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The Effects of Mineral Dissolution on Water Quality
Acid-base reactions and the concept of pH are critical concepts in chemistry, environmental sciences and Earth science. First, students will present hypotheses of whether the pH will increase or decrease when calcite or pyrite are dissolved in water. Second, in a facilitated activity, students (in groups) will dissolve pyrite and calcite in water and measure the pH after the minerals dissolve. Third, they will hypothesize what happens to the pH when they mix the pyrite and calcite together (in water). Fourth, they will then test their hypotheses by mixing them and measuring pH. Fifth they will discuss if their results support their hypotheses. Last, they will expand what they learned in the experiments to how minerals can be used in water treatment.
Nov 8, 2023 4H-1024NP
Managing Wildlife Damage: Beavers (Castor canadensis) May 25, 2023 420-202 (CNRE-167P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - What Is Aquatic Biodiversity; Why Is it Important?
Aquatic biodiversity is the rich and wonderful variety of plants and animals—from crayfish to catfish, from mussels to mayflies, from tadpoles to trout—that live in watery habitats. It is the number of different native species, or species richness.
Dec 18, 2019 420-520 (CNRE-77P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation
The diversity of insects can only be described as amazing. More than half of all known species of living things (microbes, plants, and animals) are insects.
Dec 17, 2019 420-531 (CNRE-81P)
Nutrient Management for Small Farms Dec 17, 2018 442-305 (BSE-241P)
Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage Jan 17, 2019 442-307 (BSE-243P)
Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage: Management and Safety Jan 16, 2019 442-308 (BSE-244P)
Manure Management and Environmental Stewardship Jan 16, 2019 442-309 (BSE-245NP)
Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Site Evaluation: Groundwater, Soils, & Geology May 1, 2009 442-901
On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives Oct 19, 2023 448-407 (SPES-520P)
Powell River Project - Reclamation of Coal Refuse Disposal Areas Jul 25, 2023 460-131 (CSES-215P)
Powell River Project - Reclaiming Mined Lands as Industrial Sites Jul 25, 2023 460-132 (CSES-217P)
Powell River Project - Passive Treatment of Acid-Mine Drainage
This publication describes procedures for treating and renovating water quality of acid-mine drainage discharges using "passive treatment" technologies such as constructed wetlands.
Jul 28, 2023 460-133 (CSES-216P)
Powell River Project - Reforestation Guidelines for Unused Surface Mined Lands in the Eastern United States
This publication describes procedures for converting reclaimed mined lands that are unmanaged into productive forest ecosystems with native trees as dominant vegetation.
Jul 28, 2023 460-144 (CSES-221P)
Effectiveness of Temporary Stream Crossing Closure Techniques Forest Operations Research Highlights
Protection of water quality is a critical component of forest harvesting operations. Virginia’s silvicultural water quality law (§10.1-1181.1 through 10.1-1181.7) prohibits excessive sedimentation of streams as a result of silvicultural operations. Virginia’s logging businesses invest substantial resources implementing BMPs to protect water quality. The Virginia Department of Forestry (VDOF) is responsible for enforcing this law and inspects all logging operations to ensure protection of water quality.
Dec 13, 2019 ANR-110NP
Trees and Water
Since at least the late 1800s, scientists and forest managers in the United States have recognized that forests have strong influences on water resources (Hewlett 2003). Today the connections between forests and water are widely reported in the news media, promoted by natural resource agencies, and investigated by specialists such as hydrologists, dendrologists, foresters, forest biologists, and water managers. Tree structures and functions influence at least four major areas of water-resources concerns: (1) water quality, (2) aquatic habitat, (3) water quantity, and (4) the interactions among water, climate, and energy use. This publication provides a basic introduction to Virginia's trees and a foundation for assessing the connections between water and trees.
