Resources for Trees, Shrubs, & Groundcovers
Plants Attacked: Juniper, arborvitae, other cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, Chinese elm, honeylocust, primarily. Also on crabapple, maple, sycamore, box elder, willow, linden, poplar, and many others.
|Mar 4, 2020||2808-1008 (ENTO-351NP)|
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
|Nov 18, 2014||2808-1010 (ENTO-90NP)|
|Cottony Maple Scale||
Heavily infested plants will have large numbers of scales on the branches and twigs. Large numbers of feeding scales will reduce the amount of nutrients reaching the leaves and will cause them to turn yellow and fall prematurely. Scale insects feed on plant sap with their long thread-like mouthparts (stylets), which are six to eight times longer than the insect itself. Feeding by scales slowly reduces plant vigor. Heavily infested plants grow poorly and may suffer dieback of twigs and branches. Occasionally, an infested host will be so weakened that it will die.
|Nov 14, 2014||2808-1011 (ENTO-89NP)|
Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.
|Feb 26, 2015||2808-1012 (ENTO-106NP)|
Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.
|Mar 6, 2020||2808-1013 (ENTO-357NP)|
|Fusarium Wilt of Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)||
Fusarium wilt is a common and lethal disease of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)1, also commonly known as silktree. In the United States this disease occurs in the east from New York southward and also in Louisiana, Arkansas and California. Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis perniciosum. Albizia spp. are the only known host of F. oxysporum'' f.sp. ''perniciosum''. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. perniciosum colonizes and clogs the tree’s vascular (water-conducting) tissue, and interferes with the movement of plant sap. This results in relatively rapid tree death.
|Jan 20, 2015||2811-1020(PPWS-53NP)|
|American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana)||Oct 10, 2018||2901-1033NP|
|American Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea (prior name C. lutea))||Oct 10, 2018||2901-1034NP|
|Evergreen Azalea (Rhododendron species)||Oct 10, 2018||2901-1035NP|
|Beautybush (Kolkwitzia amabilis)||Oct 12, 2018||2901-1036NP|
|Cherrylaurel (Prunus laurocerasus `Otto Luyken')||Oct 12, 2018||2901-1038NP|
|Cotoneaster||Oct 12, 2018||2901-1039NP|
|Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)||Oct 15, 2018||2901-1040NP|
|Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum)||Oct 15, 2018||2901-1041NP|
|Drooping Leucothoe (Leucothoe fontanesiana)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1042NP|
|European White Birch (Betula pendula)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1043NP|
|Flowering Quince||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1044NP|
|Fraser Photinia, Red Tip||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1045NP|
|Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1046NP|
|Goldenraintree||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1047NP|
|Green Ash||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1048NP|
|Japanese Maple||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1049NP|
|Japanese Barberry||Oct 23, 2018||2901-1050NP|
|Japanese Camillia (Camellia japonica)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1051NP|
|Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1052NP|
|Japanese Pagodatree, Sophora||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1053NP|
|Leatherleaf Viburnum (Viburnum rhytidophyllum)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1054NP|
|Littleleaf Linden (Tilia cordata)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1055NP|
|Live Oak (Quercus virginiana)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1056NP|
|London Planetree (Platanus x acerifolia)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1057NP|
|Nandina, Heavenly Bamboo (Nandina domestica)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1058NP|
|Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1059|
|Old Fashioned Weigela (Weigela florida)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1060|
|Oregon Grape Holly (Mahonia) (Mahonia aquifolium)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1061|
|Pin Oak (Quercus palustris)||Oct 5, 2018||2901-1062|
|Privet (Ligustrum species)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1063|
|Red Maple (Acer rubrum)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1064|
|Evergreen Rhododendron (Rhododendron species)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1065|
|Rose-of-Sharon, Shrub Althea (Hibiscus syriacus)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1066|
|Scarlet Firethorn, Pyracantha (Pyracantha coccinea)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1067|
|Smokebush, Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria)||Oct 17, 2018||2901-1068|
|Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)||Oct 19, 2018||2901-1069|
|Southern Waxmyrtle (Myrica cerifera)||Oct 19, 2018||2901-1070|
|Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)||Oct 19, 2018||2901-1071|
|Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1072|
|Thornless Common Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1073|
|Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1074|
|Vanhoutte Spirea (Spiraea x vanhouttei)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1075|
|White Oak (Quercus alba)||Oct 24, 2018||2901-1076|
|Winterberry (Ilex verticillata)||Oct 26, 2018||2901-1077|
|Wintercreeper Euonymus (Eunymus fortunei)||Oct 26, 2018||2901-1078|
|Yaupon Holly Cultivars (Ilex vomitoria )||Oct 26, 2018||2901-1079|
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
|Jun 30, 2020||2902-1102 (ENTO-386NP)|
|Emerald Ash Borer||Mar 17, 2016||2904-1290 (ENTO-200NP)|
|Balsam Twig Aphid||
Twisted and curled needles are the most apparent damage from feeding by the balsam twig aphid. Feeding can also cause roughened bark on the twigs. Extensive feeding can cause a general decline and reduced vigor of the tree, yet in many cases is cosmetic and not particularly damaging. The major problem is that curled needles reduce the marketability and value of Christmas trees. Balsam twig aphids also produce honeydew, a sticky material that drops to needles and twigs below. At times the honeydew can become a growth medium for sooty mold, which turns the needles and twigs black.
