Resources for Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Wheat Planted Without Fertilizer: Fall 2008 May 1, 2009 2812-1023
Low-Maintenance Turfgrass Evaluation, 2008 Report May 1, 2009 2901-1080
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Five - Understanding Ammonia Volatilization from Fertilizers
Loss of nitrogen (N) as ammonia gas (NH3) is known as volatilization. While volatilization directly from soil can occur, such loss is generally relatively small compared to the amount that can be lost from fertilizers. Volatilization losses can be significant with granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) sources, but the amount of loss varies greatly depending on placement of the fertilizer, soil pH, soil texture, and climatic conditions after application.
Sep 25, 2015 2908-1404(CSES-130NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Six - Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Properties Aug 27, 2009 2908-1405
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots - Eastern Virginia, August 2009
A Summary of Replicated Research and Demonstration Plots Conducted by Virginia Cooperative Extension in Cooperation with Local Producers and Agribusinesses
Aug 28, 2009 2908-1409
On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers
All livestock producers at some point are faced with decisions regarding how to dispose of livestock mortality from their farm. Each option has its own benefits and limitations based on accessibility, regulatory restrictions, expense, and biosecurity concerns. Livestock producers should also know that it is their responsibility to dispose of dead animals within 48 hours by one of the approved methods highlighted below. There are approved and preferred methods of animal mortality management according to the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Farmers should choose the option that best suits their farm’s mortality disposal needs.
Jul 31, 2013 2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)
Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn Mar 8, 2010 3002-1438
Corn Fertility Update – Spring 2010 Jun 11, 2010 3006-1448
Small Grains In 2011 Jul 21, 2011 3007-1456
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, Eastern Virginia, August 2010 Aug 19, 2010 3008-1457
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Two: Nitrogen Fertilizer Injection in No-Till Systems
Liquid nitrogen fertilizers have typically been surface applied. This method of application places the fertilizer where the urea nitrogen component of the solution is susceptible to volatilization losses.
Sep 25, 2015 3011-1516(CSES-131NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Three: Manure Injection Nov 16, 2010 3011-1517
Managing Fusarium Head Blight in Virginia Small Grains
Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, continues to impact small grain crops grown in Virginia. Caused primarily by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (also known as Gibberella zeae), this disease can negatively impact yield and grain quality.
Mar 4, 2011 3102-1535
2011 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots Aug 12, 2011 3108-1593
Managing Virginia's Steep Pastures May 1, 2009 418-005
No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes May 1, 2009 418-007
Controlled Grazing of Virginia's Pastures May 1, 2009 418-012
Planting and Managing Switchgrass for Forage, Wildlife, and Conservation May 1, 2009 418-013
Establishing and Managing Caucasian Bluestem May 1, 2009 418-014
Nitrogen Soil Testing For Corn in Virginia May 1, 2009 418-016
The Virginia Alfalfa Variety Report: A Five-year Summary (1999 - 2003) May 1, 2009 418-018
Winter Seeding Methods to Establish Clover in Permanent Pasture Jun 10, 2010 418-022
Potassium Fertilization of Cotton May 1, 2009 418-025
Sod Source Selection, Installation, Maintenance, and Producers in Virginia
While high-quality sod is available outside of the VCIA-certified sod program, the consumer is encouraged to be aware of factors that are important in determining sod quality. Quality sod contains excellent turf varieties with good sod strength (i.e., easy to handle for both harvest and installation) and has no serious insect, weed, or disease problems.
