Resources for Soils
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Five - Understanding Ammonia Volatilization from Fertilizers||
Loss of nitrogen (N) as ammonia gas (NH3) is known as volatilization. While volatilization directly from soil can occur, such loss is generally relatively small compared to the amount that can be lost from fertilizers. Volatilization losses can be significant with granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) sources, but the amount of loss varies greatly depending on placement of the fertilizer, soil pH, soil texture, and climatic conditions after application.
|Sep 25, 2015||2908-1404(CSES-130NP)|
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Six - Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Properties||Nov 16, 2018||2908-1405 (SPES-78NP)|
|The Minute Pirate Bug (Orius)||Mar 18, 2019||3002-1437|
|Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn||Nov 16, 2018||3002-1438 (SPES-77NP)|
|Nitrogen Soil Testing For Corn in Virginia||Feb 7, 2019||418-016 (SPES-64P)|
|Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment||Jan 24, 2019||424-029|
|Agronomy Handbook, 2000||May 1, 2009||424-100||
The ideal soil for a vegetable garden is deep, friable, and well-drained with a high organic matter content. Proper soil preparation provides the basis for good seed germination and the subsequent growth of garden crops. Careful use of various soil amendments can improve garden soil and provide the best possible starting ground for your crops.
|Aug 12, 2015||426-313 (HORT-191P)|
|Urban Nutrient Management Handbook||Aug 16, 2019||430-350|
|Soil Testing for the Lawn and Landscape||May 1, 2009||430-540|
|Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans||Aug 30, 2019||442-310|
|Biochar in Agricultural Systems||Aug 20, 2010||442-311|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Crop Production||Feb 6, 2020||452-124 (SPES-174NP)|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Home Lawns, Gardens, Fruits, and Ornamentals||Nov 15, 2019||452-125 (SPES-172NP)|
|Forma Para el Muestreo de Suelos de Céspedes, jardines, frutas y ornamentales en el hogar||May 30, 2018||452-125S (SPES-8NP)|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Greenhouse and Nursery Production||Jun 23, 2017||452-126(CSES-190NP)|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Surface-Mined Areas||Jun 23, 2017||452-127 (CSES-189NP)|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial Lawns||Jun 23, 2017||452-128(CSES-187NP)|
|Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener||
This publication explains how to obtain representative soil samples and to submit them for analysis to the Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory.
|Feb 6, 2020||452-129 (SPES-176P)|
|Compost: What Is It and What's It To You||Feb 28, 2018||452-231 (CSES-204P)|
|Sources of Lime for Acid Soils in Virginia||
Acid soil limits crop yields on many Virginia farms. This soil acidity can be directly toxic to plants, but more often it reduces the plants' efficiency at nutrient utilization.
|Aug 9, 2019||452-510 (SPES-158P)|
|Explanation of Soil Tests||
The accompanying Soil Test Report will help you assess your plant's need for fertilizer and lime.
|Dec 7, 2018||452-701 (SPES-75NP)|
|Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops||
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
|Sep 9, 2019||452-702 (CSES-100P)|
|Soil Test Note No.3 - Liming and Fertilization of Cool-Season Forage Crops||Aug 30, 2019||452-703|
|Soil Test Note #4 - Trace Elements||Dec 7, 2018||452-704 (SPES-76NP)|
|Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures||Aug 30, 2019||452-705|
|Soil Test Note 17: Lawn Fertilization for Cool Season Grasses||May 1, 2009||452-717|
|Soil Test Note 18: Lawn Fertilization for Warm Season Grasses||May 1, 2009||452-718|
|Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report)||Oct 11, 2019||452-719|
|Soil Test Note 20: Home Shrubs and Trees||May 1, 2009||452-720|
|Laboratory Procedures: Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory||
The procedures for soil analysis used in the Soil Testing Laboratory were established in the early 1950s A routine test, consisting of eleven separate analyses, is performed on all samples.
|Mar 18, 2019||452-881 (SPES-91P)|
|Powell River Project - Creation and Management of Productive Minesoils||Mar 15, 2018||460-121 (CSES-209P)|
|Powell River Project - Revegetation Species and Practices||Mar 26, 2018||460-122 (CSES-210P)|
|Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land||Mar 16, 2018||460-123 (CSES-211P)|
|Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses||Mar 15, 2018||460-124 (CSES-212P)|
|Powell River Project - Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-mined Land||Mar 15, 2018||460-127 (CSES-213P)|
|Powell River Project - Reclamation of Coal Refuse Disposal Areas||Mar 16, 2018||460-131 (CSES-215P)|
|Powell River Project - Reclaiming Mined Lands as Industrial Sites||Mar 16, 2018||460-132 (CSES-217P)|
|Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining||Mar 20, 2018||460-140 (CSES-220P)|
|Powell River Project - Reforestation Guidelines for Unused Surface Mined Lands in the Eastern United States||Mar 16, 2018||460-144 (CSES-221P)|
|Commercial Chinese Chestnut Production in Virginia||Sep 21, 2017||ANR-279P|
|IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact||
Tree fruits are important to the agricultural economy in Virginia. The commonwealth ranks sixth in the nation in apple production, with a crop valued at more than $68 million, and 20th in peach production, with a crop valued at $4.5 million. Although smaller in acreage, cherries, pears, and plums also play an important role in some areas of Virginia. These fruit crops are susceptible to an everchanging array of insects, plant diseases, and weeds, and pest management programs are complex and knowledge-intensive.