|Apr 30, 2020||2907-1401 (ENTO-367NP)|
|Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Landscape Trees||Dec 7, 2018||3001-1433 (SPES-83NP)|
|Hemlock Woolly Adelgid||Dec 16, 2016||3006-1451 (ENTO-228NP)|
|Austrian Pine, Pinus nigra||Oct 26, 2018||3010-1462|
|Bigleaf Hydrangea, Hydrangea macrophylla||Oct 26, 2018||3010-1463|
|Chastetree, Monk’s Pepper Tree, Vitex agnus-castus||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1468|
|Colorado Spruce, Picea pungens var. glauca||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1470|
|Cornelian Cherry Dogwood, Cornus mas||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1472|
|Creeping Juniper, Juniperus horizontalis||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1473|
|Dawn Redwood, Metasequoia glyptostroboides||Oct 31, 2018||3010-1474|
|European Larch, Larix decidua||Nov 6, 2018||3010-1481NP|
|Lilacs||Nov 21, 2018||3010-1493NP|
|Pine Tortoise Scale||
Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years - most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.
|Mar 24, 2016||3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)|
|Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-165|
|Exotic Invasive Plants||
Invasive exotic species are plants that are not native to a given area and have the ability to out-compete indigenous plant species. Invasive exotics are often brought into their non-native surroundings by humans with good intentions.
|Apr 29, 2020||420-320 (CNRE-105NP)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)||
Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.
|Apr 28, 2020||420-321 (CNRE-97P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)||
Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise- tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.
|May 4, 2015||420-322(ANR-122P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)||
Several species of Asian honeysuckle have been introduced in the United States for their ornamental and wildlife values. Honeysuckle is perhaps the most widespread exotic invasive in the U.S., now found in at least 38 states. The Asian honeysuckle produces abundant seeds which are dispersed by birds and other wildlife. It also spreads by sprouting from its roots. Because it tolerates shade from other plants, it grows in forest understories.
|Apr 1, 2020||420-323 (CNRE-95P)|
|Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees||
Forest management is a complex process. Silviculture—a system in which healthy communities of trees and other vegetation are established and maintained for the benefit of people—uses forest ecology to guide complex management prescriptions that mimic forest disturbances and processes. Silvics—the natural characteristics of trees—play an important role in prescribing effective silviculture.
|May 20, 2020||420-351 (ANR-118NP)|
|Managing Winter Injury to Trees and Shrubs||
It is often necessary to provide extra attention to plants in the fall to help them over-winter and start spring in peak condition. Understanding certain principles and cultural practices will significantly reduce winter damage that can be divided into three categories: desiccation, freezing, and breakage.
|Apr 9, 2015||426-500 (HORT-121P)|
|The Art of Bonsai||Mar 3, 2015||426-601 (HORT-158P)|
|Growing Azaleas and Rhododendrons||
The spectacular spring flowers of azaleas and rhododendrons make them among the most popular garden shrubs. However, azaleas and rhododendrons are shrubs for all seasons. Throughout the summer and fall the leaves add a pleasing, deep‑green color to the garden. Some deciduous azaleas add bright fall color before the leaves drop. In winter, some varieties stand out with large, evergreen leaves.
