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Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2003 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide May 1, 2009 436-048
2005 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results May 1, 2009 432-301
2008 Burley Tobacco Production Guide May 1, 2009 436-050-08
2009 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Quality Data Mar 15, 2010 3002-1436
2009 Virginia Cotton Production Guide Oct 7, 2009 424-300
2009-2010 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia‐Carolina Region Jan 25, 2011 3101-1531
2009-2011 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia-Carolina Region Apr 25, 2013 AREC-11P
2010 PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Quality Data

Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 11 Virginia-type cultivars that currently are on the market and 25 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2010. The small PVQE plots with 36 varieties were tested at six locations in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina: Suffolk, VA, Southampton Co., VA, Martin Co., NC, Rocky Mount, NC, Whiteville, NC, and Florence, SC. At Suffolk three and at Martin Co., NC, two planting dates were achieved. For the other locations, only one planting date was done. Each genotype was replicated 3 times at each location and planting date. Varieties’ names and pedigree are presented in Table 1. Since none of the advanced breeding lines were proposed for release, PVQE seed increase plots were not planted in 2010. A detailed description of the plant material, test locations, weather conditions, and cultural practices is included in the PVQE 2010 Results. I. Agronomic and Grade Data, at http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/3101/3101-1523/3101-1523.html.

Mar 24, 2011 3103-1539
2010 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results: Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 14, 2011 3101-1523
2010 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Dec 21, 2010 3012-1521
2010 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 24, 2011 3101-1524
2010 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Dec 1, 2009 2810-1017
2011 - 2012 Runner vs. Virginia Peanut Test Results Apr 12, 2013 AREC-44NP
2011 Burley Tobacco Production Guide

The production of an ample supply of uniform, healthy plants that are available reasonably early in the transplanting season is the first step for a successful crop. The best practice is to produce your own transplants. Doing so will reduce the likelihood of importing disease and pest problems onto your farm. The next best alternative is to buy transplants from someone in your local community. If you must import transplants
purchasing certified disease free transplants is strongly recommended.

Mar 22, 2011 436-050
2011 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide

The flue-cured tobacco budget is an estimate of the costs to produce 2500 pounds of marketable tobacco. Expense values used in the budget are based upon projected input prices and recommended production practices. Every producer is encouraged to adjust this budget using the right hand
column to reflect production practices and prices that are relevant to their own farming operation. This column is your estimated cost of production.

Mar 24, 2011 436-048
2011 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Feb 1, 2012 AREC-7
2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Quality Data Aug 28, 2012 AREC-6
2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 9, 2012 AREC-5
2011 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 17, 2012 ANR-8
2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 12, 2011 2810-1017
2012 Flue-cured Tobacco Production Guide Feb 23, 2012 436-048 (AREC-14)
2012 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Jan 28, 2013 AREC-37NP
2012 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2013 AREC-32NP
2012 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in Virginia Nov 26, 2012 AREC-30NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Nov 29, 2012 ANR-31NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 11, 2013 ANR-37NP
2012 Virginia Peanut Production Guide

Keys to Proper Use of Pesticides

  1. Read the label on each pesticide container before each use. Follow the printed
    instructions to the letter; heed all cautions and warnings; note precautions
    about residues.
  2. Store pesticides in the containers in which you bought them. Put them where
    children and animals cannot get to them — preferably locked-up and away from
    food, feed, seed, and other materials that may become harmful if contaminated.
  3. Dispose of empty containers in the manner specified on the label.
    See your doctor if symptoms or illness occurs during or after use of pesticides!
Feb 8, 2012 PPWS-3
2013 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Feb 19, 2014 AREC-73NP
2013 Insect Pest Management In Virginia Cotton, Peanut, Soybean, and Sorghum Dec 10, 2013 AREC-61NP
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2013 AREC-64NP
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - II. Quality Data Mar 14, 2014 AREC-85NP
2013 Tri-State Grain Sorghum Performance Tests Mar 26, 2014 AREC-83NP
2013 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Dec 4, 2013 ANR-96NP
2013 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Feb 12, 2013 AREC-31NP
2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide May 2, 2014 AREC-58NP
8 Tips for Transitioning to Organic Production

The transition phase can be difficult for growers transitioning to organic production. During the transition phase the farming system is undergoing many changes in physical, chemical and biological properties.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1350
A Decision Tool to Compare the Profitability of Utilizing Poultry Litter or Commercial Fertilizer to Meet Soil Test Recommendations Mar 17, 2010 3003-1439
Adding Cut Flowers May Increase Profits

Vegetable growers who sell produce at farmers' markets, at roadside stands, to restaurants and to local supermarkets may find that they can bring in additional income by adding fresh cut flowers to the inventory of products they sell.