Apr 24, 2024 ANR-18NP (CNRE-179)
A characterization of large-scale swine production and manure generation in Virginia counties and cities located within or outside of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Feb 14, 2023 APSC-182P
Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture
In this publication, information is presented on how to increase farm productivity while potentially reducing greenhouse gas* (GHG) contributions from agricultural production. Some of the practices may be familiar to many producers, such as building soil organic matter (SOM) or increasing nitrogen fertilization efficiency, but many producers may not know that these same productivity-boosting activities also help to reduce GHG emissions and their impact on climate change. While informative to the producer, this publication will also inform those with an interest in both agriculture and the environmental impact of GHG emissions on the atmosphere.
Apr 3, 2019 BSE-105 (BSE-251P)
Communicating Climate Change to Agricultural Audiences
The objectives of this publication are (1) to outline some climate-related challenges facing agriculture, (2) to address challenges in communicating climate change issues, and (3) to propose best practices when attempting to communicate climate change issues to agricultural stakeholders. Extension educators and agricultural service providers can use the information presented here to develop outreach and educational programs focused on the impacts of climate change, the effects of climate change on agricultural production, and the best ways to motivate behavior change.
Mar 3, 2022 BSE-203P (BSE-344NP)
Factors When Considering an Agricultural Drainage System Jun 7, 2022 BSE-208P (BSE-343P)
Managing Drainage From Agricultural Lands with Denitrifying Bioreactors in the Mid-Atlantic
This publication highlights recent advances in adapting denitrifying bioreactors developed in the Midwest to the Mid-Atlantic region. Denitrifying bioreactors are edge-of-field management practices that harness the activity of soil bacteria to remove excess nitrogen from drainage waters. Agricultural drainage is a significant source of nutrients to the Chesapeake Bay and important to manage. Although challenges remain with respect to adapting designs to treat ditch drainage, denitrifying bioreactors hold promise to yield water quality improvements in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
Dec 11, 2023 BSE-234P (BSE-355P)
Estimating Financial Costs and Benefits of Supplemental Irrigation with the Irrigation Financial Estimator Tool (IFET)
Row crop agriculture in Virginia and other Eastern states is largely rainfed, but there is increasing interest in irrigation as a way to manage dry periods and weather variability. However, irrigation systems require substantial installation and operating costs, and it can be very difficult to determine if yield improvements will be sufficient to justify these costs. This publication provides an overview on the Irrigation Financial Estimator Tool, which was recently developed to help row crop producers estimate financial aspects of supplemental irrigation. The tool estimates installation and operating costs, as well as revenues from improved yields, using user-supplied information and historic data on weather and prices for crops and fuel. It accounts for uncertainty in these estimates by presenting a range of values for each cost.
Apr 30, 2024 BSE-237P (BSE-358P)
Estimating Financial Costs and Benefits of Supplemental Irrigation with the Irrigation Financial Estimator Tool (IFET)
Row crop agriculture in Virginia and other Eastern states is largely rainfed, but there is increasing interest in irrigation as a way to manage dry periods and weather variability. However, irrigation systems require substantial installation and operating costs, and it can be very difficult to determine if yield improvements will be sufficient to justify these costs. This publication provides an overview on the Irrigation Financial Estimator Tool, which was recently developed to help row crop producers estimate financial aspects of supplemental irrigation. The tool estimates installation and operating costs, as well as revenues from improved yields, using user-supplied information and historic data on weather and prices for crops and fuel. It accounts for uncertainty in these estimates by presenting a range of values for each cost.
Apr 30, 2024 BSE-237P (BSE-358P)
Supplemental Irrigation with the Irrigation Financial Estimator Tool (IFET)-Workbook
Row crop agriculture in Virginia and other Eastern states is largely rainfed, but there is increasing interest in irrigation as a way to manage dry periods and weather variability. However, irrigation systems require substantial installation and operating costs, and it can be very difficult determine if yield improvements will be sufficient to justify these costs. This publication provides an overview on the Irrigation Financial Estimator Tool, which was recently developed to help row crop producers estimate financial aspects of supplemental irrigation. The tool estimates installation and operating costs, as well as revenues from improved yields, using user-supplied information and historic data on weather and prices for crops and fuel. It accounts for uncertainty in these estimates by presenting a range of values for each cost.