|Mar 30, 2015||426-602 (HORT-103P)|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Boxwoods||Mar 23, 2018||426-603 (HORT-290P)|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Rare and Unusual Trees||
There are many tree species that can be successfully grown in Virginia, but are rarely seen in our landscapes. Although not ordinarily recommended or readily available, these trees may be useful to carry out a specific landscape theme, to substitute for an exotic type which is not locally adapted, or may be prized for unusual form, flowers, fruits, bark, or foliage.
|Jun 18, 2015||426-604(HORT-107P)|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Conifers||
Conifers, also known as narrow-leaved or needled evergreens, are planted primarily for the attractiveness of their evergreen foliage. The variety of sizes, shapes, and colors available contributes to their popularity. Conifers range in size from prostrate plants growing only a few inches tall to large trees. Shapes include flat ground covers; horizontal spreaders; upright, pyramidal forms; and even weeping and contorted forms. Foliage color ranges from a gold and cream variegation to all shades of green, gray-green, and blue-green.
|Apr 6, 2015||426-605 (HORT-108P)|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Broad-Leaved Evergreens||
There are a large number of highly ornamental broadleaved evergreens. However, many of them require special attention if they are to develop into attractive, long-lived plants. Wide fluctuations in temperature, prolonged dry periods, drying winds, and bright sunshine are not ideal conditions for most broad-leaved evergreens, yet these conditions frequently occur in Virginia. Good soil preparation and a carefully selected location will help ensure the success of these plants. However, the year-round beauty and special effect that they give to the landscape make them well worth the extra care needed to grow them.
|Apr 3, 2015||426-607 (HORT-105P)|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Groundcovers||Nov 19, 2018||426-609 (HORT-31P)|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees||
Trees are the basic element for any landscape plan. They set the stage for the entire home grounds design. The type used and their location determine to a great extent what other plantings are appropriate. Providing shade usually requires tall, sturdy, long-living species. Density of foliage, which determines the amount of shading, is important. A tree such as a Norway maple will produce a very dense shade that prevents other plants from growing under it, while a honey locust will produce a light partial shade which is not a hindrance to other plants growing below it. Deciduous trees should be used to shade the south windows of a home in the summer, thus allowing the sun to penetrate in the winter.
|Apr 1, 2015||426-610 (HORT-104P)|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees||May 1, 2009||426-611|
|Shrubs: Functions, Planting, and Maintenance||Nov 5, 2018||426-701|
|Planting Trees||Jun 1, 2017||426-702 (HORT-248NP)|
|Fertilizing Landscape Trees and Shrubs||
Maintenance programs should be developed for trees and shrubs in both residential and commercial landscapes. A good maintenance program includes monitoring and controlling insect and disease problems, suppressing weed competition, and making timely applications of water, mulch, and fertilizer. Tree and shrub fertilization is especially important in urban and suburban areas of Virginia where soils have been altered due to construction. These urban soils tend to be heavily compacted, poorly aerated, poorly drained, and low in organic matter. Even where soils have not been affected, fertilization may be needed as part of a maintenance program to increase plant vigor or to improve root or top growth.
|Apr 9, 2015||430-018 (HORT-120P)|
|Fertilización de árboles y arbustos||
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
|Feb 18, 2016||430-018S (HORT-165P)|
|Selection and Use of Mulches and Landscape Fabrics||
The term “mulch” refers to materials spread or left on the soil surface as protective layers, whether organic or inorganic, loose particles or sheets.
|Mar 20, 2015||430-019 (HORT-132P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- The Walnut Tree: Allelopathic Effects and Tolerant Plants||Apr 10, 2015||430-021(HORT-113P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution||Apr 8, 2015||430-022 (HORT-123P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Landscape Containers and Planters||
Planting trees in aboveground containers and planters is becoming a common practice on sites that are not suited for inground planting. Containers differ from raised planters in that they are usually smaller in volume and moveable, whereas planters are generally larger, and often built as part of the permanent hardscape (paving, etc.). The greatest challenge in selecting trees for containers and planters is in choosing trees that can survive temperature extremes, and that can establish roots in a limited volume of substrate (potting soil). Consider several factors when selecting containers and trees including environmental influences, container and planter design, substrate type, and tree characteristics.
