Resources for Forestry
|Measuring Site Index||
Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests. Site index is the average height of the dominant1 and codominant2 trees on the site, at a given age (base age). Typically, the base age for hardwoods and white pine in Virginia is 50 years, while the base age for loblolly pine is 25 years. For example, a SI of 75, base age 50, means that the average height of the dominant and codominant trees on a site will be 75 feet when they are 50 years old (SI50=75). The higher the SI, the higher the site productivity (trees will grow faster than on a site with a lower SI).
|Apr 30, 2020||2812-1028 (CNRE-96NP)|
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
|Jun 30, 2020||2902-1102 (ENTO-386NP)|
|Pine Bark Adelgid||
The pine bark adelgid was introduced from Europe and is now widely distributed in North America, occurring principally throughout the native range of eastern white pine. This insect is also found on Scots and Austrian pine.
|Aug 28, 2018||2907-1402 (ENTO-285NP)|
|Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner||
These beetles cause very conspicuous damage in late summer. The leaves on large numbers of twigs and branches will be observed to turn brown prematurely. These twigs and branches sometimes fall from trees in great numbers and accumulate. On close examination, the twigs have one of two kinds of damage. Twigs damaged by the twig girdler are cut as neatly as by a knife. The cut end has been gnawed almost straight across with a faint rounding and is slightly roughened by the chewing. The twig girdler is more commonly found on pecan and hickory. The twig pruner causes a slightly different type of cut. The twig will be observed to have a hollowed out space at the cut end filled with sawdust like frass. The twig when split open will have a long tunnel through most of its length. The twig pruner is more commonly found on oak.
|May 1, 2020||2911-1423 (ENTO-374NP)|
|Virginia Pine Sawfly||
The Virginia pine sawfly has been recorded from New Jersey and Maryland to North Carolina and westward to Illinois. Its main hosts are Virginia and shortleaf pines, but it also feeds on pitch and loblolly pine.
|May 1, 2020||2911-1424 (ENTO-375NP)|
|Hemlock Woolly Adelgid||Dec 16, 2016||3006-1451 (ENTO-228NP)|
|Balsam Woolly Adelgid||
Native to central Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid is now distributed throughout eastern and western North America. It attacks all true firs, Abies spp., including balsam and Fraser fir.
|Mar 1, 2021||3006-1452 (ENTO-434NP)|
The redheaded pine sawfly occurs from S.E. Canada throughout the eastern U.S. Feeding is primarily restricted to the two and three-needled pines, such as Jack, red, shortleaf, loblolly, slash, longleaf, and pitch pines. White pine and Norway spruce may also be defoliated.
|Mar 5, 2021||3006-1453 (ENTO-429NP)|
|Pine Tortoise Scale||
Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years - most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.
|Mar 24, 2016||3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)|
|Pine Tortoise Scale||Nov 22, 2021||3104-1529 (ENTO-466NP)|
|Virginia Logger Safety Checklist Booklet||Mar 23, 2018||3108-1592 (CNRE-10NP)|
|Managing Wildlife Damage: Snakes||Nov 7, 2019||420-021 (CNRE-56P)|
|Design and Operation of a Solar-Heated Dry Kiln||
Lumber is usually dried to a specific moisture content prior to further manufacturing or use. The amount of water in wood is usually expressed as moisture content and can be directly measured or calculated. The moisture content of wood is defined as the ratio of the weight of water in wood to the dry weight of the wood material. While lumber can be air-dried, the humidity in most localities prevents the lumber from reaching the moisture content required for the stability needed for interior use. A dry kiln is required to dry lumber to the necessary final moisture content and does so fairly rapidly. This publication discusses the design and operation of a solar-heated lumber dry kiln that is designed to be inexpensive to construct and simple to operate.
|Dec 8, 2020||420-030 (ANR-121P)|
|Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia||Sep 6, 2018||420-039|
|An Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia||
Each year many landowners in Virginia consider Christmas tree farming as an alternative enterprise for their unused open land. The number of growers in the Commonwealth is increasing steadily, and currently Virginia ranks eighth in the nation in Christmas tree production, with about 1.8 million trees harvested in 1990.