Feb 19, 2016 418-040 (CSES-151P)
Making the Most of Tall Fescue in Virginia May 1, 2009 418-050
Virginia's Horse Pastures: Forage Establishment May 1, 2009 418-103
Virginia's Horse Pastures: Renovating Old Pastures May 1, 2009 418-104
Forage Establishment: Getting Off to a Good Start May 1, 2009 418-120
Putting the Punch Back in Your Pastures: Pasture Renovation May 1, 2009 418-134
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer Sep 16, 2009 418-142
The Nutritive Value of Common Pasture Weeds and Their Relation to Livestock Nutrient Requirements Aug 6, 2009 418-150
Herbage Quality, Biomass, and Animal Performance of Cattle Grazing. Part I: Forage Biomass, Botanical Composition, and Nutritive Values Nov 19, 2009 418-151
Herbage Quality, Biomass, and Animal Performance of Cattle Grazing. Part II: Animal Performance Nov 19, 2009 418-152
The Virginia Perennial Cool-Season Grass Forage Variety Report: A 3-Year Summary (2002-2004) May 1, 2009 418-200
Small Grains in 1998 May 1, 2009 424-001
Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Develop a Corn Planting Strategy May 1, 2009 424-003
Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Better Manage and Predict Wheat Development May 1, 2009 424-004
No-Tillage Small Grain Production in Virginia May 1, 2009 424-005
Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia May 1, 2009 424-006
Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic May 1, 2009 424-022
Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region May 1, 2009 424-024
Nitrogen Management for Winter Wheat: Principles and Recommendations May 1, 2009 424-026
Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilization of Corn May 1, 2009 424-027
Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment May 1, 2009 424-029
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
Corn Planting Dates in the Piedmont and Valley Regions of Virginia: How Early is Early? May 1, 2009 424-032
Corn Planting Dates in the Virginia Coastal Plain: How early is early? May 1, 2009 424-033
Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates Aug 4, 2009 424-035
Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots 2006 May 1, 2009 424-038-06
2007 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots May 1, 2009 424-038-07
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials Jul 29, 2011 424-040
Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2005 May 1, 2009 424-050
Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2006 May 1, 2009 424-050-06
Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots, 2007 May 1, 2009 424-050-07
Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations May 1, 2009 424-053
Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Monitor, Predict, and Manage Corn Development May 1, 2009 424-055
Understanding Pre-harvest Sprouting of Wheat
Germination of wheat within the grain head before harvest is called pre-harvest sprouting (PHS).
May 11, 2009 424-060
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
'Matua' Prairie Grass - Bromus wildenowii May 1, 2009 424-700
Nitrogen Fertilization of Winter Barley: Principles and Recommendations May 1, 2009 424-801
Intensive Soft Red Winter Wheat Production May 1, 2009 424-803
Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners May 1, 2009 426-059
Fertilizing the Vegetable Garden
The amount of fertilizer to apply to a garden depends on the natural fertility of the soil, the amount of organic matter present, the type of fertilizer used, and the crop being grown. The best way to determine fertilizer needs is to have the soil tested. Soil testing is available through your local Extension agent, through private labs, and with soil test kits which can be purchased from garden shops and catalogs.
Apr 16, 2015 426-323 (HORT-144P)
Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia May 1, 2009 427-002
Aerating Your Lawn Dec 1, 2012 430-002
Home Lawn Fertilization in Virginia: Frequently asked Questions May 1, 2009 430-003
Summer Lawn Management: Watering the Lawn
Water makes up 75 to 85 percent of the weight of a healthy grass plant. It is essential for seed germination, tissue formation, plant cooling, food manufacture, and nutrient absorption and transport. A grass plant loses the most water under conditions of high light intensity, high temperature, low relative humidity, and windy conditions. Without adequate water, the grass plant can’t cool itself and becomes susceptible to wilting, desiccation, and death.
Mar 31, 2014 430-010 (CSES-79P)
Fertilización del Césped en Virginia Jan 20, 2017 430-011s (CSES-166P)
Calibrating Your Lawn Spreader May 1, 2009 430-017
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
Apr 8, 2015 430-027 (HORT-115P)
Urban Nutrient Management Handbook Apr 28, 2011 430-350
Nutrient Management for Golf Courses May 1, 2009 430-399
Nutrient Management for Lawn Service Companies May 1, 2009 430-400
Characterization of Turfgrass Nutrient Management Practices in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-401
Mowing To Recycle Grass Clippings: Let the Clips Fall Where They May! May 1, 2009 430-402
Winter Management and Recovery Tips to Optimize Athletic Field Safety and Performance for Spring Sports Nov 2, 2009 430-408
Fall Lawn Care
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
Jul 2, 2015 430-520(CSES-109P)
"Leave" Them Alone: Lawn Leaf Management Apr 15, 2015 430-521 (CSES-96P)
Maintenance Calendar for Warm-Season Lawns in Virginia Feb 25, 2016 430-522 (CSES-152P)
Maintenance Calendar for Cool-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia Feb 3, 2016 430-523 (CSES-153NP)
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-532
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Warm-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-533
Lawn Moss: Friend or Foe? May 1, 2009 430-536
Soil Testing for the Lawn and Landscape May 1, 2009 430-540
2005 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results May 1, 2009 432-301
2003 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide May 1, 2009 436-048
2008 Burley Tobacco Production Guide May 1, 2009 436-050-08
Nitrogen Management for White Potato Production Sep 28, 2009 438-012
Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter May 1, 2009 442-004
Land Application of Broiler and Turkey Litter for Farming Operations Without a DEQ Permit May 1, 2009 442-052
Hay Fire Prevention and Control May 1, 2009 442-105
Determining Forage Moisture Concentration May 1, 2009 442-106
Planning Fencing Systems For Controlled Grazing May 1, 2009 442-130
Nutrient Management for Small Farms Oct 8, 2010 442-305
Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans Sep 16, 2009 442-310
Biochar in Agricultural Systems Aug 20, 2010 442-311
Management Tips for Round Bale Hay Harvesting, Moving, and Storage
Hay production and feeding is one of the most expensive components of forage-livestock systems. Specific management practices are necessary to maintain hay quality and minimize hay loss during harvest, transportation and storage of large round bales.