Jul 15, 2009 2906-1331
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2004 May 1, 2009 450-564
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2005 May 1, 2009 450-564-05
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2006 Apr 28, 2009 424-236
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2007 May 1, 2009 2808-1005
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2008

Cool temperatures and rainfall delayed planting of cotton and peanut until after 20 April in Virginia. Thereafter, rainfall was widely scattered and soil temperatures averaged above 60 ºF which allowed planting to proceed in a timely manner. Most crops showed good emergence after planting throughout Eastern Virginia, except for some stand losses in early plantings of corn.

May 14, 2009 2905-1294
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2009 Sep 9, 2010 3009-1458
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2010 Oct 18, 2011 3110-4009
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2011 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-12
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2013 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-12
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions I: Background and General Information May 1, 2009 450-301
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions II: Identification, Biology, and Ecology May 1, 2009 450-302
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions III: Control with Fungicides May 1, 2009 450-303
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions IV: Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices May 1, 2009 450-304
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions V: Monitoring, Tracking, and Scouting May 1, 2009 450-305
Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Scarabaeidae

Species: Maladera castanea (Arrow)

Size: The adult beetle is 5/16 to 7/16 of an inch long (slightly smaller than a Japanese beetle adult). A fully developed grub (third instar) measures about 3/4 inch long

Color: The adult is chestnut brown or reddish brown in color and faintly iridescent (Fig. 1). The grub (immature stage) is off white except for a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs that vary from in color from orange to dark brown.

Description: The beetle abdomen is covered by a pair of hardened forewings, or elytra, which are not used in flight. Instead, their main purpose is to protect the hind wings, which are folded up under the elytra when the insect is not in flight. The grub has a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs and will fold into a 'C' shape when disturbed (Fig. 2). It is very easy to differentiate an Asiatic garden beetle grub from other annual white grub species with the aid of a 10x power hand lens. The grub has a single transverse row of spines on the underside of the last abdominal segment, or raster, and a 'Y' shaped anal slit (Fig. 3).

May 1, 2009 444-108
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2008-2010 Jan 25, 2011 3101-1530
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2009-2011 Mar 22, 2012 AREC-17NP
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2010-2012 Mar 1, 2013 AREC-35NP
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Varieties Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2007-2009

Selecting high-yielding soybean varieties is one of the most important steps for profitable production. To help
with variety selection, Virginia Tech conducts full-season and double-crop variety tests in five regions of the
Commonwealth. These regions include the Upper and Lower Piedmont, the Upper and Lower Coastal Plain, and
Eastern Shore.

Multi-year averages give greater confidence to variety performance. Data presented here is an average taken
from multiple-locations over the past three growing seasons and includes varieties that have been tested in the last
2 years. The greater number of locations, the greater confidence that the variety will perform as indicated. Actual
yield in bushels per acre is not listed. Instead, variety performance is represented as the average relative yield, or
a percentage above or below the average yield of all varieties of the similar maturity at the same location.
Average relative yield removes some of the bias that occurs with multi-year averages when varieties are not tested
at each location.

Actual yield and other performance data from these tests are available at your county Cooperative Extension
office or can be found on the web at www.vaes.org.vt.edu/TAREC/holshouser/variety.html.

Apr 20, 2010 3004-1443
Best Management Practices for Bioenergy Crops: Reducing the Invasion Risk Jan 5, 2012 PPWS-8P
Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot
Cabbage maggots canbe very destructive pests of early-season plantings of cole crops: cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. Additional hosts include beet, radish, turnip, and celery.

