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Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
A Decision Tool to Compare the Profitability of Utilizing Poultry Litter or Commercial Fertilizer to Meet Soil Test Recommendations Mar 17, 2010 3003-1439
A Powerful New Insecticide for the Organic Grower

Entrust 80WP® is a new insecticide manufactured by Dow, and it will be available commercially by mid-April 2003. Entrust contains the active ingredient spinosad, which is in the naturalyte class of chemistry. Spinosad is a fermentation product produced by the soil-dwelling actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1340
Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Managing Biosolids for Agricultural Use May 1, 2009 452-303
Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Production and Characteristics of Biosolids May 1, 2009 452-301
Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Regulations May 1, 2009 452-302
Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Risks and Concerns May 1, 2009 452-304
Agricultural Management Practices And Soil Quality: Measuring, assessing, and comparing laboratory and field test kit indicators of soil quality attributes. May 1, 2009 452-400
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Biochar in Agricultural Systems Aug 20, 2010 442-311
Building Soil Organic Matter with Cover Crops

When growing vegetables and specialty crops, a soil high in organic matter is very desirable. When examining soils in Virginia, we struggle to find soils that are naturally high in organic matter.

Aug 11, 2009 2906-1381
Compost: What Is It and What's It To You May 1, 2009 452-231
Cotton Harvest Aid Cheat Sheet Aug 28, 2013 CSES-65NP
Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizer Materials: Nitrogen Stabilizers Aug 22, 2013 CSES-52P
Factors When Considering an Agricultural Drainage System

Drainage of excess soil water is essential to
sustainable agronomic production on many soils in
the Mid-Atlantic region. Drainage can improve crop
yields, reduce year-to-year yield variability, and
provide trafficable conditions for field operations at
critical times of planting or harvest. Drainage system
design and management can impact crop production
and have environmental consequences. This fact
sheet presents the benefits and potential consequences
of artificially draining agricultural land, the steps
to follow when considering a drainage system, and
some aspects of proper drainage system operation and

Feb 23, 2017 BSE-208P
Guidelines for In-House Composting Poultry Mortality as a Rapid Response to Avian Influenza

Composting is a biological heating process that results in the natural degradation of organic resources (such as poultry carcasses) by microorganisms. Composting has been successfully used throughout the United States for nearly two decades to control outbreaks of avian influenza. Composting can be effective with most bird types and poultry house designs.

Sep 24, 2015 CSES-142NP
IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact Nov 13, 2014 ANR-105P
IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact May 13, 2015 AREC-135NP
Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans

Animal manures are a good source of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) for agricultural crops, but they have an imbalance in their N to P ratio, so that if they are applied to meet crop N needs, then P is overapplied. For many years, manures have been applied to meet crop N needs, which has resulted in some soils containing more P than crops require, leading to environmental concerns. Regulations have been developed to limit P losses from manures and soils high in P by moving manure nutrient management from an N basis to a P basis.

Sep 16, 2009 442-310
Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options

Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.

Dec 19, 2014 CSES-98P
Laboratory Procedures: Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory May 1, 2009 452-881
Lawn Fertilization in Virginia

Fertilization of lawns is essential for the production of quality turf in Virginia. However, exceeding recommended fertilizer application rates or improper application timing can negatively impact surface water and groundwater quality. 

Dec 11, 2015 CSES-135P
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems Feb 27, 2013 CSES-22P
Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Soil

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on measuring water movement through in situ saturated soil (saturated hydraulic conductivity, or Ksat) as it relates to dispersal and treatment of on-site sewage (wastewater) through an on-site wastewater dispersal area.

Mar 22, 2016 CSES-141-P (CSES-164P)
Nitrogen Soil Testing For Corn in Virginia

An adequate supply of plant-available nitrogen (N) is crucial for efficient corn production, and corn N requirements are greater than any other nutrient. For example, a corn crop yielding 150 bushels per acre typically contains about 165 lbs N in the grain and stover, or approximately 1.1 lbs N/bu grain. These calculations are based on actual N uptake, and allowances must be made for actual fertilizer use efficiency and soil N availability.

May 1, 2009 418-016
Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia Jun 19, 2015 CSES-125NP
On-Farm Composting - A Guide to Principles, Planning & Operations May 1, 2009 452-232
Organic Matter Application--Can You Apply Too Much?

Fall is an excellent time to clean-up fields and plan for future crop nutrient requirements as well as increasing soil organic matter content for your farm field management program.

Jul 22, 2009 2906-1316
Organic Production - Some Thoughts and Considerations

Across the state, organic production of specialty crops is on the increase, particularly on small farms and direct market operations.

Jul 22, 2009 2906-1317
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment

Phosphorus (P) is a naturally occurring element that can be found in the earth's crust, water, and all living organisms. Phosphorus (P) is one of 16 elements that are essential for plant growth. Soils in Virginia are naturally low in phosphorus, and most cropping systems on these soils require supplemental phosphorus to maximize their yield potential.

May 1, 2009 424-029
Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn Mar 8, 2010 3002-1438
Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests Feb 26, 2010 460-143
Powell River Project - Creation and Management of Productive Minesoils Aug 27, 2010 460-121
Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses Feb 19, 2010 460-124
Powell River Project - Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-127
Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land

Most coal-bearing lands in the Appalachian region were forested prior to mining. The region’s forests are predominantly upland oak-hickory and Appalachian mixed hardwoods. These forests provide many benefits to landowners and the public. Solid wood and paper products are perhaps the most tangible benefits, but a predictable flow of high-quality water from forested watersheds into regional streams is another vital benefit provided by the region’s forests. Forests also fix carbon from the atmosphere, provide wildlife food and cover, and provide recreational opportunities and an aesthetically pleasing environment.

