Resources for Enhanced Digital Publications

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Pressure Canning Apr 20, 2016 348-585 (FST-222)
Understanding and Managing Food Allergies Jan 24, 2018 348-940 (FST-283)
Storage and Handling of Commercially Packaged Foods
Proper selection of foods at the grocery store and appropriate storage and handling practices at home are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of commercially processed foods and perishable foods. When foods are improperly handled or stored, bacteria can grow, causing the product to spoil quickly or be unsafe to eat — regardless of the expiration date on the package.
Jun 23, 2015 348-954(AREC-149P)
Food Storage Guidelines For Consumers Mar 23, 2018 348-960 (FST-286P)
Elaboración de Conservas a Presión
El proceso para envasar alimentos en casa o conservas caseras, depende de la acidez del alimento, lo cual se determina por su pH. Los alimentos de baja acidez tienen un pH más grande que 4.6, y los alimentos de alta acidez tienen un pH menos que 4.6. En general, los vegetales (verduras o hortalizas) y carnes son alimentos de baja acidez, y las frutas son alimentos alta acidez. Los alimentos de alta acidez pueden procesarse de manera segura por agua hirviendo, pero los alimentos de baja acidez se deben procesar en una olla a presión para conservas.
May 4, 2016 348-585S (FST-233P)
The Impact of a 4-H Youth Development Program on the Future College/Career Aspirations of Youth Ages 14-19 Feb 28, 2018 380-023 (4H-777)
Teen Leadership and Development Fact Sheets: Preparing Teens for Opportunities Beyond the Local Level
Virginia 4-H offers a wide variety of opportunities beyond the local level that enable teens to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and aspirations needed for success. However, before we involve teens in opportunities such as State 4-H Cabinet, State 4-H Congress, Virginia 4-H All Stars, Citizenship Washington Focus, National 4-H Congress, and National 4-H Conference, we — as 4-H professionals — must be sure the teens are adequately prepared for such ventures. This fact sheet provides tips on how to prepare your teens for district, state, national, and international 4-H opportunities.
Feb 14, 2020 4H-283P (4H-880P)
Teen Leadership and Development Fact Sheets: Working Effectively With Teen Volunteers Oct 21, 2015 4H-510P
4-H Animal Science Financial Record Keeping Lessons
This is the first in a series of six lessons that focus on 4-H livestock financial record keeping. It discusses the importance of matching your livestock project animal with your farm’s facilities. This activity will help members learn to set and achieve goals in their animal projects. The discussion about the factors to consider and the questions to ask themselves will help members answer the questions in the project planning section of the record book.
Aug 29, 2016 4H-540P
The Value of Teen Leadership: Quick Guide Jul 19, 2018 4H-785P
The Value of Teen Leadership Jul 19, 2018 4H-786P
Sod Source Selection, Installation, Maintenance, and Producers in Virginia
While high-quality sod is available outside of the VCIA-certified sod program, the consumer is encouraged to be aware of factors that are important in determining sod quality. Quality sod contains excellent turf varieties with good sod strength (i.e., easy to handle for both harvest and installation) and has no serious insect, weed, or disease problems.
Feb 19, 2016 418-040 (CSES-151P)
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer Aug 30, 2019 418-142
Managing Wildlife Damage: Snakes Nov 7, 2019 420-021 (CNRE-56P)
Learning to Live with Coyotes in Metropolitan Areas Nov 7, 2019 420-050 (CNRE-57P)
Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia
Each year many landowners in Virginia consider Christmas tree farming as an alternative enterprise for their unused open land. The number of growers in the Commonwealth is increasing steadily, and currently Virginia ranks eighth in the nation in Christmas tree production, with about 1.8 million trees harvested in 1990.
May 12, 2020 420-080 (AREC-122P)
Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners
As a private woodland owner, you are a vital link in the sustainability of Virginia’s forest resources. Your land provides many benefits to all Virginians, including wood products, wildlife habitat, clean air and water, and recreational opportunities.
Feb 3, 2016 420-139 (ANR-157P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)
Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise- tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.
May 4, 2015 420-322(ANR-122P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Selected Freshwater Fish Families
This is the largest and most ecologically diverse family of freshwater fishes in the world. Minnows are exclusively freshwater, although some species stray into brackish, tidal waters. Over 290 species of minnows occur in North America.
Feb 12, 2020 420-526 (CNRE-90P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Frog Biodiversity and Conservation
Frogs can be found in all landscapes, from deep under the water to high in trees. There are more than 100 species of frogs in the United States, and many of these are of conservation concern. This publication describes frog biology, diversity, and conservation issues.
Feb 12, 2020 420-527 (CNRE-87P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Snail Biodiversity and Conservation
Six hundred fifty different species of snails are widely distributed across the streams, rivers, and lakes of North America. There are unique species associated with every type of aquatic habitat from the Canadian Arctic to the Everglades of Florida.