|Apr 9, 2015||430-023 (HORT-119P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Hot Sites||
Hot landscape sites require special consideration before trees are planted. Trees can survive, and even thrive, in hot sites if the site is prepared correctly, if heat-tolerant species are selected, and if the trees are properly maintained. A variety of different locations and situations qualify as hot landscape sites.
|Apr 9, 2015||430-024 (HORT-118P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Screening||
Using trees as living screens can easily enhance living and working spaces. Before selecting trees for screening, first determine the screen’s purpose, whether functional or environmental. Screening can be used to define an area, modify or hide a view, create privacy, block wind, dust, salt and snow, control noise, filter light, and direct traffic flow.
|Apr 9, 2015||430-025 (HORT-117P)|
|Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Wet and Dry Sites||
To grow, all trees require air, light, water and nutrients. Some trees can survive over a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, whereas others are very site specific. Both wet and dry sites present establishment and growth challenges, making selection of the right tree for the right site very important.
|Apr 8, 2015||430-026 (HORT-114P)|
|Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils||
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
|Apr 8, 2015||430-027 (HORT-115P)|
|Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas||May 1, 2009||430-028|
|Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift||
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
|Apr 8, 2015||430-031 (HORT-111P)|
|24 Ways to Kill a Tree||
Few residential trees die of “old age.” Mechanical damage and improper tree care kill more trees than any insects or diseases. Avoid making the tree-damaging mistakes shown in the diagram below. Few of these items alone would kill a tree, but multiple problems will certainly stress, and could eventually kill, a tree.
|Apr 8, 2015||430-210 (HORT-112P)|
|Tree and Shrub Planting Guidelines||
Select trees and shrubs well-adapted to conditions of individual planting sites. Poorly-sited plants are doomed from the start, no matter how carefully they’re planted.
|Mar 3, 2015||430-295 (HORT-106P)|
|Pruning Crapemyrtles||May 1, 2009||430-451|
|A Guide to Successful Pruning: Pruning Basics and Tools||May 1, 2009||430-455|
|A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Deciduous Trees||May 1, 2009||430-456|
|A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Evergreen Trees||May 1, 2009||430-457|
|A Guide to Successful Pruning: Stop Topping Trees!||May 1, 2009||430-458|
|A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Shrubs||May 1, 2009||430-459|
|A Guide to Successful Pruning, Decidous Tree Pruning Calendar||May 1, 2009||430-460|
|A Guide to Successful Pruning, Evergreen Tree Pruning Calendar||May 1, 2009||430-461|
|A Guide to Successful Pruning, Shrub Pruning Calendar||May 1, 2009||430-462|
|Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes||
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
|Jun 27, 2016||450-236 (PPWS-69P)|
|Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes||
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
|Oct 19, 2016||450-237 (PPWS-70P)|
|Juniper Tip Blights||Mar 30, 2017||450-601 (PPWS-91 NP)|
|Botrytis Blight of Peony||
Botrytis blight is a common fungal disease that confronts the peony grower each spring. The fungus Botrytis cinerea blights stems, buds, and leaves and can cause plants to look unsightly, especially in wet springs. This fungus causes disease on a wide variety of herbaceous and woody ornamentals, as well as vegetables and small fruits. It is sometimes referred to as “gray mold” because of the conspicuous, fluffy, gray fungal growth that forms on infected plant parts.
|Sep 26, 2016||450-602 (PPWS-93NP)|
|Powdery Mildew of Ornamental Plants||
Powdery mildew fungi attack a variety of ornamental plants grown in Virginia.
|May 1, 2009||450-603|
|Leaf and Flower Gall of Azalea and Camellia||
Leaf and flower gall is a disease that is common on azaleas and camellias in the spring. The disease has also been reported on other members of the plant family Ericaceae. It occurs in home landscapes and nurseries, and is often seen on flame azaleas in the forest in the spring. The disease is caused by species of the fungus Exobasidium.
|Oct 18, 2016||450-605 (PPWS-92NP)|
|Entomosporium Leaf Spot of Photinia||
Photinia, a shrub belonging to the plant family Rosaceae, is a popular landscape shrub in the southeastern U.S. Several species are grown, but the most popular is the hybrid Photinia ×fraseri, or “redtip”, so named for its bright red, immature foliage. The biggest drawback to growing photinia is a leaf spot disease caused by the fungus Diplocarpon mespili (syn. Entomosporium mespili) to which redtip is highly susceptible.