Oct 9, 2014 442-454 (BSE-173P)
Large Round Bale Safety
This Extension publication covers the safety aspects of equipment used in large round bale packages such as: balers, front-end loaders, bale handling and transport devices. The key to safe and efficient systems for handling large round bales is an operator who knows the hazards involved and who follows safety practices that can prevent accidents. Operators must be constantly alert for situations that may cause injuries to themselves or others. Besides pain and suffering, accidents contribute to higher costs in terms of unnecessary downtime or costly machine repairs. Alertness and safety consciousness can result in more efficient and profitable baling and handling.
Oct 13, 2014 442-455 (BSE-172P)
Precision Farming: A Comprehensive Approach May 1, 2009 442-500
Precision Farming Tools: GPS Navigation May 1, 2009 442-501
Precision Farming Tools: Yield Monitor May 1, 2009 442-502
Precision Farming Tools: Global Positioning System (GPS) May 1, 2009 442-503
Precision Farming Tools: Variable-Rate Application Aug 1, 2011 442-505
Precision Farming Tools: Soil Electrical Conductivity May 1, 2009 442-508
Interpreting Yield Maps - "I gotta yield map - now what?" May 1, 2009 442-509
TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) for Bacteria Impairments May 1, 2009 442-555
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Hardness in Household Water May 17, 2011 442-664
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Corrosive Household Water May 17, 2011 442-665
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in Household Water May 17, 2011 442-666
Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Household Wastewater Treatment and Septic Systems May 1, 2009 442-903
On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives Sep 21, 2015 448-407 (CSES-116P)
Identification and Control of Honeyvine Milkweed (Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt.) in Virginia
A perennial with slender, twining stems that may reach 10 feet in length.
May 1, 2009 450-139
Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose.
May 1, 2009 452-014
The Virginia Yard Waste Management Manual May 1, 2009 452-055
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Crop Production Jun 23, 2017 452-124 (CSES-188NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Home Lawns, Gardens, Fruits, and Ornamentals Jun 23, 2017 452-125(CSES-191NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Greenhouse and Nursery Production Jun 23, 2017 452-126(CSES-190NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Surface-Mined Areas Jun 23, 2017 452-127 (CSES-189NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial Lawns Jun 23, 2017 452-128(CSES-187NP)
Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener
This publication explains how to obtain representative soil samples and to submit them for analysis to the Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory.
May 1, 2009 452-129
Mid-Atlantic Composting Directory
This directory is intended to provide contact information for service and equipment suppliers, along with sources for information and education. Every attempt has been made to present accurate information. Contents are for informational purposes only and are based on details provided by the organizations and entities listed. Inclusion in this directory does not constitute an endorsement by the publishers of the products or services of any business organization or individual listed herein.
Jan 6, 2015 452-230 (CSES-99P)
Compost: What Is It and What's It To You May 1, 2009 452-231
On-Farm Composting - A Guide to Principles, Planning & Operations May 1, 2009 452-232
Closing the Loop: Public-Private Partnerships for On-Farm Composting of Yard Waste
This publication is designed for waste managers, community planners, recycling and environmental coordinators, and others interested in waste reduction and recycling.
