Jun 24, 2022 DASC-99
July/August 2024 Dairy Pipeline
In this issue: Heat stress affects everyone!; Scours in dairy calves: a common but dangerous condition; Upcoming Events; Additional Notes
Jul 8, 2024 DASC-170NP
Pesticide Spills: Prevention and Management Oct 4, 2022 ENTO-518NP
Hybrid Fire Ants in Virginia
Native to South America, both red imported fire ant (RIFA, Solenopsis invicta) and black imported fire ant (BIFA, Solenopsis richteri) have been found in the US since the 1930s. Imported fire ants are now widespread across the southern US and have been reported in Virginia since 1989. RIFA and BIFA hybridize and produce fertile offspring in areas of the US where both species are found. The S. invicta x richteri hybrid fire ant zone in the US includes Georgia, Alabama, central Mississippi, and Tennessee. Recently in 2022, hybrid ants were detected for the first time in Virginia in Lee County and in several nearby counties in southeastern Kentucky. Hybrid fire ants are well established in eastern Tennessee as well.
May 16, 2024 ENTO-593NP
Beating Stress: Challenges, Choices, Changes
Stress comes in many forms. There are normal and predictable stressors, such as a new job, getting married, or moving.
May 8, 2020 FCS-68P
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19 - Part 1 Apr 20, 2020 SPES-205NP
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19 - Part 2 Apr 20, 2020 SPES-206NP
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19 - Part 3 Apr 20, 2020 SPES-207NP
Expanding Food Safety Protocols in an Evolving Landscape of COVID-19: Part 4 Apr 20, 2020 SPES-208NP
VCE Ag Today: Farm Equipment Safety Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-26NP
VCE Ag Today: Safety of Biosolids Use Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-27NP
VCE Ag Today: Farm Agricultural Resources and Mediation Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-40NP