Nov 5, 2019 420-530 (CNRE-76P)
Plant Propagation from Seed Oct 11, 2019 426-001
Propagation by Cuttings, Layering and Division Oct 11, 2019 426-002
Urban Water-Quality Management: Insect Pests of Water Garden Plants
Aphids are often called plant lice. Several species are troublesome pests on above-water leaves (a), stems, and flower buds of aquatic plants. These sucking insects distort succulent new leaves, causing them to curl, wilt, or turn yellow.
Apr 8, 2015 426-040 (HORT-124P)
What Is a Watershed? Aug 29, 2018 426-041 (SPES-2P)
Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration
Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment — an important part of the natural water cycle (VADEQ 2010).
Jun 2, 2020 426-046(HORT-160P)
Gardening and Your Health: Protecting Your Hands and Feet
The skin on hands and feet is like most ornamental plants. Neither likes the extremes of being dried out or kept too wet. Treat skin as tenderly as the most sensitive plants and safeguard your horticultural health.
Apr 29, 2015 426-061 (HORT-135P)
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be! May 9, 2018 426-109 (HORT-292P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Disconnection Dec 4, 2019 426-120 (BSE-269P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 2: Sheet Flow to Open Space
Sheet flow to open space (SOS) is a group of best management practices (BMPs) designed to disperse concentrated runoff to sheet flow into filter strips or a riparian buffer. An SOS reduces runoff volume and associated sediment and nutrients that are carried with it (see figure 1). It is used as a stormwater treatment practice in both urban and rural areas. This practice is often used after another treatment practice to disperse or eliminate runoff. In a few cases, an SOS can be used as a pretreatment to remove small amounts of sediment via a vegetated filter strip — prior to a bioretention device, for example.
Dec 4, 2019 426-121 (BSE-270P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 8: Infiltration Practices
Infiltration practices provide temporary surface and/or subsurface storage, allowing infiltration of runoff into soils. In practice, an excavated trench is usually filled with gravel or stone media, where runoff is stored in pore spaces or voids between the stones (see figure 1). These systems can reduce significant quantities of stormwater by enhancing infiltration, as well as provide filtering and adsorption of pollutants within the stone media and soils. Infiltration practices are part of a group of stormwater treatment practices, also known as best management practices (BMPs)
Dec 4, 2019 426-127 (BSE-276P)
Planning the Vegetable Garden
How much time will you be able to devote to your garden on a regular basis? The answer to this question will dictate the size of your garden. You must remember that, once planted, the garden will have to be weeded once a week, irrigated during droughts, and vegetables harvested when ripe. Depending on the type of vegetables, you may also need to undertake pest control measures.
Dec 11, 2015 426-312 (HORT-209P)
Mulches for the Home Vegetable Garden
Mulching is a practice adaptable to nearly all home gardens. To mulch is simply to cover the soil around plants with a protective material, organic or inorganic.
Mar 20, 2015 426-326(HORT-140P)
Tomatoes
Tomatoes are valuable garden plants in that they require relatively little space for large production. Each standard tomato plant, properly cared for, yields 10 to 15 pounds or more of fruit.Diane Relf, Retired Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Alan McDaniel, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Ronald Morse, Former Associate Professor, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Reviewed by John Freeborn, Assistant Master Gardener Coordinator, Horticulture, Virginia Tech
Sep 29, 2016 426-418 (HORT-288P)
Herb Culture and Use Oct 11, 2019 426-420
Selecting Landscape Plants: Boxwoods Mar 23, 2018 426-603 (HORT-290P)
Understanding Pesticide Labels Jan 14, 2016 426-707 (HORT-201P)
Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Gardens Sep 12, 2019 426-708 (ENTO-330NP)
Conserving Energy with Landscaping
Well-placed plantings can significantly alter the microclimate around a home, resulting in a more comfortable environment and significant savings in heating and cooling costs over time.
Apr 6, 2015 426-712 (HORT-110P)
The Value of Landscaping
Landscaping is an integral part of our culture and plays an essential role in the quality of our environment, affecting our economic well-being and our physical and psychological health. If we are to keep our communities strong and prosperous, we must take responsibility for our environment. Environmental responsibility is a step beyond awareness, developed only through experience. Through our gardens and landscapes, we acquire a personal awareness and responsibility for the environment while we relieve the tensions and frustrations of everyday life.
Nov 17, 2016 426-721 (HORT-234)
Small Fruit in the Home Garden
As a general rule, plant selection and production area in a home garden should be limited to what you can properly care for. It is better to have a small, welltended planting area rather than a large, neglected one. Small fruits offer certain advantages over fruit trees for home culture because small fruits require less space for the amount of fruit produced, and they bear fruit one or two years after planting. Success with small-fruit planting will depend on the attention given to all phases of production, including crop and variety selection, site selection, soil management, fertilization, pruning, and pest management.