May 1, 2009 452-233
Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Production and Characteristics of Biosolids
Biosolids are solid, semi-solid or liquid materials, resulting from treatment of domestic sewage, that have been sufficiently processed to permit these materials to be safely land-applied.
May 1, 2009 452-301
Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Regulations May 1, 2009 452-302
Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Managing Biosolids for Agricultural Use
The general approach for determining biosolid application rates on agricultural land can be summarized in this publication.
May 1, 2009 452-303
Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Risks and Concerns
The benefits of recycling biosolids onto agricultural land include providing essential nutrients for crop needs.
May 1, 2009 452-304
Agricultural Management Practices And Soil Quality: Measuring, assessing, and comparing laboratory and field test kit indicators of soil quality attributes. May 1, 2009 452-400
Sources of Lime for Acid Soils in Virginia
Acid soil limits crop yields on many Virginia farms. This soil acidity can be directly toxic to plants, but more often it reduces the plants' efficiency at nutrient utilization.
May 1, 2009 452-510
Soil Test Note #1 - Explanation of Soil Tests
The accompanying Soil Test Report will help you assess your plant's need for fertilizer and lime.
May 1, 2009 452-701
Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
Sep 25, 2014 452-702 (CSES-100P)
Soil Test Note No.3 - Liming and Fertilization of Cool-Season Forage Crops Aug 28, 2012 452-703 (CSES-16P)
Soil Test Note #4 - Trace Elements May 1, 2009 452-704
Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures Aug 19, 2009 452-705
Soil Test Note 17: Lawn Fertilization for Cool Season Grasses May 1, 2009 452-717
Soil Test Note 18: Lawn Fertilization for Warm Season Grasses May 1, 2009 452-718
Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report) May 1, 2009 452-719
Soil Test Note 20: Home Shrubs and Trees May 1, 2009 452-720
Soil Test Note 23: Christmas Tree Crops Jul 14, 2009 452-723
Laboratory Procedures: Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory
The procedures for soil analysis used in the Soil Testing Laboratory were established in the early 1950s A routine test, consisting of eleven separate analyses, is performed on all samples.
May 1, 2009 452-881
Powell River Project - Foundations for Housing on Reclaimed Mined Lands Sep 30, 2009 460-115
Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land Sep 2, 2009 460-116
Powell River Project - Conversion of Sericea Lespedeza-dominant Vegetation to Quality Forages for Livestock Use Oct 1, 2009 460-119
Powell River Project - Creation and Management of Productive Minesoils Aug 27, 2010 460-121
Powell River Project - Revegetation Species and Practices Jul 28, 2010 460-122
Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land Mar 30, 2011 460-123
Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses Feb 19, 2010 460-124
Powell River Project - Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-127
Powell River Project - Management of Cow-Calf Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-128
Powell River Project - Stabilizing Reclaimed Mines to Support Buildings and Development Dec 2, 2009 460-130
Powell River Project - Reclamation of Coal Refuse Disposal Areas Oct 21, 2010 460-131
Powell River Project - Reclaiming Mined Lands as Industrial Sites Dec 2, 2009 460-132
Powell River Project - Passive Treatment of Acid-Mine Drainage Mar 30, 2011 460-133
Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land Dec 4, 2009 460-138
Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining Feb 25, 2010 460-140
Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses Sep 29, 2009 460-141
On-Site Treatment and Disposal of Residential Wastewaters on Mined Lands
The development of Southwest Virginia’s coal mining region is limited by a lack of building sites. Much of the land in this region consists of steep slopes with shallow soils that are poorly suited to residential development. In recent years, widespread surface coal mining has created landforms that are favorably located and configured to support residential housing. However, because such sites are commonly located beyond the extent of public sewers, developing them requires a means for on-site wastewater treatment and dispersal. This publication is written for homeowners, homebuilders, land developers, public officials, and others who may have an interest in building residential housing or other types of development on mined lands that are not accessible to public sewers.
