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Warm-Season Annual Grasses for Summer Forage
Virginia’s cool-season grass pastures are highly productive in the spring and fall, but high temperatures and short-term drought stress often limit their growth during summer months. Incorporating warm-season grasses can be a beneficial strategy for meeting feed resources during this period of forage deficit.
Apr 18, 2024 418-004 (SPES-593P)
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer Aug 30, 2019 418-142
Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia Dec 19, 2018 424-006 (SPES-81P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023 Dec 11, 2023 424-100 (SPES-299P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part I. Crop Descriptions Dec 15, 2023 424-100-A (SPES-299P-A)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part II. Forage Crops Dec 15, 2023 424-100-B (SPES-299P-B)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part III. Turfgrass Dec 15, 2023 424-100-C (SPES-299P-C)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part IV. Seed Facts Dec 15, 2023 424-100-D (SPES-299P-D)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part V. Seeds and Stored Grains Dec 15, 2023 424-100-E (SPES-299P-E)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part VI. Soils of Virginia Dec 15, 2023 424-100-F (SPES-299P-F)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part VII. Soil Health Management Dec 18, 2023 424-100-G (SPES-299P-G)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part VIII. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis Dec 18, 2023 424-100-H (SPES-299P-H)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part X. Lime: Common Soil Additives To Raise Soil pH in Virginia Dec 18, 2023 424-100-J (SPES-299P-J)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XI. Fertilizing With Manures Dec 18, 2023 424-100-K (SPES-299P-K)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XII. Land Application of Biosolids Dec 18, 2023 424-100-L (SPES-299P-L)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XIII. Weeds and Weed Management Dec 18, 2023 424-100-M (SPES-299P-M)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XIV. Nutritional Composition of Feeds Dec 18, 2023 424-100-N (SPES-299P-N)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XV. Diagnostic Laboratory Services Dec 18, 2023 424-100-O (SPES-299P-O)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XVI. Commonly Used Weights and Measures Dec 18, 2023 424-100-P (SPES-299P-P)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part XVII. Calibration of Sprayers Dec 18, 2023 424-100-Q (SPES-299P-Q)
Agronomy Handbook 2023: Part IX. Conversion Factors Needed for Common Fertilizer Calculations Dec 18, 2023 424-100-I (SPES-299P-I)
Determining Forage Moisture Concentration
Harvesting and storing forage at the proper moisture concentration is essential to producing a high-quality product. Ideally, hay forage should have a moisture concentration between 15 percent and 18 percent during baling. Hay baled at higher moisture levels is subject to heat damage, dry-matter loss, mold spoilage, and hay fires. Protein and total digestible nutrient losses are increased for hay baled at lower moisture levels. Baling at the proper moisture level is critical to making quality hay, especially for larger bales (round and square) since moisture and heat dissipate more slowly in comparison to smaller bales.
Jul 2, 2020 442-106(BSE-330P)
Planning Fencing Systems For Controlled Grazing
Controlled grazing is an alternative method of providing forage to grazing animals. Using pasture as a major feed source during the grazing season can significantly reduce feed costs. Virginia’s soils and climate are especially favorable for the growth of a wide range of productive, high-quality grasses and legumes suitable for grazing. However, optimizing a controlled grazing system requires careful planning and good management of a fencing system.
Feb 11, 2019 442-130 (BSE-247P)
Management Tips for Round Bale Hay Harvesting, Moving, and Storage
Hay production and feeding is one of the most expensive components of forage-livestock systems. Specific management practices are necessary to maintain hay quality and minimize hay loss during harvest, transportation and storage of large round bales.
Jul 1, 2020 442-454 (BSE-332P)
Large Round Bale Safety
This Extension publication covers the safety aspects of equipment used in large round bale packages such as: balers, front-end loaders, bale handling and transport devices. The key to safe and efficient systems for handling large round bales is an operator who knows the hazards involved and who follows safety practices that can prevent accidents. Operators must be constantly alert for situations that may cause injuries to themselves or others. Besides pain and suffering, accidents contribute to higher costs in terms of unnecessary downtime or costly machine repairs. Alertness and safety consciousness can result in more efficient and profitable baling and handling.
May 26, 2020 442-455 (BSE-331P)
Soil Test Note No.3 - Liming and Fertilization of Cool-Season Forage Crops Aug 30, 2019 452-703
Boundaries of Virginia Fence Law
The history of Virginia fence law began not long after the first English settlement was founded in 1607. Virginia fence law has transcended from requiring landowners to fence in their livestock beginning in 1631, to requiring landowners to fence-out unwanted livestock beginning in 1643, to the modern-day rule granting localities the authority to return to a fence-in rule of law. This overview sets forth the history of Virginia fence law and explains the modern-day rule of law, including what constitutes a lawful fence and when you need one.