|Sep 30, 2016||450-609 (PPWS-82P)|
|Major Diseases of Boxwood||
English boxwood, are susceptible to several diseases that can decrease their effectiveness in established plantings. The major diseases of boxwood are discussed
|May 1, 2009||450-614|
|Rose Rosette Disease||
Rose rosette disease (RRD), a disease believed to be caused by the recently identified Rose rosette virus, has been spreading through much of the wild rose population of the Midwestern, Southern, and Eastern United States for years.
|Sep 17, 2012||450-620 (PPWS-10P)|
|Soil Test Note 20: Home Shrubs and Trees||May 1, 2009||452-720|
|Hiring an Arborist to Care for Your Landscape Trees||
Landscape trees are valuable assets to your property and for your community. Keeping your trees attractive, healthy, and safe requires careful attention to their planting and care throughout their lives. While many people have a green thumb, there are situations that arise where the expertise of an arborist is needed to address complex or potentially hazardous tree care needs. The purpose of this publication is to inform home owners, property managers, municipal planners, and others about the tree care services provided by an arborist and the steps that should be taken to hire a qualified arborist.
|Dec 18, 2014||ANR-131NP|
|All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot||
Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.
|Sep 12, 2019||ANR-132NP (CNRE-70NP)|
|Thinning Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot||
Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.
|Sep 12, 2019||ANR-133NP (CNRE-69NP)|
|TREE Cookies Etc. Winter 2015||Jan 13, 2015||ANR-139NP|
|So You Want To Sell Timber||
Research into the attitudes and actions of private forest landowners shows that although very few own their forestland for the purpose of producing timber, most will sell timber at least once in their lifetimes. Private forest landowners sell timber for a variety of reasons that range from purely financial to solely for management purposes. Often landowners do not consider selling timber until they have an immediate need for cash. Other times the landowner has planned an immediate commercial thinning with a full timber harvest scheduled in 10 years. Whatever the reason(s) for a timber sale, careful consideration of objectives is paramount.
|Dec 18, 2018||ANR-154P|
|Timber Selling Tips: Forestry Fact Sheet for Landowners||
Timber harvesting is a valuable tool to help forest landowners realize certain financial and land management goals. Following are some suggestions to consider before selling timber.
|Dec 18, 2018||ANR-155P|
|Trees and Water||Oct 19, 2018||ANR-18NP (CNRE-34NP)|
|Woody Florals for Income and Conservation||Aug 30, 2012||ANR-22NP|
|Native Fruit and Nut Trees and Shrubs of the Virginia Mountains and Piedmont||Aug 30, 2012||ANR-23NP|
|One-Year Health, Mortality, and Growth in Southeast Virginia of Shortleaf Pine From Three Sources||
Restoration of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) in Virginia has become a priority of various state and federal agencies. For shortleaf pine restoration to be successful in Virginia, private lands must be considered because 89 percent of forestland in Virginia is privately owned, and most private landowners are likely to use commercially available seedling sources. Shortleaf seedlings from commercially available sources in Virginia, Arkansas, and Missouri were planted in two sites in Southeast Virginia to test growth and yield. After one year, height and ground-line diameter were measured and observations were made on health and mortality of the plants. The Virginia seed source was significantly taller than the Arkansas source. At the first site, mortality and disease were low, but at the second site, mortality and poor health were very high, possibly due to soils combined with weather conditions. No significant seed source effects on disease and mortality were found at either site.
|Oct 25, 2018||ANR-28P (CNRE-28P)|
|How to Plan for and Plant Streamside Conservation Buffers with Native Fruit and Nut Trees and Woody Floral Shrubs||Aug 30, 2018||ANR-69P (CNRE-27P)|
|Champion Big Trees of Virginia, 2019-2020 Update||Apr 8, 2020||CNRE-104NP|
|Galls and Rust made by Mites||
Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-147NP|
|Yellow Poplar Weevil||
Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.
|May 6, 2020||ENTO-172NP (ENTO-380NP)|
Description of Damage: The bark becomes roughened and encrusted with scales. Branches and limbs die back and result in a rapid decline in tree vigor, occasionally resulting in the death of trees. Seriously weakened trees are common in Virginia as a result of scale populations, especially red and silver maples.