Seedcorn maggots are known to attack asparagus, cabbage, turnip, radish, onion, beet, spinach, potato, and sprouting corn seeds. Seedcorn maggots can also be very damaging to beans and peas and new plantings of alfalfa.

May 1, 2009 444-231
Characteristics of Good Quality Transplants

If you're planning to use transplants this spring make sure the 2005 season gets off to a productive start by planting good quality transplants. While terms like "good quality" leave room for some subjective interpretation, there are characteristics that can be defined to aid in determining if the transplants are of good quality.

Aug 11, 2009 2906-1383
Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region

Common diseases of soybean are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes. Some diseases are spread by insect vectors and nematodes while others are spread by wind, splashing rain, or movement in soil. The best way to determine if disease control would be profitable is to first identify the diseases that are capable of causing  conomic yield losses. Symptoms of disease include plant damage caused by a pathogen and the reaction of plants to infection. Signs are the visible evidence of the pathogen. Some diseases have characteristic symptoms and signs that are identifiable in the field.

Feb 17, 2010 3001-1435
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs

Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings (Figure 1). Heavy WG infestations can cause stand and yield losses of up to 20%. Because grubs occur in the soil, their presence in fields and subsequent damage to corn may go unnoticed until too late. Also, 30% overwintering mortality in WG densities is typical in VA. Insecticidal seed treatments such as clothianidin (PonchoTM) and thiamethoxam (CruiserTM) are the tools of choice for controlling soil insect pests. Growers typically must decide whether to purchase insecticide-treated seed well in advance of spring planting.

Jun 30, 2011 2802-7027
Comparison of Yield, Maturity, Value and Susceptibility to TSWV in Virginia- and Runner-type Varieties of Peanut in 2004 May 1, 2009 450-567
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans

Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.

May 1, 2009 444-770
Corn Fertility Update – Spring 2010 Jun 11, 2010 3006-1448
Cost and benefit of seed treatments and Temik 15G in furrow for seedling disease and nematode control in Virginia, 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1419
Cotton Harvest Aid Cheat Sheet Aug 28, 2013 CSES-65NP
Cotton Harvest Aid Selection and Application Timing May 1, 2009 424-201
Curing Quality Peanuts in Virginia

This bulletin is written from the viewpoint that peanut production is a business and the grower is the manager of that business. It is the role of public service agencies to provide accurate information concerning the consequences of management decisions, not to tell growers how to run their business.

In Virginia, peanuts are typically combined at moisture contents ranging from 20 to 30 percent wet basis, i.e. 20 to 30 percent of the harvested weight is moisture. Near Suffolk, Virginia, peanuts seldom dry below 20 percent in the windrow. At other locations, when weather is favorable, peanuts may dry down to 10 percent in the windrow. In damp rainy weather, peanuts may be combined at moisture contents above 30 percent; consequently, peanut dryers must be designed to handle this "worst case" condition. No matter what the moisture is at combining, peanuts must he cured to 10 percent average moisture content before they can be sold. Peanut quality is influenced, sometimes quite significantly, by curing, both "natural" curing in the windrow and "artificial" curing in a drying trailer.

May 1, 2009 442-062
Days to Soybean Physiological Maturity Sep 9, 2010 3009-1459
Defoliating Cotton under Adverse Conditions: Drought-stress, Cool Temperatures, and Rank Growth

Modern chemical harvest aids are applied to induce leaf abscission, hasten mature-boll dehiscence, and inhibit regrowth (Gwathmey and Hayes 1997; Snipes and Cathey 1992). Their use can result in increased machine harvest efficiency and fewer lodged plants while reducing boll rot, the trash in seed cotton, and the time from defoliation to harvest (Benedict 1984). The challenge of using harvest aids is the inconsistent way cotton responds to them, making defoliation one of the most unpredictable management practices (Benedict 1984; Gwathmey and Hayes 1997).