Oct 13, 2016 426-840 (HORT-216P)
Fertilización del Césped en Virginia Jan 20, 2017 430-011s (CSES-166P)
Fertilización de árboles y arbustos
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
Feb 18, 2016 430-018S (HORT-165P)
Dealing with the High Cost of Energy for Greenhouse Operations Mar 16, 2018 430-101 (HORT-284P)
Using Plant Growth Regulators on Containerized Herbaceous Perennials Mar 22, 2018 430-103 (HORT-281)
Resources for Greenhouse and Nursery Operations and Operators May 6, 2016 430-104 (HORT-188P)
Virginia Firescapes: Firewise Landscaping for Woodland Homes
When the forest becomes a community, forest fires and homes are inseparable. A home in a woodland setting is surrounded by flammable vegetation. Firewise landscaping can help you create a defensible space or buffer zone around your home. This not only helps to keep fire from approaching your woodland home, but it also provides a safe space in which firefighters can work.
Jul 14, 2015 430-300(HORT-136P)
Droplet Chart / Selection Guide
When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.
Aug 13, 2019 442-031 (BSE-263P)
Nozzles: Selection and Sizing
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
Aug 13, 2019 442-032 (BSE-262P)
Compost Bedded-pack Dairy Barns May 16, 2018 442-124 (BSE-228P)
Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans Aug 30, 2019 442-310
Respiratory Protection in Agriculture
Farm workers can encounter a variety of respiratory problems ranging from temporary discomfort caused by allergic reactions to fatal asphyxiation. However, the risk of contracting serious lung diseases or death can be significantly decreased by using respiratory protection (fig. 1). See the sidebar for a list of farm work that requires respiratory protection.
Feb 28, 2020 442-601 (BSE-286P)
Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness
Farmers account for more than 30 percent of adults dis- abled by respiratory illness. Yet, a large percentage of farmers are nonsmokers. If smoking is not to blame for these ailments, then what is? The answer is farmer’s lung.
Feb 28, 2020 442-602 (BSE-287P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Iron and Manganese in Household Water Feb 25, 2020 442-656 (BSE-285P)
Filtration, Treatment, and Maintenance Considerations for Micro-Irrigation Systems May 8, 2018 442-757 (BSE-222P)
Biodiesel Fuel
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be made from vegetable oil, animal fat, and recycled cooking oils. Oils produced from algae, fungi, bacteria, molds, and yeast can also be used to produce biodiesel.
Jan 14, 2015 442-880 (BSE-180P)
The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory
The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.
Nov 22, 2019 444-351(ENTO-340P)
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
Jun 27, 2016 450-236 (PPWS-69P)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
Oct 19, 2016 450-237 (PPWS-70P)
Juniper Tip Blights Mar 30, 2017 450-601 (PPWS-91 NP)
Entomosporium Leaf Spot of Photinia
Photinia, a shrub belonging to the plant family Rosaceae, is a popular landscape shrub in the southeastern U.S. Several species are grown, but the most popular is the hybrid Photinia ×fraseri, or “redtip”, so named for its bright red, immature foliage. The biggest drawback to growing photinia is a leaf spot disease caused by the fungus Diplocarpon mespili (syn. Entomosporium mespili) to which redtip is highly susceptible.
Sep 30, 2016 450-609 (PPWS-82P)
Brown Rot on Peach and Other Stone Fruits
Brown rot is one of the most destructive diseases of peach and nectarine in Virginia, and also occurs on other stone fruits such as apricot, cherry, and plum. When environmental conditions favor this disease, crop loss can be devastating.
Mar 18, 2020 450-721 (SPES-24P)
Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback of Trees and Shrubs in the Landscape
Most trees and shrubs are susceptible to dieback and cankers caused by several species of the fungal genus Botryosphaeria. Botryosphaeria fungi are typically opportunistic pathogens. Opportunistic pathogens only cause disease on plants that are stressed. Therefore, avoiding plant stress, which predisposes plant tissue to infection and colonization by this fungal group, is the best strategy to prevent Botryosphaeria disease problems.
Mar 18, 2020 450-726 (SPES-23P)
Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose.
Aug 29, 2018 452-014 (SPES-1)
Sources of Lime for Acid Soils in Virginia
Acid soil limits crop yields on many Virginia farms. This soil acidity can be directly toxic to plants, but more often it reduces the plants' efficiency at nutrient utilization.
Aug 9, 2019 452-510 (SPES-158P)
Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
Sep 9, 2019 452-702 (CSES-100P)
Forests of Virginia: Importance, Composition, Ecology, Threats, and Management Mar 4, 2016 465-315 (ANR-163P)
To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question
The economic and ecological considerations of clear cutting wooded acreage.