Mar 30, 2011 460-123
Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining

This publication summarizes research on the impacts of reclamation practices on re-establishment of native Appalachian forest ecosystems and describes practices
that may be used during reclamation to encourage re-establishment of native hardwood-forest plant communities.

Feb 25, 2010 460-140
Powell River Project - Revegetation Species and Practices Jul 28, 2010 460-122
Precision Farming Tools: Soil Electrical Conductivity

Soil electrical conductivity (EC) is a measurement that correlates with soil properties that affect crop productivity, including soil texture, cation exchange capacity (CEC), drainage conditions, organic matter level, salinity, and subsoil characteristics. This publication discusses: 1) How, with field verification, soil EC can be related to specific soil properties that affect crop yield, such as topsoil depth, pH, salt concentrations, and available water-holding capacity; 2) Soil EC maps often visually correspond to patterns on yield maps and can help explain yield variation; and 3) Other uses of soil EC maps (Table 1), including developing management zones, guiding directed soil sampling, assigning variable rates of crop inputs, fine tuning NRCS soil maps, improving the placement and interpretation of on-farm tests, salinity diagnosis, and planning drainage remediation.

May 1, 2009 442-508
Soil Preparation

The ideal soil for a vegetable garden is deep, friable,

and well-drained with a high organic matter content.

Proper soil preparation provides the basis for good seed germination and the subsequent growth of garden crops. Careful use of various soil amendments can improve garden soil and provide the best possible starting ground for your crops.

Aug 12, 2015 426-313 (HORT-191P)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Crop Production Apr 27, 2016 452-124 (CSES-159NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Greenhouse and Nursery Production Sep 24, 2015 452-126(CSES-136NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial Lawns Sep 24, 2015 452-128(CSES-139NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Home Lawns, Gardens, Fruits, and Ornamentals Sep 24, 2015 452-125(CSES-138NP)
Soil Sample Information Sheet for Surface-Mined Areas Sep 24, 2015 452-127 (CSES-140NP)
Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener May 1, 2009 452-129
Soil Test Note #1 - Explanation of Soil Tests May 1, 2009 452-701
Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops

Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability. 

Sep 25, 2014 452-702 (CSES-100P)
Soil Test Note #4 - Trace Elements May 1, 2009 452-704
Soil Test Note 17: Lawn Fertilization for Cool Season Grasses May 1, 2009 452-717
Soil Test Note 18: Lawn Fertilization for Warm Season Grasses May 1, 2009 452-718
Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report) May 1, 2009 452-719
Soil Test Note 20: Home Shrubs and Trees May 1, 2009 452-720
Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures Aug 19, 2009 452-705
Soil Test Note No.3 - Liming and Fertilization of Cool-Season Forage Crops Aug 28, 2012 452-703 (CSES-16P)
Soil Testing for the Lawn and Landscape

This publication is available in a Breeze Presentation. To view the presentation you will need to download the Macromedia Flash Player.

Soil Testing for the Lawn and Landscape, Publication #430-540

May 1, 2009 430-540
Soil and Soil Water Relationships

This publication presents and discusses concepts that are fundamental to understanding soil, water, and plant relationships and the soil water balance. Knowledge about soil water relationships can inform the decision-making process in agricultural operations or natural resource management, such as determining what crops to plant, when to plant them, and when various management practices should be scheduled. Understanding these concepts is useful for addressing both agronomic and policy issues related to agricultural water management. 

Mar 22, 2016 BSE-194P
Sources of Lime for Acid Soils in Virginia May 1, 2009 452-510
The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook Jun 9, 2015 CSES-122P
The Minute Pirate Bug (Orius) Mar 8, 2010 3002-1437
The Nutrient Value of Straw Jun 19, 2015 CSES-126NP
The Organic Way - Selecting Green Manure Crops for Soil Fertility

In organic growing the philosophy behind soil fertility is to feed the soil and the soil in turn will feed the cash crop. Cover crops, green manures, animal manures and sound crop rotations are used to improve and/or maintain soil fertility. This article focuses on the use of green manures.

Aug 10, 2009 2906-1374
The Soil and Me: A Perspective on Soil Health

Soil is the foundation upon which our natural living world depends; it is otherwise known as the dynamic material that civilization is built on (Lindbo, Kozlowski, and Robinson 2012). Soil serves diverse functions that are critical to the survival of humanity; without the soil, life on earth is inconceivable. It represents the critical zone of the earth where life, water, minerals, and air intersect and interact (fig. 1) because the soil constantly relates with other parts of nature. The soil is considered a living, dynamic resource at the earth’s surface and has been defined as “the unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants” (SSSA 2015). The thickness or depth of this surface or layer varies with the type and environment of the soil.

Nov 5, 2015 CSES-132NP
Understanding the Texture of Your Soil for Agricultural Productivity

Have you ever been to a field- or farm-related event, seen the soil and subsequent produce, and wished you had that kind of soil? If you have, you are most likely not alone! However, many people who work and use their land for private gardening, community farming, or other commercial agricultural production activities have an incomplete idea of what healthy and productive soil should look like. Texture, density, structure, nutrients, and organic matter are some of the most common parameters of healthy, productive soils. This paper explains the textural qualities of soils and allows readers to assess the qualities of the soil they manage.

Jul 20, 2016 CSES-162P
Urban Nutrient Management Handbook Apr 28, 2011 430-350
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops May 5, 2015 CSES-120NP
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies May 5, 2015 CSES-121NP
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Five - Understanding Ammonia Volatilization from Fertilizers Sep 25, 2015 2908-1404(CSES-130NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Six - Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Properties Aug 27, 2009 2908-1405