May 1, 2009 427-208
Description and Performance of the Virginia-Market-Type Peanut Cultivars Aug 20, 2010 432-201
Determining the Cause of Plant Problems Aug 11, 2009 2906-1382
Disease Management in No-Till Corn in Virginia Feb 7, 2014 AREC-67NP
Effects of Drought and Heat on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Production

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Sep 20, 2012 AREC-27NP
Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley Mar 18, 2010 3003-1440
European Corn Borer

Description of Damage

European corn borer (ECB) is a major pest of corn grown for grain in Virginia. This pest is found throughout the commonwealth, but its population density fluctuates from year to year in a given locality. Typical damage to corn plants caused by this insect are reduced plant vigor leading to subsequent ear drop and stalk lodging.


Identification

When fully grown, ECB larvae are 3/4 to 1 inch in length and creamy-white to pink in color. The larval head capsule is dark brown and, on top of each abdominal ring or segment, there are several small dark brown or black spots. (Figure 1)
May 1, 2009 444-232
Farming in the Mid-Atlantic Jul 27, 2009 2906-1336
Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates Aug 4, 2009 424-035
Field Production of Cut Flowers: Potential Crops

Do you have a roto-tiller and at least 1/2 acre of land? Consider cut flower production. Commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Andy Hankins, VCE Extension Specialist for Alternative Agriculture, notes that even large-scale grain and livestock farmers have regained some profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slow relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap. 

May 1, 2009 426-619
Float Greenhouse Tobacco Transplant Guide

Commercial greenhouse production of tobacco transplants first appeared in Virginia in the mid-1980's. Initial adoption of this technology was slow due to the high cost of the structures and equipment. However, widespread acceptance of greenhouse tobacco transplant production has occurred in the 1990's. This has largely resulted from lower greenhouse costs, increased labor costs, and the generally good experiences of early greenhouse tobacco growers.

May 1, 2009 436-051
GAPs: Common Sense for Fresh Produce Growers

Over the past several years, when and where we can, cooperative extension has introduced the GAPs (Good Agricultural Practices) program to fresh produce growers across the state. In particular the message has been directed to our wholesale growers who sell to brokers and commercial chain stores.

Jul 31, 2009 2906-1359
Getting Started in the Production of Field-Grown, Specialty Cut Flowers

Specialty cut flowers are one of the most profitable field crops you can grow. Lynn Byczynski, editor of Growing For Market newsletter (see Resources section), estimates a value of $25,000 to $35,000 per acre for field-grown cuts. The most basic requirements are at least half an acre of open, arable land, a rototiller, and, of course, time and effort. This publication is directed to those new to market gardening, but commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Even grain and livestock farmers have increased profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slower, relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.

May 2, 2014 426-618 (HORT-71P)
Green Stem Syndrome in Soybean Dec 22, 2009 2912-1430
Growing 'Titan': A Large-Seeded, Virginia-Type Peanut for Specialty Markets Jun 18, 2013 AREC-42P
Identifying Soybean Fields at Risk to Leaf-Feeding Insects


What is LAI? Leaf area index (LAI) is the ratio of leaf area to land area. Soybean requires LAI values of at least 3.5 to 4.0 by early to mid-reproductive developmental stages to achieve maximum yield for that year and environment. A soybean crop that does not achieve adequate LAI could be at risk to yield loss from insect leaf-feeders, whereas, fields with high (4+) LAI can sustain significant insect feeding with little to no effect on yield. This publication will aid producers in evaluating soybean fields at risk to yield reduction from leaf-feeding insects.

May 1, 2009 444-203
Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans

Animal manures are a good source of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) for agricultural crops, but they have an imbalance in their N to P ratio, so that if they are applied to meet crop N needs, then P is overapplied. For many years, manures have been applied to meet crop N needs, which has resulted in some soils containing more P than crops require, leading to environmental concerns. Regulations have been developed to limit P losses from manures and soils high in P by moving manure nutrient management from an N basis to a P basis.

Sep 16, 2009 442-310
Increasing Fresh Produce Availability From Local Sources Jul 19, 2013 AREC-50NP
Insect Pest Management in Virginia: Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2010 May 1, 2009 2812-1027
Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual

Integrated Pest Management

In the competitive global peanut market, you need to lower production costs. At the same time, you also need to keep pesticide residues in peanuts to a minimum; protect rivers, streams, and lakes from runoff; and prevent chemicals from leaching through the soil to groundwater. Using IPM to protect crops only from pests that are likely to cause economic losses is a good way to meet these goals.