|Mar 11, 2021||420-080 (CNRE-131P)|
|Species for Christmas Tree Planting in Virginia||
Christmas tree production in Virginia has steadily increased over the last several years. Favorable climate, soils, and proximity to markets place Virginia growers in a highly desirable marketing situation.
|Nov 4, 2020||420-082|
|Forest Landowner’s Guide To The Measurement Of Timber And Logs||
As a forest landowner interested in selling timber, you are naturally interested in the price you will receive for your product and how that price is determined. The measurement of standing timber and logs may seem strange and complicated to you, and it is possible that you may be quoted dramatically different prices based upon differing estimates of the amount of timber you have and the units of measurement used. Methods of measuring timber and the units of measurement often differ between buyers, and, as a seller, you should have an understanding of these methods, the units of measurement, and an idea as to a reasonable price for your timber.
|Jul 13, 2020||420-085 (CNRE-103P)|
|Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide||Mar 24, 2020||420-122 (BSE-288P)|
|Timber Theft in Virginia||
Forestland can provide countless hours of recreational benefits as well as an important source of income. Many landowners take careful steps to ensure that their property is managed to maximize the benefits they receive. However, all of this work can be easily eradicated by one of Virginia’s most dreaded forest pests: timber thieves.
|Sep 14, 2020||420-136 (CNRE-117NP)|
|Lean Inventory Management in the Wood Products Industry: Examples and Applications||May 3, 2021||420-148 (CNRE-132NP)|
|Exotic Invasive Plants||
Invasive exotic species are plants that are not native to a given area and have the ability to out-compete indigenous plant species. Invasive exotics are often brought into their non-native surroundings by humans with good intentions.
|Apr 29, 2020||420-320 (CNRE-105NP)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)||
Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.
|Apr 28, 2020||420-321 (CNRE-97P)|
|Invasive Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)||
Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise- tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.
|Jan 8, 2021||420-322 (CNRE-128NP)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)||
Several species of Asian honeysuckle have been introduced in the United States for their ornamental and wildlife values. Honeysuckle is perhaps the most widespread exotic invasive in the U.S., now found in at least 38 states. The Asian honeysuckle produces abundant seeds which are dispersed by birds and other wildlife. It also spreads by sprouting from its roots. Because it tolerates shade from other plants, it grows in forest understories.
|Apr 1, 2020||420-323 (CNRE-95P)|
|Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees||
Forest management is a complex process. Silviculture—a system in which healthy communities of trees and other vegetation are established and maintained for the benefit of people—uses forest ecology to guide complex management prescriptions that mimic forest disturbances and processes. Silvics—the natural characteristics of trees—play an important role in prescribing effective silviculture.
|May 20, 2020||420-351 (ANR-118NP)|
|Coloring Christmas Trees Before Harvest||
As the Christmas tree industry develops in Virginia, the production of larger quantities of trees places growers in a more competitive environment. Under conditions of competition, it becomes necessary for growers to produce the highest quality trees possible in order to enjoy marketing success. There are many characteristics of Christmas trees which are widely considered to be quality factors, but the most important are shape, needle retention, straightness, and color.
|Sep 14, 2020||420-638(CNRE-118P)|
|Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!||May 9, 2018||426-109 (HORT-292P)|
In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.
|Jul 7, 2021||444-276 (ENTO-455NP)|
|2022 Pest Management Guide - Horticultural and Forest Crops||Feb 15, 2022||456-017 (ENTO-463P)|
|Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land||Mar 16, 2018||460-123 (CSES-211P)|
|Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses||Mar 15, 2018||460-124 (CSES-212P)|
|Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining||Mar 20, 2018||460-140 (CSES-220P)|
|To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question||
The economic and ecological considerations of clear cutting wooded acreage.