|May 13, 2015||AREC-135NP|
|Soil and Soil Water Relationships||
This publication presents and discusses concepts that are fundamental to understanding soil, water, and plant relationships and the soil water balance. Knowledge about soil water relationships can inform the decision-making process in agricultural operations or natural resource management, such as determining what crops to plant, when to plant them, and when various management practices should be scheduled. Understanding these concepts is useful for addressing both agronomic and policy issues related to agricultural water management.Zachary M. Easton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech Emily Bock, Graduate Research Assistant, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
|Mar 22, 2016||BSE-194P|
|Factors When Considering an Agricultural Drainage System||Feb 23, 2017||BSE-208P|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops||
The general purpose of a cover crop is to improve the soil, the broader environment, or other crops in rotation, not for direct harvest. Cover crops, depending on which are selected, are capable of providing many diverse assets. This publication provides a short description of these main benefits.
|May 5, 2015||CSES-120NP|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies||
Cover crops increase soil organic matter, reduce erosion, suppress weeds, forage for nutrients, and reduce fertilizer costs (Clark, 2007). Cover crop species vary greatly and provide varied benefits. Performance evaluation of cover crop species and mixtures is needed in Virginia.
|May 5, 2015||CSES-121NP|
|The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook||
Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and Virginia, the five states in the Mid-Atlantic region, all require Certified Nutrient Management Plans to be completed for certain agricultural programs.
|Jun 1, 2020||CSES-122P|
|Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia||
Early summer often means locally heavy and sporadic rainfall as thunderstorms deliver intense rains, and 2015 appears to be no different with many areas in eastern Virginia receiving 3+ inches of rain in a few days (Figure 1). These storms also often coincide with the timing of sidedress nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) applications on corn. While some rainfall after sidedress is very beneficial to facilitate N movement into soil, heavy rain (2+ inches) often leaves us wondering how much, if any, of that recently-applied N remains and if additional N is needed.
|Jun 19, 2015||CSES-125NP|
|The Nutrient Value of Straw||
The mature and dried stem, leaves, and chaff remaining after barley and wheat are harvested is known as straw. Many farmers around Virginia harvest straw by baling in small bales, large round bales, or large square bales that range in weight from 40 to 1,000 lbs. plus per bale.
|Jun 19, 2015||CSES-126NP|
|The Soil and Me: A Perspective on Soil Health||
Soil is the foundation upon which our natural living world depends; it is otherwise known as the dynamic material that civilization is built on (Lindbo, Kozlowski, and Robinson 2012). Soil serves diverse functions that are critical to the survival of humanity; without the soil, life on earth is inconceivable. It represents the critical zone of the earth where life, water, minerals, and air intersect and interact (fig. 1) because the soil constantly relates with other parts of nature. The soil is considered a living, dynamic resource at the earth’s surface and has been defined as “the unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants” (SSSA 2015). The thickness or depth of this surface or layer varies with the type and environment of the soil.
|Nov 5, 2015||CSES-132NP|
|Lawn Fertilization in Virginia||
Fertilization of lawns is essential for the production of quality turf in Virginia. However, exceeding recommended fertilizer application rates or improper application timing can negatively impact surface water and groundwater quality.
|Dec 11, 2015||430-011 (CSES-135P)|
|Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Soil||
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on measuring water movement through in situ saturated soil (saturated hydraulic conductivity, or Ksat) as it relates to dispersal and treatment of on-site sewage (wastewater) through an on-site wastewater dispersal area
|Mar 22, 2016||CSES-141P (CSES-164P)|
|Guidelines for In-House Composting Poultry Mortality as a Rapid Response to Avian Influenza||
Composting is a biological heating process that results in the natural degradation of Composting is a biological heating process that results in the natural degradation of organic resources (such as poultry carcasses) by microorganisms. Composting has been successfully used throughout the United States for nearly two decades to control outbreaks of avian influenza. Composting can be effective with most bird types and poultry house designs.organic resources (such as poultry carcasses) by microorganisms. Composting has been successfully used throughout the United States for nearly two decades to control outbreaks of avian influenza. Composting can be effective with most bird types and poultry house designs.
|Sep 24, 2015||CSES-142NP|
|Understanding the Texture of Your Soil for Agricultural Productivity||Jul 20, 2016||CSES-162P|
|Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone||Nov 15, 2017||CSES-200P|
|Virginia Soil Judging Scorecard||Feb 13, 2019||CSES- 202P(4H-845P)|
|Soil Judging Supplemental Information Sheet||Dec 1, 2017||CSES- 202P-A|
|Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems||Mar 27, 2018||CSES-22P (SPES-5P)|
|Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options||
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
|Feb 21, 2020||CSES-98P(SPES-178P)|
|Harvest Weed Seed Control||May 6, 2019||SPES-135NP|
|Soil Sampling Instructions for the Farm||Jun 6, 2019||SPES-141|
|2019 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||Jan 2, 2020||SPES-180NP|
|Fertilizer: The Many Forms You Can Use||Mar 18, 2020||SPES-187NP|
|Common Fertilizers Used in Virginia: Secondary and Micronutrients||Apr 10, 2020||SPES-200NP|
|Conversion Factors Needed for Common Fertilizer Calculations||Apr 29, 2020||SPES-201NP|
|2018 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||Jan 3, 2019||SPES-94NP|
|Pesticide Applicator Manuals||Nov 17, 2011||VTTP-2|