The Three Keys to IPM

  1. Scout the crop regularly and systematically to identify pests.
  2. Use control measures only when monitoring shows that a pest is likely to reach economically damaging levels.
  3. Apply the lowest effective amount of pesticide using equipment that is correctly calibrated.
May 1, 2009 444-126
Japanese Beetle in Field Corn

Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Popillia japonica Newman

Size: Adult is 1/3 to 1/2 inch long; the fully developed grub or larva is 1/2 to 1 inch long.

Color: The adult is shiny metallic green with copperbrown wing covers and is characterized by the presence of five tufts of white hairs which protrude from under the wing covers along each side of the abdomen, with two additional tufts of white hairs on the tip of the abdomen (Fig. 1); the grub has a distinct head capsule that is dark brown to orange in color with the rest of the body an off-white or grayish color due to the presence of soil or fecal matter in the hindgut (Fig. 2).

May 1, 2009 444-106
Land Application of Broiler and Turkey Litter for Farming Operations Without a DEQ Permit

Poultry litter (poultry manure and a bedding material such as sawdust, pine bark, or peanut hulls) is a good source of nutrients and organic matter for growing crops. Land application of poultry litter on farms has been the mainstay of effective and safe usage for years. Unfortunately, improper management of litter applications may cause nutrient enrichment and/or contamination of surface and ground water resources. The key to proper management is an understanding of the nutrients available in the litter, the nutrient requirements of the crops to be produced, and the potential for the litter and/or nutrients to reach surface or ground waters.

May 1, 2009 442-052
Lisianthus (Eustoma Grandiflorum), A New Species for the Cut Flower Market

A wildflower known in certain western states as Prairie Gentian has fallen into the hands of plant breeders to become a really hot new cut flower species - lisianthus. This flower is beautiful. The blooms are graceful and refined. They resemble rose buds on long sturdy stems. I

Jul 22, 2009 2906-1312
Making Replant Decisions for Slug Damaged Corn and Soybean Stands

Slugs cause significant economic injury to corn and soybean crops in Virginia every year. Symptoms of slug feeding will vary depending on the size or the growth stage of the crop, and the size of the slug. In corn, slug damage is typically limited to defoliation of emerging leaves.

May 14, 2009 2905-1293
Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region

Stink bug pests across the south eastern cotton belt consist of three main species: the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say); and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)  Due to the diverse environmental conditions across this production region, population levels of these species vary widely across seasons, states, and fields. In North Carolina and Virginia, green and brown stink bugs are the primary species, while southern green and brown stink bugs predominate in Georgia,and all three species are commonly observed in South Carolina.

Sep 23, 2009 444-390
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems Feb 27, 2013 CSES-22P
Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter

To maximize crop productivity and minimize adverse environmental effects, it is critical that land applications of manures meet, but not exceed, crop nutrient requirements. To assure that the actual manure application rate matches the desired application rate, manure-spreading equipment must be calibrated. The goal of manure spreader calibration is to determine the amount of manure, on a weight per unit area basis, that is being applied to a field. This publication describes three methods for manure spreader calibration for spreaders handling solid and semi-solid manures.

May 1, 2009 442-004
Natural Plant Hormones Are Biostimulants Helping Plants Develop Higher Plant Antioxidant Activity For Multiple Benefits

For the November, 2003 SE Strawberry Expo at Durham, NC, I was asked to make a presentation on the topic "Introduction to Foliar Feeding." Several folks helped me find background reference information on this subject, which was used to assemble this presentation and is included herein. I hope this information will help you produce better berry, fruit and vegetable crops!

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1339
Nitrogen Management for White Potato Production

One of the challenges of white potato production, as with any crop, is the efficient management of nitrogen
(N) fertilizer. Excessive N fertilizer applied at or before tuberization can extend the vegetative growth period and delay tuber development, resulting in a lower tuber yield. However, too much N applied later in the season can delay maturity of the tubers, reducing
yield and adversely affecting tuber quality and skin set. Conversely, under-application of N at any point in the season can result in lower tuber yields and reduced profits. Environmental considerations must also be taken into account in N fertilizer management. Nitrogen
is a mobile nutrient in the soil and any excess N has the potential to move off-site via leaching or surface runoff. This is particularly true on the coarse-textured, low-organic matter soils common to the Eastern Shore, the premier potato-producing region in Virginia. These factors make the appropriate N rate and N application timing critical for successful white potato production.