Jul 27, 2015 460-142(CSES-115P)
Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests Feb 26, 2010 460-143
Powell River Project - Reforestation Guidelines for Unused Surface Mined Lands in the Eastern United States Mar 24, 2011 460-144
Powell River Project - Enhancing Wildlife Habitat on Reclaimed Mine Lands Mar 30, 2011 460-145
VCE Model of Community, Local, Regional Food Systems Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-154NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems Nov 2, 2016 ALCE-155NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Report Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-156NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Executive Summary
Virginia’s food system directly impacts the survival and viability of farms and farmland; the economic development of rural and urban communities; the care, restoration, and resilience of ecological resources such as local waterways; and critical health issues. We use the language of community, local, and regional food systems to broadly define a complex and interconnected set of systems and pathways that comprise sustainable food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management to bring about social, economic, and ecological change that benefits all residents.
Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-157NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots Jul 20, 2012 ANR-19NP
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Feb 27, 2013 ANR-48NP
2013 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by eight Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s on-farm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2014.
Jul 31, 2013 ANR-78NP
Lawn Care: Hand Tools Safety
Many hand tools such as shovels, hoes, rakes, trimmers, and pruners are widely used in lawn care and landscaping. While these tools appear to be harmless, when used improperly, they can cause injuries that sometimes require medical treatment. In 2006, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported nearly 205,000 cases of injuries and/or illnesses resulting from the use of hand tools.
Nov 5, 2013 BSE-40NP (BSE-98P)
Lawn Care: Powered Hand Tool Safety
In addition to mowers and hand tools, several powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in landscaping work. These machines can be dangerous if they are used improperly. A past study has shown that string trimmers and edgers alone cause more than 4,600 injuries that require emergency room treatment each year. About one-third of these cases are eye injuries.
Nov 6, 2013 BSE-41NP (BSE-97P)
Lawn Care: Rotary Mower Safety Nov 5, 2013 BSE-42NP (BSE-96P)
Lawn Care: Tractor Safety
Most tractors used in landscaping, lawn care, and golf course maintenance are compact tractors in the 20 to 40 horsepower range. Although these tractors are considerably smaller than farm tractors, they are susceptible to the same types of accidents, with potential for serious injuries or deaths. Causes for such serious accidents are often the same in both cases, and therefore, the steps to take to avoid the accidents are the same.
Nov 5, 2013 BSE-43NP (BSE-100P)
Lawn Care: Utility-Type Vehicle Safety
Utility-type vehicles are popular, multipurpose equipment used for different applications in the lawn care industry. Their hauling capability and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications.
Nov 5, 2013 BSE-44NP (BSE-99P)
Guidelines for Protecting Youth Workers: Promote Safe Practices and Protect Youth Workers
A large number of teenage workers in the U.S. engage in summer jobs for reasons such as personal development, gaining work experience, developing work skills, and generating funds for furthering their education and for spending money.
Aug 13, 2014 BSE-46NP (BSE-107P)
Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide
Mowing lawns continues to be one of the most popular summer job opportunities for youth given the affordable cost and ease in operation of most rotary mowers. However, easy access and widespread use of mowers often creates a false sense of security among the users of these machines. Data from a seven-year period (1996-2003) showed the highest rate of hospitalization from lawn mower injuries was for youth workers ages 15 to 19. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that more than 37,000 riding mower injuries occurred from 2003 through 2005 alone. During the same period, there were 95 fatalities due to riding mower tip-over. The purpose of this training guide is to reduce the number of mower accidents and injuries by familiarizing young workers with rotary mowers and their safe operation.
Aug 12, 2014 BSE-47P (BSE-110P)
Tractor Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide, Safe Use of Tractors
Tractors are versatile equipment used in a variety of jobs ranging from hauling goods to lawn care to agriculture. While they are extremely versatile, they can be very dangerous unless they are used with care following safe practices
Sep 25, 2014 BSE-48NP (BSE-111P)
Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
Jun 6, 2014 BSE-49NP (BSE-108P)
Powered Hand Tools Safety: Lawncare Training Guide
In addition to rotary mowers, many powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in lawn care. While these devices are very useful in making jobs easier and more efficient, they can be dangerous if used without proper training and care. In 1989 the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that power lawn trimmers and edgers alone have caused about 4,600 injuries annually that required medical attention. About one-third of these were eye-related.
Sep 24, 2014 BSE-50P (BSE-112P)
Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide Hand Tool Care and Safe Use
Many hand tools such as rakes, shovels, and pruners are used widely in lawn care operations. While these non-powered tools are not known to cause major injuries, they have the potential for injuries that may require absence from work and/or medical assistance when they are used improperly.