Sep 27, 2023 AAEC-323P
Taste of Farming: Grazing Math Apr 1, 2022 ALCE-296-11
Taste of Farming: Agroforestry Apr 4, 2022 ALCE-296-13
Summer Stockpile for Late Summer Grazing May 15, 2024 ANR-289NP
Eldon Farm's Graze 300 VA System Dec 16, 2022 ANR-290NP
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part I. Biology of Reproduction Nov 4, 2019 APSC-157P
Using Fecal Egg Counts On Your Farm Sep 17, 2019 APSC-166NP
U.S. Swine Health Improvement Plan: Background, Benefits, and How to Enroll Sep 29, 2022 APSC-181P
Kinky Back (Spondylolisthesis) in Broiler Chickens: What We Can Do Today to Reduce the Problem Sep 20, 2023 APSC-189P
Asian Longhorned Tick and Theileria Orientalis Ikeda: Current Thoughts and Understandings
This project will be used to disseminate current thoughts and understand the invasive species of Asian Longhorned Tick (ALT) and the spread of Theileria. The Asian Longhorned Tick is a new invasive species that was first found in the US in 2017 and has since spread to 19 states from the Atlantic Coast to the Southeastern region of the US. The ALT is credited with the widespread of Theileria. Theileria is a blood protozoa parasite that has had a negative impact on cattle producers across the state. This article is what we currently understand about the ALT and the spread of Theileria.
Nov 30, 2023 APSC-196P
Silvopasture Systems for Broiler Chickens: Ranging Behavior and Range Use
Domesticated chickens, like their ancestor the Jungle Fowl, will range outdoors when given the opportunity, especially when given shelter or natural overhead cover from bushes and trees. Poultry flocks that get the opportunity to range outdoors can benefit in terms of health and behavioral opportunities. However, many factors impact ranging behavior, including shelters, weather, time of day, early life experiences, fear, group size and genetics. Here we focus on one component that could stimulate poultry to use the range more, which is to provide natural vegetation other than grass.
May 23, 2024 APSC-198P
Managing Human-Wildlife Interactions: Coyote (Canis latrans)
Because of the coyote's versatility, adaptability, and its current wide distribution throughout Virginia, the likelihood of encountering a coyote is real. Thus, residents of the Commonwealth should become more aware and informed about the traits and behaviors of this species to avoid undesirable interactions. This publication provides basic information about the coyote, its expected and normal behaviors and other life history aspects, and suggestions on how to minimize or avoid problems that can arise from our interactions with this fascinating creature.
Aug 15, 2023 CNRE-172P
Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes May 6, 2021 CSES-146P
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
Apr 20, 2021 CSES-155P
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Planting Trees in Pastures May 1, 2023 CSES-185P
Using a Summer Stockpiling System to Extend the Grazing Season Nov 14, 2017 CSES-201NP
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems May 1, 2023 CSES-22P (SPES-5P)
Previniendo accidentes de trabajadores rurales ligados al manejo de silajes (Preventing silage-related injuries and fatalities among farm workers) Jul 7, 2022 DASC-102s
Preventing silage-related injuries and fatalitites among farm workers Jul 5, 2022 DASC-103NP
Preventing injuries and fatalities during the harvesting and chapping of crops for silage Aug 28, 2018 DASC-117NP
Previniendo daños y muertes durante la cosecha y picado de maíz y sorgo para silaje (Preventing injuries and fatalities during the harvesting and chopping of crops for silage.) Aug 28, 2018 DASC-118S
Dairy Pipeline, April 2020 Mar 31, 2020 DASC-134NP
June 2022 Dairy Pipeline Jun 23, 2022 DASC-150NP
Dairy Pipeline July-August 2023
In this issue: Beyond Boundaries and Inclusion and Diversity at Its Best; Beating the Heat with a Slick Hair Coat; Upcoming Activities
Jun 26, 2023 DASC-160NP
Fire Ant Management for Livestock Producers: Hayfields and Pastures
Imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta and its hybrids) are an increasing concern for farming operations as they expand across Virginia. To slow the spread of imported fire ants, the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the US Department of Agriculture have set a Federal Fire Ant Quarantine over much of the southeastern portion of the state. The FFAQ does not currently include all the localities in Virginia known to have imported fire ants and will likely be expanded in the future.