Apr 29, 2024 BSE-237A
Irrigation Scheduling in Humid Climates Using the Checkbook Method Jan 30, 2019 BSE-239P
Understanding Climate Change Projections in Virginia Dec 21, 2021 BSE-342P
Denitrification Management Feb 28, 2023 BSE-54P (BSE-347P)
Managing Irrigation with Saline Water May 9, 2023 BSE-348P
Understanding Salinity in Tidal Waters: Information for Irrigators May 11, 2023 BSE-349P
Virginia Master Naturalist Basic Training Course: Ichthyology Oct 8, 2019 CNRE-73P
An Overview of Forest Carbon Credit Programs in Virginia
Woodland owners increasingly hear about opportunities to earn income by participating in emerging forest carbon markets. This publication provides an overview of these markets and introduces the carbon credit programs operating in Virginia. This information is intended to help Virginia’s woodland owners decide if taking part in a forest carbon credit program is a good fit for their management objectives.
Apr 10, 2024 CNRE-177P
Applications of PXRF for Pedology, Agronomy, and Enviromental Quality Assessment Oct 31, 2022 CSES-186V
Red Imported Fire Ant Logger Self-Inspection Checklist Feb 25, 2022 ENTO-492NP
Elm Zigzag Sawfly Jan 11, 2023 ENTO-543NP
Catastrophic Livestock and Poultry Carcass Disposal Jun 5, 2019 SPES-138NP
Fertilizer: The Many Forms You Can Use Mar 18, 2020 SPES-187NP
Consider Your Whole System: Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia Jun 25, 2018 SPES-39NP
Consider Your Whole System: Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia
Early summer often means locally heavy and sporadic rainfall as thunderstorms deliver intense rains, and 2018 appears to be no different with many areas in eastern Virginia receiving 3+ inches of rain in a few days (Figure 1). These storms also often coincide with the timing of sidedress nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) applications on corn. While some rainfall after sidedress is very beneficial to facilitate N movement into soil, heavy rain (2+ inches) often leaves us wondering how much, if any, of that recently-applied N remains and if additional N is needed.
Jan 31, 2024 SPES-39NP
Consider Your Whole System: Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia Jun 25, 2018 SPES-39NP
Planted Hardwood Silvopasture: Producer Perspective From Rockingham Co. VA Jul 26, 2022 SPES-410NP
Planted Hardwood Silvopasture: Producer Perspective From Wythe Co. VA Jul 26, 2022 SPES-411NP
Silvopasture Best Management Practices Jul 26, 2022 SPES-412NP
Silvopasture Challenges: Producer Perspectives Jul 26, 2022 SPES-413NP
Thinned Hardwood Silvopasture: Producer Perspective From Nelson Co. VA Jul 27, 2022 SPES-414NP
Thinned Hardwood Silvopasture Producer Perspective From Rockbridge Co. VA Jul 28, 2022 SPES-415NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture Producer: (#1) Perspective From Charlotte Co. VA Jul 28, 2022 SPES-416NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture Producer: (#2) Perspective From Charlotte Co. VA Jul 28, 2022 SPES-417NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture: Producer Perspective from Orange Co. VA Jul 28, 2022 SPES-418NP
Thinned Pine Silvopasture: Producer Perspective From Pender Co. NC Jul 28, 2022 SPES-419NP
Tree Selection Guide for Mid-Atlantic Silvopastures
This guide provides key information for selecting trees suitable for silvopasture operations in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. – states include Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. This guide includes species native to North America with an emphasis on those native to Mid-Atlantic states. Only woody plants over 25 feet tall at maturity that are primarily single stemmed were considered. Both deciduous and evergreens are included.
May 10, 2024 SPES-476NP
Managing the Spring Pasture Flush May 8, 2023 SPES-486P