Sep 15, 2014 BSE-51P (BSE-113P)
Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems
Wastewater is a significant source of carbon, sediment, nutrients, pathogens, and other potential pollutants. Reducing the quantity of these contaminants before they are discharged to either groundwater or surface water is essential to preserve or enhance water quality in receiving waters. This is accomplished through the installation of wastewater treatment and collection systems. The form of these systems can vary substantially. In Virginia, they range in size from 5,000 to 50,000 gallons per day; 49 percent are public systems and the remainder are private (Parten 2008).
Jul 10, 2014 BSE-77P
2014 Virginia Bollgard II Xtendflex Variety Trial
Lint yield and fiber quality of commercially available cotton varieties and experimental lines of Bollgard II XtendFlex tested in 2014 in Suffolk, VA.
Apr 29, 2015 CSES-113NP
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops
The general purpose of a cover crop is to improve the soil, the broader environment, or other crops in rotation, not for direct harvest. Cover crops, depending on which are selected, are capable of providing many diverse assets. This publication provides a short description of these main benefits.
May 5, 2015 CSES-120NP
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies
Cover crops increase soil organic matter, reduce erosion, suppress weeds, forage for nutrients, and reduce fertilizer costs (Clark, 2007). Cover crop species vary greatly and provide varied benefits. Performance evaluation of cover crop species and mixtures is needed in Virginia.
May 5, 2015 CSES-121NP
The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook
Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and Virginia, the five states in the Mid-Atlantic region, all require Certified Nutrient Management Plans to be completed for certain agricultural programs.
Jun 9, 2015 CSES-122P
Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia
Early summer often means locally heavy and sporadic rainfall as thunderstorms deliver intense rains, and 2015 appears to be no different with many areas in eastern Virginia receiving 3+ inches of rain in a few days (Figure 1). These storms also often coincide with the timing of sidedress nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) applications on corn. While some rainfall after sidedress is very beneficial to facilitate N movement into soil, heavy rain (2+ inches) often leaves us wondering how much, if any, of that recently-applied N remains and if additional N is needed.
Jun 19, 2015 CSES-125NP
The Nutrient Value of Straw
The mature and dried stem, leaves, and chaff remaining after barley and wheat are harvested is known as straw. Many farmers around Virginia harvest straw by baling in small bales, large round bales, or large square bales that range in weight from 40 to 1,000 lbs. plus per bale.
Jun 19, 2015 CSES-126NP
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2015
A forage production trial of commercial barley, oats, rye, triticale, and wheat cultivars has been conducted yearly from 1994-2015 at the Northern Piedmont AREC, Orange. Results from the 2014-15 crop season are presented in this report.
Jun 24, 2015 CSES-127NP
Small Grains in 2015
The following tables present results from barley and wheat varietal tests conducted in Virginia in 2013-2015. Small-grain cultivar performance tests are conducted each year in Virginia by the Virginia Tech Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station.
Jul 29, 2015 CSES-129NP
The Soil and Me: A Perspective on Soil Health
Soil is the foundation upon which our natural living world depends; it is otherwise known as the dynamic material that civilization is built on (Lindbo, Kozlowski, and Robinson 2012). Soil serves diverse functions that are critical to the survival of humanity; without the soil, life on earth is inconceivable. It represents the critical zone of the earth where life, water, minerals, and air intersect and interact (fig. 1) because the soil constantly relates with other parts of nature. The soil is considered a living, dynamic resource at the earth’s surface and has been defined as “the unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants” (SSSA 2015). The thickness or depth of this surface or layer varies with the type and environment of the soil.
Nov 5, 2015 CSES-132NP
Soybean Growth and Development
Proper management of the soybean crop requires knowledge of how environmental conditions and pests affect growth during vegetative and reproductive stages. For example, too little or too much soil moisture at certain stages may hinder growth and lower yield, and insect pests may damage the crop at one stage but not another. The information below can help you determine the proper timing of various management practices.
Nov 13, 2015 CSES-134NP
Lawn Fertilization in Virginia
Fertilization of lawns is essential for the production of quality turf in Virginia. However, exceeding recommended fertilizer application rates or improper application timing can negatively impact surface water and groundwater quality.