|Mar 2, 2022||465-340 (CNRE-139P)|
|Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment||Mar 2, 2022||465-341 (CNRE-136P)|
|Taste of Farming: Forestry in Virginia||Apr 1, 2022||ALCE-296-10|
|Consider Logging Residue Needs for BMP Implementation When Harvesting Biomass for Energy||
Utilization of woody biomass for energy has increased substantially in Virginia. While there are a number of definitions for biomass, woody biomass from forest harvesting operations typically refers to logging residues such as limbs, tops, and other unmerchantable material that would otherwise be left behind on-site after the logging operation is complete. Logging residues are typically chipped and then transported to facilities where they are used for fuel. Biomass harvesting in Virginia most commonly occurs on integrated harvesting operations where roundwood and biomass are harvested and utilized at the same time in a single operation.
|Dec 13, 2019||ANR-108NP|
|Effectiveness of Skid Trail Closure Techniques. Forest Operations Research Highlights||Dec 13, 2019||ANR-109NP|
|Effectiveness of Temporary Stream Crossing Closure Techniques Forest Operations Research Highlights||
Protection of water quality is a critical component of forest harvesting operations. Virginia’s silvicultural water quality law (§10.1-1181.1 through 10.1-1181.7) prohibits excessive sedimentation of streams as a result of silvicultural operations. Virginia’s logging businesses invest substantial resources implementing BMPs to protect water quality. The Virginia Department of Forestry (VDOF) is responsible for enforcing this law and inspects all logging operations to ensure protection of water quality.
|Dec 13, 2019||ANR-110NP|
|All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot||
Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.
|Sep 12, 2019||ANR-132NP (CNRE-70NP)|
|Thinning Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot||
Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.
|Sep 12, 2019||ANR-133NP (CNRE-69NP)|
|Welcome to the Woods! A Guide for New Virginia Woodland Owners||
We all depend on and benefit from the woods every day, whether we know it or not. The trees, shrubs, plants, animals, and soil that make up your woods provide you, your neighbors, and your region with a host of environmental, social, and economic benefits.
|Jul 16, 2020||ANR-136P(CNRE-110P)|
|Statistical Process Control: Applications and Examples for Forest Products Industries||
Creating value requires managers to master quantitative and qualitative techniques to document and analyze information used in the decision making process. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a tool that allows administrators both in service and manufacturing industries to monitor process capability to ensure customer requirements are met efficiently and effectively.
|Sep 29, 2020||ANR-140NP|
|So You Want To Sell Timber||
Research into the attitudes and actions of private forest landowners shows that although very few own their forestland for the purpose of producing timber, most will sell timber at least once in their lifetimes. Private forest landowners sell timber for a variety of reasons that range from purely financial to solely for management purposes. Often landowners do not consider selling timber until they have an immediate need for cash. Other times the landowner has planned an immediate commercial thinning with a full timber harvest scheduled in 10 years. Whatever the reason(s) for a timber sale, careful consideration of objectives is paramount.
|Dec 18, 2018||ANR-154P|
|Timber Selling Tips: Forestry Fact Sheet for Landowners||
Timber harvesting is a valuable tool to help forest landowners realize certain financial and land management goals. Following are some suggestions to consider before selling timber.
|Dec 18, 2018||ANR-155P|
|Business Management Practices for Small to Medium Sized Forest Products Firms||Nov 2, 2020||ANR-160P|
|Trees and Water||Oct 19, 2018||ANR-18NP (CNRE-34NP)|
|The Woods In Your Backyard: Learning to Create and Enhance Natural Areas Around Your Home||May 17, 2016||ANR-199NP|
|New market idea: Selling woody materials from landscaping projects to craft industry||Jun 30, 2021||ANR-215NP|
|What is a Virginia Master Naturalist?||Jan 20, 2017||ANR-242|
|Rare Forested Natural Communities in Virginia||Apr 3, 2017||ANR-260NP|
|Regional Forest Harvest Characteristics across Virginia||Apr 27, 2017||ANR-264NP|
|Slash Application Cost Estimates for Skid Trail Closure in the Virginia Piedmont||
Best management practices (BMPs) were developed after the passage of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 to mitigate pollutants and sediment from entering streams. Forest operations are a potential source of sediment to streams surrounding harvest areas. Specifically, roads, skid trails, landings, and stream crossings can cause accelerated erosion due to the soil disturbance caused by logging equipment and exposure of bare soil (Appelboom et al. 2002). Soil erosion can result in decreased productivity, degraded water quality, and increased costs associated with state and federal environmental regulations.