Apr 23, 2024 ENTO-527NP (ENTO-590NP)
Tall Fescue, Endophytes and Alkaloids, and Fescue Toxicosis Apr 12, 2019 SPES-114P
Strategies for Managing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue – A Whole-Farm Approach Nov 26, 2019 SPES-163P
Adaptive Challenges Jan 24, 2020 SPES-183NP
Motivations of Farming: A Soil, Conservation and Place supplement video Aug 12, 2020 SPES-184NP
Converting Pastures to Native Warm Season Grasses: Forage for Drought in Bedford County Mar 31, 2020 SPES-196NP
Sampling Tall Fescue for Endophyte Infection and Ergot Alkaloid Concentration
Endophyte-infected tall fescue is the dominant forages in Virginia. As such, it is imperative to manage this important forage resource wisely. Ergot alkaloids produced by fescue’s fungal endophyte create challenges to accomplishing this. Tests for endophyte presence and alkaloid levels are important management tools that producers can use to minimize alkaloid consumption and the negative impacts of on animal performance. Consistent testing methods are important for adequately assessing alkaloid levels and for making comparisons among pastures over time. These results then can be used to develop a custom grazing strategy to avoid severe incidences of fescue toxicosis. Repeated testing during a grazing season can help determine possible benefits to pasture renovation or addition of legumes. Similar to testing forages for nutrient concentrations and devising a winter feeding and supplement plan, testing fescue-based pastures for endophyte infection level and for ergot alkaloid concentrations at various times during the year can facilitate management to reduce alkaloid consumption and also help determine if further mitigation is needed.
Aug 1, 2024 SPES-21P
Stockpile Grazing in Autumn Nov 2, 2023 SPES-29P
Using Grazing Charts
This is a Graze 300 Virginia video which is part of an Extension initiative to enable Virginia farmers to achieve 300 days of livestock grazing by facilitating better pasture management and environmental stewardship. In this video clip, Tim Mize, Extension Agent with Virginia Cooperative Extension, and Norman Bower, a cooperating farmer, share how a grazing chart can be a roadmap for communicating and planning a farm's grazing plan. For more information about Graze 300 VA and Virginia Cooperative Extension, please visit Graze 300. Funding for the video was generously provided by the Agua Fund to encourage sustainable resilient agriculture and the conservation of important natural resources.
Nov 2, 2023 SPES-30P
Stockpile Grazing with Horses
This is a Graze 300 Virginia video which is part of an Extension initiative to enable Virginia farmers to achieve 300 days of livestock grazing by facilitating better pasture management and environmental stewardship. In this video clip, Carrie Swanson, Extension Agent with Virginia Cooperative Extension, discusses and demonstrates the benefits of stockpile grazing with horses. For more information about Graze 300 VA and Virginia Cooperative Extension, please visit Graze 300. Funding for the video was generously provided by the Agua Fund to encourage sustainable resilient agriculture and the conservation of important natural resources.
Nov 2, 2023 SPES-31P
Does Land Application of Biosolids Pose Health Concerns for Grazing Livestock? Aug 3, 2021 SPES-318P
Benefits of a Dry Lot for Horses
This is a Graze 300 Virginia video which is part of an Extension initiative to enable Virginia farmers to achieve 300 days of livestock grazing by facilitating better pasture management and environmental stewardship. In this video clip, Carrie Swanson, Extension Agent with Virginia Cooperative Extension, discusses the benefits of a dry lot as a horse and pasture management strategy. For more information about Graze 300 VA and Virginia Cooperative Extension, please visit Graze 300. Funding for the video was generously provided by the Agua Fund to encourage sustainable resilient agriculture and the conservation of important natural resources.
Nov 2, 2023 SPES-32P
Using a Grazing Muzzle
This is a Graze 300 Virginia video which is part of an Extension initiative to enable Virginia farmers to achieve 300 days of livestock grazing by facilitating better pasture management and environmental stewardship. In this video clip, Carrie Swanson, Extension Agent with Virginia Cooperative Extension, discusses the benefits of a dry lot as a horse and pasture management strategy. For more information about Graze 300 VA and Virginia Cooperative Extension, please visit Graze 300. Funding for the video was generously provided by the Agua Fund to encourage sustainable resilient agriculture and the conservation of important natural resources.
Nov 2, 2023 SPES-33P
Grazing Through Snow Nov 1, 2023 SPES-34P
Grazing Summer Annuals
This is a Graze 300 Virginia video which is part of an Extension initiative to enable Virginia farmers to achieve 300 days of livestock grazing by facilitating better pasture management and environmental stewardship. In this video clip, Jason Thurman of Lazy Acre Angus, in cooperation with Chris Brown Extension Agent with Virginia Cooperative Extension, explains his farm’s rotational grazing system and how he has incorporated summer annuals such as Sorghum-Sudangrass in the system to improve cow performance during the hot summer months. For more information about Graze 300 VA and Virginia Cooperative Extension, please visit Graze 300. Funding for the video was generously provided by the Agua Fund to encourage sustainable resilient agriculture and the conservation of important natural resources.