Dec 11, 2015 CSES-135P
Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Soil
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on measuring water movement through in situ saturated soil (saturated hydraulic conductivity, or Ksat) as it relates to dispersal and treatment of on-site sewage (wastewater) through an on-site wastewater dispersal area
Mar 22, 2016 CSES-141-P (CSES-164P)
Guidelines for In-House Composting Poultry Mortality as a Rapid Response to Avian Influenza
Composting is a biological heating process that results in the natural degradation of Composting is a biological heating process that results in the natural degradation of organic resources (such as poultry carcasses) by microorganisms. Composting has been successfully used throughout the United States for nearly two decades to control outbreaks of avian influenza. Composting can be effective with most bird types and poultry house designs.organic resources (such as poultry carcasses) by microorganisms. Composting has been successfully used throughout the United States for nearly two decades to control outbreaks of avian influenza. Composting can be effective with most bird types and poultry house designs.
Sep 24, 2015 CSES-142NP
Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes May 23, 2016 CSES-146P
Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2015
This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at four locations in Virginia in 2015 as well as two and three year average performance, when available. In order to avoid problems with comparisons over sites and years, multi-year yields are presented as a percentage of the total called relative yield at that particular site-year combination. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600 planter and harvested with commercial silage equipment. Yields are presented on a dry matter and 35% dry matter basis for comparison. Quality analysis was performed using a Foss NIR XDS Rapid Content Analyzer. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were submitted for testing by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Silage Performance Trials.
Nov 6, 2015 CSES-148NP
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2015
Performance trials of commercial corn hybrids were conducted at six locations in Virginia in 2015. The Mt. Holly location consisted of both an irrigated and non-irrigated test. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600. All locations were harvested with a Massey-Ferguson 8XP plot combine. Yields have been adjusted to 15.5% moisture. Grain test weight, moisture, and plot grain weights were measured with a GrainGauge® manufactured by HarvestMaster. A list of the companies participating in the trials is shown in the above table. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were those submitted by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials.
Nov 12, 2015 CSES-149NP
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
Sep 30, 2016 CSES-155P
Corn Emergence Evaluation
There is much emphasis placed on the importance of stand uniformity and emergence in producing high yielding corn. Stand uniformity refers to spacing while uniformity of emergence refers to how even emergence is within the field.
Feb 25, 2016 CSES-157NP
Understanding the Texture of Your Soil for Agricultural Productivity Jul 20, 2016 CSES-162P
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2016
A forage production trial of commercial barley, oats, rye, triticale, and wheat cultivars has been conducted yearly from 1994-2016 at the Northern Piedmont AREC, Orange. Results from the 2015-16 crop season are presented in this report.
Jun 27, 2016 CSES-165NP
Small Grains in 2016 Jul 27, 2016 CSES-167NP
2017-2018 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations
The Maryland-Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendation Work Group meets each Spring to consider the previous year’s data from Virginia and Maryland National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) and ancillary trials and to formulate these recommendations. Virginia and Maryland variety recommendations are essentially identical except for specialized grasses and research situations that differ due to adaptation and state regulation.
Jun 30, 2017 CSES-17NP (CSES-195NP)
Yellow Corn in Virginia – Spring 2016
Many of the corn fields on the Eastern Shore and in Eastern Virginia are “yellow” and stunted due to the weather this Spring (Figs. 1 and 2) and is similar to conditions that Virginia farmers experienced in Spring 2010. There are many reasons for the corn to be yellow that range from nutrient deficiencies to abiotic factors.
Oct 10, 2016 CSES-171NP
Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2016
This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at four locations in Virginia in 2016 as well as two and three year average performance, when available. In order to avoid problems with comparisons over sites and years, multi-year yields are presented as a percentage of the total called relative yield at that particular site-year combination. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600 planter and harvested with commercial silage equipment. Yields are presented on a dry matter and 35% dry matter basis for comparison. Quality analysis was performed using a Foss NIR XDS Rapid Content Analyzer. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were submitted for testing by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Silage Performance Trials.
Oct 21, 2016 CSES-173NP
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2016
Performance trials of commercial corn hybrids were conducted at six locations in Virginia in 2016. The Mt. Holly location consisted of both an irrigated and non-irrigated test. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600. All locations were harvested with a Massey-Ferguson 8XP plot combine. Yields have been adjusted to 15.5% moisture. Grain test weight, moisture, and plot grain weights were measured with a GrainGauge® manufactured by HarvestMaster. A list of companies participating in the trials is provided before the table of contents. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials are those submitted by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials.
