Resources for Home Water Quality

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Questions to Ask When Purchasing Water Treatment Equipment May 1, 2009 356-480
Household Water Quality: Water Quality Problems - Causes and Treatments May 1, 2009 356-482
Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration
Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment — an important part of the natural water cycle (VADEQ 2010).
Jun 18, 2015 426-046(HORT-160P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 10: Dry Swale
A dry swale (DS) is a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad, vegetated, side slopes. Water flow is slowed by a series of check dams (see figure 1). A DS provides temporary storage, filtration, and infiltration of stormwater runoff. Dry swales function similarly to bioretention, and are comparable to wet swales; however, unlike a wet swale, a DS should remain dry during periods of no rainfall. A DS is an engineered best management practice (BMP) that is designed to reduce pollution through runoff reduction and pollutant removal and is part of a site’s stormwater treatment practice (see figure 2).
Sep 6, 2013 426-129 (BSE-86P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 11: Wet Swale
A wet swale (WS) is an engineered, best management practice (BMP) arranged in a straight line that is designed to reduce stormwater pollution. A WS consists of a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad, vegetated, side slopes and slow flows (see figure 1). Wet swales typically stay wet because the bottom of the swale is below the water table. This is done to encourage the growth of wetland vegetation, providing water quality treatment similar to a natural wetland. This stormwater treatment practice also functions as part of the stormwater conveyance system. Wet swales have a relatively low capital cost; however, maintenance can be is intensive and expensive when compared to other BMPs.
Sep 9, 2013 426-130 (BSE-89P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 12: Filtering Practices
A stormwater filtering practice (FP) treats stormwater runoff by passing it through an engineered filter media consisting of either sand, gravel, organic matter, and/ or a proprietary manufactured product, collecting it in an underdrain, and then discharging the effluent to a stormwater conveyance system. FPs are stormwater treatment practices that are often obtained from the marketplace due to unique proprietary technologies (see figure 1).
Sep 9, 2013 426-131 (BSE-87P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Iron and Manganese in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-656
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Heavy Metals in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-657
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Sulfate and Hydrogen Sulfide in Household Water Apr 26, 2019 442-658 (BSE-252P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Nitrate in Household Water Apr 29, 2019 449-659 (BSE-253P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Fluoride in Household Water May 13, 2019 442-660 (BSE-254P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Sodium and Chloride in Household Drinking Water May 13, 2019 442-661 (BSE-255P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Bacteria and Other Microorganisms in Household Water May 10, 2019 442-662 (BSE-256P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Shock Chlorination: Disinfecting Private Household Water Supply Systems May 3, 2019 442-663 (BSE-257P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Hardness in Household Water May 10, 2019 442-664 (BSE-258P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Corrosive Household Water May 3, 2019 442-665 (BSE-259P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in Household Water Apr 26, 2019 442-666 (BSE-260P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Household Water Treatment Apr 3, 2019 442-670 (BSE-250P)
Greywater Reuse
Greywater is any household wastewater other than that used for toilet flushing. This water could be reused around the home (for purposes other than drinking water). An example of greywater use is landscape irrigation. Wastewater that comes in contact with human waste is referred to as blackwater. However, the definition of greywater varies according to state regulations.
Jul 23, 2019 BSE-114NP (BSE-267NP)
Using Reclaimed Water
Reclaimed water, sometimes referred to as “water reuse” or “recycled water,” is water recovered from domestic, municipal, or industrial wastewater treatment plants that has been treated to standards that allow it to be safely used for designated purposes. Reclaimed water should not be confused with “wastewater,” untreated liquid industrial waste or domestic sewage. However, “gray water,” untreated water from bathing or washing, is considered one form of wastewater (Water Reuse, VCE Publication 452-014). The level of treatment and disinfection reclaimed water receives is dictated by its intended (and permitted) use. Many states encourage and promote the use of reclaimed water to conserve freshwater supplies and preserve rivers, streams, lakes, and aquifers.
Jul 23, 2019 BSE-115NP (BSE-266NP)
Rainwater Harvesting Systems
Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting, storing, and later reusing rainwater from surfaces such as roofs. Rainwater harvesting has long been used for agricultural irrigation and as a source of drinking water, and allowed ancient civilizations to flourish in semi-arid and arid regions. Rainwater harvesting systems are in use today in many water-limited locations, especially in several western US regions. As population growth increases pressure on water resources in the more humid eastern US, rainwater harvesting is being considered to reduce the demand for potable water.
Jul 23, 2019 BSE-116NP (BSE-265NP)
IMPACT: Virginia Household Water Quality Program
One in five Virginians, or nearly 1.7 million people, rely on private water supplies such as wells, springs, and cisterns for their household water. In the U.S., municipal systems are regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act, which requires routine water testing and treatment.
Jul 23, 2015 BSE-187NP
Hydrology Basics and the Hydrologic Cycle
This fact sheet presents and explains some common concepts in hydrology and the hydrologic cycle. The science or study of hydrology focuses on the distribution, occurrence, circulation, and properties of water in the environment.
Nov 9, 2015 BSE-191P
Household Water Quality: Emergency Supplies of Water for Drinking and Food Preparation Nov 17, 2016 BSE-209NP
Indicators Of Lead In Well Water Dec 13, 2016 BSE-210NP
Household Water Quality - Albemarle County Sep 19, 2019 BSE-284-1
Denitrifying Bioreaders: An Emerging Best Management Practice to Improve Water Quality Apr 25, 2018 BSE-55P (BSE-227P)
Innovative Best Management Fact Sheet No. 1: Floating Treatment Wetlands Aug 28, 2013 BSE-76P
Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems
Wastewater is a significant source of carbon, sediment, nutrients, pathogens, and other potential pollutants. Reducing the quantity of these contaminants before they are discharged to either groundwater or surface water is essential to preserve or enhance water quality in receiving waters. This is accomplished through the installation of wastewater treatment and collection systems. The form of these systems can vary substantially. In Virginia, they range in size from 5,000 to 50,000 gallons per day; 49 percent are public systems and the remainder are private (Parten 2008).
Jul 10, 2014 BSE-77P
Virginia Household Water Quality Program, Water Sample Sep 16, 2013 BSE-95NP