Sep 28, 2009 438-012
North American Grapevine Yellows Disease: Current Knowledge and Management Recommendations for Wine Growers Sep 18, 2013 AREC-48P
Palmer Amaranth Control in Cotton: 2008 & 2009 Efficacy Experiments Dec 22, 2009 2912-1428
Palmer Amaranth Control in Soybean: 2009 Efficacy Experiments Dec 22, 2009 2912-1429
Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research & Extension Center 2009 Sep 9, 2010 3009-1460
Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center 2010 Dec 16, 2011 PPWS-2
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results 2008 May 1, 2009 2902-1082
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2008 May 1, 2009 2812-1030
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2009. I. Agronomic and Grade Data

Peanut is an important crop for the Virginia and the Carolinas. It annually brings over $90 million to the economies of this region from over 180,000 acres planted every year. For example this year, 12,000 acres were planted in Virginia and 70,000 in North Carolina. Average yield was approximately 3,500 lb/A in both states. Due to environmental similarities and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia- type peanut, growers in Virginia and North Carolina generally grow the same peanut varieties. More recently, farmers in South Carolina started to grow the large-seeded Virginia-type varieties as well. For example this year, growers in South Carolina planted approximately 70,000 acres of Virginia-type peanut. In the view of this common interest in the Virginia-type peanut, the three states are working together through a multi-state project, the Peanut Variety Quality Evaluation Project (PVQE), to evaluate advanced breeding lines and standard varieties throughout their production regions. The objectives of this project are: 1) to determine yield, grade, quality, and disease response of released peanut varieties and advanced breeding lines at various locations in the Virginia and the Carolinas, 2) develop a database for Virginia-type peanut to allow research-based selection of the best genotypes by growers, industry, and the breeding programs, and 3) to identify the most suited peanut genotypes for various regions that can be developed into varieties. This report contains agronomic and grade data of the PVQE tests in 2009.

Jan 11, 2010 3001-1432
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Quality Data Apr 26, 2013 AREC-41NP
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2014 Feb 3, 2014 456-016 (ENTO-37P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2014 Jan 28, 2014 456-017 (ENTO-38P)
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment

Phosphorus (P) is a naturally occurring element that can be found in the earth's crust, water, and all living organisms. Phosphorus (P) is one of 16 elements that are essential for plant growth. Soils in Virginia are naturally low in phosphorus, and most cropping systems on these soils require supplemental phosphorus to maximize their yield potential.

May 1, 2009 424-029
Planter/Drill Considerations for Conservation Tillage Systems

No-till planters and drills must be able to cut and handle residue, penetrate the soil to the proper seeding depth, and establish good seed-to-soil contact. Many different soil conditions can be present in the Mid-Atlantic region at planting time. Moist soils covered with residue, which may also be wet, can dominate during the late fall and early spring and occasionally, in the summer. Although this condition provides an ideal environment for seed germination, it can make it difficult to cut through the residue. In contrast, hard and dry conditions may also prevail. Although cutting residue is easier during dry conditions, it is more difficult to penetrate the hard, dry soils. Proper timing, equipment selection and adjustments, and crop management can overcome these difficult issues.

May 1, 2009 442-457
Planting Considerations and Variety Performance for Virginia Cotton Producers

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Mar 11, 2013 AREC-43NP
Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn Mar 8, 2010 3002-1438
Potassium Fertilization of Cotton May 1, 2009 418-025
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per 30 foot of row can reduce cotton yield by 6 to 12%.

May 1, 2009 2805-1001
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. Four Palmer amaranth plants per 100 ft2 of row can reduce soybean yield by 12 to 17%.

May 1, 2009 2808-1006
Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium, Araliaceae family) is a familiar plant to many people in the Southern Appalachian region. For several generations, “digging sang” has been an enjoyable and profitable activity for many mountain people.