Nov 2, 2023 SPES-35P
Planted Hardwood Silvopasture: Producer Perspective From Rockingham Co. VA Jul 26, 2022 SPES-410NP
Planted Hardwood Silvopasture: Producer Perspective From Wythe Co. VA Jul 26, 2022 SPES-411NP
Silvopasture Best Management Practices Jul 26, 2022 SPES-412NP
Silvopasture Challenges: Producer Perspectives Jul 26, 2022 SPES-413NP
Thinned Hardwood Silvopasture: Producer Perspective From Nelson Co. VA Jul 27, 2022 SPES-414NP
Thinned Hardwood Silvopasture Producer Perspective From Rockbridge Co. VA Jul 28, 2022 SPES-415NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture Producer: (#1) Perspective From Charlotte Co. VA Jul 28, 2022 SPES-416NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture Producer: (#2) Perspective From Charlotte Co. VA Jul 28, 2022 SPES-417NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture: Producer Perspective from Orange Co. VA Jul 28, 2022 SPES-418NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture: Producer Perspective From Pender Co. NC Jul 28, 2022 SPES-419NP
Fescue Toxicosis and Some Strategies to Mitigate Alkaloids May 3, 2023 SPES-6
Animal Performance on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer Sep 19, 2018 SPES-62NP
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2022 Jun 24, 2022 SPES-406NP
Managing Drought with Roy Boldridge Nov 7, 2022 SPES-433NP
Managing Spring Flush with Jim Manwaring Nov 7, 2022 SPES-434NP
Managing Spring Flush with Roy Boldridge Nov 7, 2022 SPES-435NP
Powering Electric Fences with Steve Jones Nov 7, 2022 SPES-436NP
Springwood Farm Profile with Will Hueston Nov 7, 2022 SPES-437
Temporary Electric Fencing for Small Ruminants with Tim Mize Nov 7, 2022 SPES-438NP
Tree Selection Guide for Mid-Atlantic Silvopastures
This guide provides key information for selecting trees suitable for silvopasture operations in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. – states include Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. This guide includes species native to North America with an emphasis on those native to Mid-Atlantic states. Only woody plants over 25 feet tall at maturity that are primarily single stemmed were considered. Both deciduous and evergreens are included.
May 10, 2024 SPES-476NP
Managing the Spring Pasture Flush May 8, 2023 SPES-486P
Converting pastures to native warm season grasses: Filling the summer forage slump in Orange County
A farmer's experience of converting a tall fescue field into native warm season grasses for improved forage production in the summertime.
Aug 11, 2023 SPES-514NP
Converting pastures to native warm season grasses: Alternative summer forage for cattle in Orange County
A farmer's experience of converting a tall fescue field into native warm season grasses for improved forage production in the summertime.
Sep 7, 2023 SPES-519NP
Planted Hardwood Silvopasture: Producer Perspective from Madison Co. GA Dec 6, 2023 SPES-558NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture: Producer Perspective from Russell Co. AL. (Early stage conversion) Dec 6, 2023 SPES-559NP
Planted Hardwood Silvopasture: Producer Perspective from Jefferson Co, TN (Establishment system) Dec 6, 2023 SPES-560NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture: Producer (#1) Perspective from Oglethorpe Co., GA (Beef cattle) Dec 6, 2023 SPES-561NP
Native warm season grass variety trial, 2021-2023
Native warm season grasses may provide valuable forage resources for farmers in the summer months, while also providing habitat for wildlife, among other conservation benefits. This report provides the results of a three-year forage yield variety trial of 20 different cultivars and ecotypes of native warm season grasses at five different locations in Virginia.
Dec 1, 2023 SPES-562NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture: Producer (#2) Perspective from Oglethorpe Co., GA (Goats) Dec 6, 2023 SPES-564NP
Demonstrating conversion of tall fescue pastures to native warm season grasses
Native warm season grasses may provide farms with summer forage and improved animal performance, while also providing habitat for wildlife species. This paper describes the conversion process of a tall fescue-based pasture at the Southern Piedmont AREC to native warm season grasses. Subsequent beef cattle performance on this pasture was compared to cattle performance on nearby novel-endophyte tall fescue pastures, indicating the potential for good animal performance in the summer on these grasses.
Jan 4, 2024 SPES-573NP
Control of Common Grassy Weeds in Pastures and Hayfields
This publication reviews options for controlling common grassy weeds in grass forages including chemical and cultural management options. Specific weeds are discussed in detail including johnsongrass, Japanese stiltgrass, broomsedge, and foxtail species.
Jan 17, 2024 SPES-58P (SPES-563P)
4 The Soil: A Conversation podcast Feb 14, 2024 SPES-584NP
VCE Ag Today: Late Summer Pasture Management Apr 12, 2021 VCE-1027-20NP
VCE Ag Today: Weed Control in Pastures Nov 10, 2021 VCE-1027-55NP
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Dec 17, 2021 VTTP-2