|Apr 29, 2019||ENTO-44NP (ENTO-318NP)|
|Goldenchain tree, Laburnum × watereri||Sep 20, 2018||HORT-10NP|
|Hinoki Falsecypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa||Sep 20, 2018||HORT-11NP|
|Japanese Cryptomeria, Cryptomeria japonica||Sep 27, 2018||HORT-12NP|
|Japanese Stewartia, Stewartia pseudocamellia||Sep 27, 2018||HORT-13NP|
|Japanese Zelkova, Zelkova serrata||Sep 27, 2018||HORT-14NP|
|Katsuratree, Cercidiphyllum japonicum||Sep 27, 2018||HORT-15NP|
|Kousa Dogwood, Cornus kousa||Oct 1, 2018||HORT-16NP|
|Lacebark Pine, Pinus bungeana||Oct 1, 2018||HORT-17NP|
|Leyland Cypress, Cupressocyparis leylandii||Oct 2, 2018||HORT-18NP|
|Mimosa (Silk-tree or Albizia), Albizia julibrissin||Oct 2, 2018||HORT-19NP|
|Norway Spruce, Picea abies||Oct 2, 2018||HORT-20NP|
|Paperbark Maple, Acer griseum||Oct 8, 2018||HORT-21NP|
|Red Buckeye, Aesculus pavia||Oct 9, 2018||HORT-22NP|
|River Birch, Betula nigra||Oct 3, 2018||HORT-23NP|
|Saucer Magnolia, Magnolia ×soulangeana||Oct 3, 2018||HORT-24NP|
|Sawara Falsecypress (Japanese Falsecypress), Chamaecyparis pisifera||Oct 3, 2018||HORT-25NP|
|Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris||Oct 3, 2018||HORT-26NP|
|Sourwood, Oxydendrum arboreum||Oct 5, 2018||HORT-27NP|
|Star Magnolia, Magnolia stellata||Oct 5, 2018||HORT-28NP|
|Umbrella-Pine (Japanese Umbrella-Pine), Sciadopitys verticillata||Oct 4, 2018||HORT-29NP|
|Washington Hawthorn, Crataegus phaenopyrum||Oct 4, 2018||HORT-30NP|
|American Hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana||Oct 4, 2018||HORT-5NP|
|American (Fagus grandifolia) and European (Fagus sylvatica) Beeches||Oct 4, 2018||HORT-6NP|
|Chinese Elm (Lacebark Elm), Ulmus parvifolia||Oct 9, 2018||HORT-7NP|
|Chinese Pistache, Pistacia chinensis||Oct 9, 2018||HORT-8NP|
|Douglasfir, Pseudotsuga menziesii||Oct 9, 2018||HORT-9NP|
|Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module I: Integrated Pest Management||Apr 1, 2020||PPWS-14NP|
|Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module II: The Plant Disease Triangle||Apr 1, 2020||PPWS-15NP|
|Virginia Boxwood Blight Task Force||
To provide leadership in safeguarding and protecting the ornamental horticulture industry, historical gardens and landscape plantings from boxwood blight.
|Jul 1, 2019||PPWS-30|
|Invasive Tree-of-Heaven & Native Look-Alike Identification Photographs||Jun 24, 2019||SPES-148NP|
|Mortality of Great Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia||
Since 2015, Extension specialists from Virginia Tech (VT) have visited and collected plant and soil samples from several large areas of dying great rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia’s mountainous regions. In 2016 VT specialists met with Virginia Department of Forestry, US Forest Service personnel, and other experts to revisit some of these sites. No consistent cause of this mortality has yet been identified. It is possible that a variety of factors are stressing the rhododendrons in these areas to a point where opportunistic pathogens or insects can successfully attack and kill them. The following information summarizes our observations and diagnostic results from four separate great rhododendron mortality sites in Virginia. This information is not equivalent to a research study, which would also include samples taken from healthy great rhododendron for comparison; however, we are confident that we have ruled out two diseases that are frequently mentioned both online and anecdotally as a cause of this mortality, specifically Phytophthora root rot and Botryosphaeria dieback.
|Aug 21, 2019||SPES-151P|