May 1, 2009 354-312
Production of Dahlias as Cut Flowers

Beginning cut flower growers, dazzled by brilliant photographs, often order dahlia tubers from bulb company catalogs for Spring planting. The hopeful grower normally pays five or six dollars per plant and either receives one single tuber or a small clump of tubers that resemble little brown yams. The grower carefully plants the tubers six inches deep in early May in full sun and hopes for the best.

Aug 11, 2009 2906-1384
Pyridine Herbicide Carryover: Causes and Precautions May 9, 2012 VTTP-6NP
Reduction in Sediment Movement in Plasticulture

Tomato plasticulture is currently one of the most profitable agricultural enterprises on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The advantages of plastic mulch include soil warming, weed suppression, water and fertilizer conservation and early yield enhancement. However, runoff and sediment movement may adversely impact the rapidly expanding clam aquaculture enterprises that are extremely sensitive to changes in water quality, including sediment movement.

Aug 4, 2009 2906-1369
Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn

Order: Tylenchida

Family: Heteroderidae

Species: Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode), M. arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), M. javanica (Javanese root-knot nematode), M. hapla (northern root-knot nematode; not found in corn)

Size: Adult females are up to 1/16 inch in diameter.

Color: Adult females are a translucent cream color.

Description: Adult females are pear shaped and sedentary.

May 1, 2009 444-107
Sell Cut Flowers from Perennial Summer-flowering Bulbs

Commercial producers of field-grown flower cut flowers generally have a wide selection of crops to sell in April, May and June. Many species of annual and especially perennial cut flowers bloom during these three months. A group of plants that may offer new opportunities for sales of cut flowers during mid-summer are summer-flowering bulbs.

Aug 5, 2009 2906-1370
Slugs in Field Corn

Scientific Names: Deroceras reticulatum (gray garden slug) (Fig. 1), Deroceras laeve (marsh slug) (Fig. 2), Arion subfuscus (dusky slug) (Fig. 3)

Size: Mature slugs vary in size from 1/2 inch to several inches in length; however, the typical size range of slugs found in cornfields is about 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches.

Color: Mature slugs are gray to brownish-gray, depending on the species. Immature slugs resemble adults in color (Fig. 4).

May 1, 2009 444-109
Small Grains In 2010 Aug 4, 2010 3007-1455
Small Grains In 2011

The following tables present results from barley and wheat varietal tests conducted in Virginia in
2009-2011. Small-grain cultivar performance tests are conducted each year in Virginia by the
Virginia Tech Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences and the Virginia
Agricultural Experiment Station. The tests provide information to assist Virginia Cooperative
Extension Service agents in formulating cultivar recommendations for small grain producers and
to companies developing cultivars and/or marketing seed within the state. Yield data are given
for individual locations and across locations and years; yield and other performance
characteristics are averaged over the number of locations indicated in parenthesis near the
column heading. Performance of a given variety often varies widely over locations and years
which makes multiple location-year averages a more reliable indication of expected performance
than data from a single year or location. Details about management practices for barley and
wheat are listed for each experimental location.

Jul 21, 2011 3007-1456
Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops May 1, 2009 452-702
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Diseases Head mold

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Aug 21, 2012 AREC-20NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Insects Corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)]

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Aug 31, 2012 AREC-21NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Marketability Grain Color and Relationship to Feed Value

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Aug 31, 2012 AREC-23NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Weed Control

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Nov 16, 2012 AREC-29NP
Southeastern U.S. 2014 Vegetable Crop Handbook Feb 6, 2014 AREC-66NP
Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005 May 1, 2009 450-561
Soybean Insect Guide Feb 7, 2014 AREC-68NP
Soybean Neamtode Management Guide

Nematodes, or unsegmented roundworms, feed in or on roots of plants. More than 100 species of plant-parasitic nematodes feed on soybean roots, but only a few are economically important. In Virginia, most nematode species can be found in the sandier Coastal Plain soils. However, some nematode species can also develop and reproduce on the heavier-textured soils of the Piedmont and Shenandoah Valley. This guide will focus on those that can cause damage to soybeans in Virginia.