|Jul 11, 2017||ANR-273NP|
|One-Year Health, Mortality, and Growth in Southeast Virginia of Shortleaf Pine From Three Sources||
Restoration of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) in Virginia has become a priority of various state and federal agencies. For shortleaf pine restoration to be successful in Virginia, private lands must be considered because 89 percent of forestland in Virginia is privately owned, and most private landowners are likely to use commercially available seedling sources. Shortleaf seedlings from commercially available sources in Virginia, Arkansas, and Missouri were planted in two sites in Southeast Virginia to test growth and yield. After one year, height and ground-line diameter were measured and observations were made on health and mortality of the plants. The Virginia seed source was significantly taller than the Arkansas source. At the first site, mortality and disease were low, but at the second site, mortality and poor health were very high, possibly due to soils combined with weather conditions. No significant seed source effects on disease and mortality were found at either site.
|Oct 25, 2018||ANR-28P (CNRE-28P)|
|The Role of Logging Business Owners in Forest Certification||Nov 9, 2018||ANR-51NP (CNRE-35NP)|
|Wood Identification for Species Native to Virginia||May 10, 2019||ANR-64P (ANR-324P)|
|Lean at Hardwood Lumber Inc.||Jun 9, 2017||ANR-226|
|Legacy Planning - A Guide For Virginia Landowners||Jan 12, 2021||CNRE-121P (CNRE-129P)|
|COVID-19 Stress Reduction Technique: The Japanese Practice of Shinrin-yoku or Forest Bathing||Dec 8, 2020||CNRE-125NP|
|Impact of Planting Treatments on Eastern White Pine Seedling Survival and Growth at the Matthews State Forest in Grayson County, Virginia||Dec 20, 2021||CNRE-137NP|
|Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes||May 6, 2021||CSES-146P|
|Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands||
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
|Apr 20, 2021||CSES-155P|
|Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Planting Trees in Pastures||Dec 11, 2017||CSES-185P|
|Galls and Rust made by Mites||
Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-147NP|
|Yellow Poplar Weevil||
Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.
|May 6, 2020||ENTO-172NP (ENTO-380NP)|
Cankerworms are also known as inchworms, loop worms, and spanworms - this is credited to their distinctive way of moving. In order to travel, a cankerworm must grab leaves or branches with its front legs and then pull the rest of its body forward. This causes the abdomen area to contract and gives the worm the appearance of arching its back.
|Feb 5, 2021||ENTO-223NP (ENTO-404NP)|
|Jumping Worms||Mar 4, 2021||ENTO-427NP|
|Buprestid Beetles and Flathead Borers||Mar 4, 2021||ENTO-441NP|
|Red Imported Fire Ant Logger Self-Inspection Checklist||Feb 25, 2022||ENTO-492NP|
|Emerald Ash Borer: Options for Landowners||
Emerald ash borer (EAB) is found in all regions of Virginia. Some areas have established populations with a high level of ash tree mortality and other areas are seeing it for the first time. With a wider spread of infestation many homeowners are seeking methods to protect their ash trees.
|Dec 17, 2019||ENTO-76NP (ENTO-343NP)|
|Red Imported Fire Ant Farmer Self-Inspection Checklist||Mar 8, 2022||ENTO-493NP|
|Emerald Ash Borer||
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a wood-boring beetle native to eastern Asia and is now considered the most destructive forest pest ever seen in North America. Since its discovery in Michigan in 2002, it has killed tens of millions of native ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and Canada. This destruction has already cost municipalities, property owners, and businesses tens of millions of dollars in damages.
|May 10, 2020||HORT-69NP|
|How to Evaluate a Tree||May 19, 2021||SPES-313P|
|VCE Ag Today: Timber Market Update||Jul 5, 2021||VCE-1027-50NP|
|Pesticide Applicator Manuals||Dec 17, 2021||VTTP-2|