Nov 11, 2016 CSES-174NP
Small Grains in 2012
The following are the small grain variety recommendations for Virginia in 2012. The recommendations are based on the agronomic performance in wheat and barley variety tests conducted by the Research and Extension Divisions of Virginia Tech in the various agricultural regions of the state.
Jul 27, 2012 CSES-18NP
Value and implications of corn stover removal from Virginia fields
There has recently been increased interest in the use of crop residues for different industrial uses in the US and the world. Corn residue is frequently cited as the most likely candidate for alternate industrial uses because of the large area of production and the relatively large amount of residue produced per acre. Among the potential alternate uses for corn stover, biofuel production has received the greatest attention.
Apr 6, 2017 CSES-180 (CSES-182NP)
Yellow Corn in Virginia – Spring 2017
According to Meteorologist Scott Minnick with the NOAA-National Weather Service in Wakefield, VA, May 2017 is “yet another wet and cloudy May for the record books. With the rain on [May 31, 2017], Norfolk moved up to the 3rd wettest May on record.” The 2017 growing year is almost identical to last year (the wettest May on record for Norfolk, VA), with a dry March and April leading into a record breaking cool and wet May as corn tries to establish roots. Young corn largely depends on residual and starter fertilizer prior to sidedress applications and these fractions can be impacted greatly with excessive rain.
Jul 10, 2017 CSES-193NP
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems Feb 27, 2013 CSES-22P
Managing Shrub-Infested, Postmined Pasturelands With Goats and Cattle Part II. Effects on Forage Biomass, Nutritive Values, and Animal Performance Jan 9, 2012 CSES-3
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Soil Testing Oct 25, 2012 CSES-34NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Watering The Lawn Oct 26, 2012 CSES-35NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dethatching Your Lawn Oct 26, 2012 CSES-36NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Lawn Composting Oct 29, 2012 CSES-37NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Aerating Your Lawn Oct 29, 2012 CSES-38NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Mowing Your Lawn Oct 29, 2012 CSES-39NP
Managing Shrub-Infested, Postmined Pasturelands With Goats and Cattle. Part I: Effect on Botanical Composition and Browse Species Jan 18, 2012 CSES-4
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Weeds Oct 29, 2012 CSES-40NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Choosing The Right Grass Oct 29, 2012 CSES-41NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Lawn Pests Oct 29, 2012 CSES-42NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dealing With Lawn Disease Oct 29, 2012 CSES-43NP
Yield Potential of Native Warm-Season Grasses Grown in Mixture Jul 19, 2013 CSES-55P
Small Grains in 2013
The following are the small grain variety recommendations for Virginia in 2013. The recommendations are based on the agronomic performance in wheat and barley variety tests conducted by the Research and Extension Divisions of Virginia Tech in the various agricultural regions of the state.
Aug 7, 2013 CSES-62NP
Turf and Garden Tips: What can be done about crayfish in lawns? Aug 16, 2013 CSES-64NP
Cotton Harvest Aid Cheat Sheet Aug 28, 2013 CSES-65NP
Sensor-Based, Variable-Rate Nitrogen Applications in Virginia
Variable-rate applications (VRA) of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a new option to assist producers with real-time fertilizer rate decisions. Two commercially available systems that allow variable-rate nitrogen applications are GreenSeeker (Trimble Navigation Limited; www. ntechindustries.com/greenseeker-home.html) and the OptRx Crop Sensor (Ag Leader Technology; www. agleader.com/products/directcommand/optrx/). A discussion of the science behind these systems, potential economic benefits, and other methodologies to make VRA is discussed in Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-505, “Precision Farming Tools: Variable- Rate Application” (Grisso et al. 2011).
Aug 8, 2014 CSES-90P
Small Grains in 2014
The following are the small grain variety recommendations for Virginia in 2014. The recommendations are based on the agronomic performance in wheat and barley variety tests conducted by the Research and Extension Divisions of Virginia Tech in the various agricultural regions of the state.
Aug 1, 2014 CSES-97NP
Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
Dec 19, 2014 CSES-98P