Jan 2, 2012 AREC-1
Soybean Reproductive Development Stages Nov 25, 2013 AREC-59NP
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Foliar Fungicides in 2006 May 1, 2009 450-562
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2007 May 1, 2009 2810-1016
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1420
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
Suggested Soybean Seeding Rates for Virginia Jun 11, 2010 3006-1447
The Basics of Hardwood-Log Shiitake Mushroom Production and Marketing Apr 3, 2014 ANR-102P
The Organic Way - Plant Families

Knowing which family a plant belongs to can be useful in making decisions about crop rotations for managing pests and soil fertility. Plants that are in a family are genetically related, so they share similar characteristics.

Aug 17, 2009 2906-1393
The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory

The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.

May 1, 2009 444-351
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials

Selecting an appropriate, high-yielding variety is one of the most important management decisions that producers make. Yield potential is clearly important, but the decision is complicated by such factors as the cropping system, the need for disease resistance, end-use quality goals, year-to-year climatic variation, and the need to select multiple varieties in order to reduce risk by spreading out flowering and maturity dates.

Jul 29, 2011 424-040
Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs Sep 2, 2009 2909-1410
Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop Nov 16, 2012 AREC-25NP
Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Better Manage and Predict Wheat Development

Wheat development is affected by nutrients, water, light, and other factors; but temperature consistently determines how quickly or slowly plants move ahead in forming leaves, roots, tillers, and grain heads. The plant's development stage at any point during the season is affected very predictably by how warm or cool the season has been up to that point. This knowledge, combined with educated guesses about how the rest of the growing season will progress, can be extremely valuable information to the grower, who can then make more informed management decisions to include predicting the maturity/harvest schedule.

May 1, 2009 424-004
Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Develop a Corn Planting Strategy

With adequate soil moisture, early-planted corn generally out yields late-planted corn due to its better use of sunlight during June and July. The goal for most producers is to plant as early as possible and still achieve rapid emergence and a good crop stand.

May 1, 2009 424-003
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2010 Dec 10, 2009 2810-1019
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2011 Jan 12, 2011 2810-1019-11
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2012 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-8
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2013 Feb 6, 2013 AREC-33NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014 Feb 7, 2014 AREC-62NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide, 2008 May 1, 2009 424-300-08
Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Effect of Planting Date and Plant Populations on Growth and Yield of Cotton May 1, 2009 424-232
Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Evaluation of Chemicals and Variety Selection for Control of Nematodes in Cotton May 1, 2009 424-234
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Three: Manure Injection Nov 16, 2010 3011-1517
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Two: Nitrogen Fertilizer Injection in No-Till Systems Nov 16, 2010 3011-1516
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2006 May 1, 2009 424-109-06
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2007 May 1, 2009 424-109-07
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2008 May 1, 2009 2901-1032
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2009

The purpose of the publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for grain producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of certain varieties, management practices, and new technology through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. The plot work and analyzed results enable those producers to make management decisions based on research and provides them a greater opportunity to improve yields and profits, which can improve the quality of life for them and their families. The success of these on-farm plots is very dependant on the cooperative effort of the producer and the assisting agribusiness.

Mar 24, 2010 3003-1441
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2013 Jan 22, 2014 ANR-101NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2009

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.

Dec 17, 2009 2912-1427
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2010

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.

Mar 1, 2011 3102-1536
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2011

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Feb 15, 2012 AREC-16
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2012

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Feb 14, 2013 AREC-40
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2013

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Feb 21, 2014 AREC-79NP
Virginia Soybean Update Jul 10, 2013 AREC-49NP
Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2004 May 1, 2009 424-107-04
Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2005 May 1, 2009 424-107-05
Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2006 Apr 28, 2009 424-107-06
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots - Eastern Virginia, August 2009

The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by seven Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, several extension specialists from Virginia Tech, area
producers, and agribusinesses. We are proud to present this year’s on-farm wheat plot work to you. The 2008-09 wheat season was a tough one for producers. Below normal temperatures in the fall and winter
reduced tillering, and wet conditions in the spring delayed harvest and resulted in low quality and yields in many areas. With wheat prices down considerably and input costs relatively high, wheat producers
will need to really focus on maximum economic yields during 2009-10 to produce profitable wheat.

Aug 28, 2009 2908-1409
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596