Sep 25, 2019 465-340(CNRE-66P)
Artemia Culture for Intensive Finfish and Crustacean Larviculture Aug 21, 2019 600-106 (CNRE-60P)
Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part I: Overview of Financial Systems for New and Beginning Farmers Dec 9, 2016 AAEC-114P
Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part II: Introduction of Financial Systems for New and Beginning Farmers
There are many factors to consider before starting a new farm enterprise. Financial management is an important component in the startup and decision-making processes for beginning farmers. The purpose of this series of publications is to inform Virginia agribusiness owners and managers about farm financial risk management tools, techniques, and resources available to help them prepare and use a financial systems approach for their operations.
Oct 19, 2016 AAEC-115P
Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part III: Introduction to Farm Planning Budgets for New and Beginning Farmers
There are many factors to consider before starting a new farm enterprise. Financial management is an important component in the startup and decision-making processes for beginning farmers. The purpose of this series of publications is to inform Virginia agribusiness owners and managers about farm financial risk management tools, techniques, and resources available to help them prepare and use a financial systems approach for their operations.
Oct 19, 2016 AAEC-116P
Becoming a Certified Organic Producer in Virginia May 14, 2019 AAEC-168P
Produce Safety, Perceived Risk, and Consumer Choice Jul 15, 2019 AAEC-187P
Production and Economic Considerations for Fresh Market Edamame in Southwest Virginia Jul 15, 2019 AAEC-188P
Edamame: Costs, Revenues, and Profitability Jul 15, 2019 AAEC-189P
Grain and Soybean Production and Storage in Virginia: A Summary and Spatial Examination
Grain and soybean production is a critical component of Virginia agriculture — the state’s No. 1 industry (VDACS 2013). Virginia’s farmers produced more than half a billion bushels of grain and soybeans over the span of 2006 to 2012 (USDA-NASS 2013b)1. The objectives of this publication are to characterize the market for grain production and storage in Virginia.
Sep 26, 2019 AAEC-60P
An Evaluation of Program, Training, and Resource Needs of Virginia Beginning Farmers and Ranchers: Virginia Beginning Farmer and Rancher Coalition Program
With funding from the USDA Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program in fall 2010, the Virginia Beginning Farmer and Rancher Coalition Program aims to meet the expressed needs of Virginia’s beginning farmers and support the development of social networks through which they can gain vital skills, information, technical assistance, and business capacity for long-term agricultural viability (see www.vabeginningfarmer.org).
Oct 4, 2019 AEE-81P
Understanding and Developing an Agribusiness Dec 20, 2018 ALCE-176P
All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot
Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.
Sep 12, 2019 ANR-132NP (CNRE-70NP)
Thinning Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot
Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.
Sep 12, 2019 ANR-133NP (CNRE-69NP)
Virginia Citizen’s Guide to Environmental Credit Trading Programs: An Overview May 4, 2016 ANR-173P
Commercial Chinese Chestnut Production in Virginia Sep 21, 2017 ANR-279P
Lean at Hardwood Lumber Inc. Jun 9, 2017 ANR-226
Transitioning Beef Cattle to a Defined Breeding and Calving Season Jun 25, 2018 APSC-145P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part I. Biology of Reproduction Nov 4, 2019 APSC-157P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants Part II: Puberty and Estrous Cycles Feb 14, 2020 APSC-158P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part III. Breeding and Management Systems Nov 26, 2019 APSC-159P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part IV. Breed/Selection Nov 26, 2019 APSC-160NP
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part V. Nutrition and Health Dec 3, 2019 APSC-164P
Using Fecal Egg Counts On Your Farm Sep 17, 2019 APSC-166NP
Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-115NP (AREC-250NP)
Safe and Nutritious Seafood in Virginia
Consumers enjoy eating a variety of seafood and can find many choices of fresh as well as frozen seafood in the refrigerated and freezer cases of grocery stores.Abigail Villalba, Extension Specialist, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center Michael Jahncke, Professor, Food Science and Technology, and Director, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center Michael Schwarz, Extension Specialist, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center David Kuhn, Assistant Professor, Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech Alisha Farris, Extension Specialist, Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech
Jan 15, 2016 AREC-156P
Southwest Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-179NP (AREC-248NP)
Middleburg Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-187NP (AREC-256NP)
Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop Nov 16, 2012 AREC-25NP
Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-69NP (AREC-247NP)
Southern Piedmont Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-70NP (AREC-254NP)
Reynolds Homestead Forestry Resources Research Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-74NP (AREC-253NP)
Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-75NP (AREC-252NP)
Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-77NP (AREC-251NP)
Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-81NP (AREC-255NP)
Soil and Soil Water Relationships
This publication presents and discusses concepts that are fundamental to understanding soil, water, and plant relationships and the soil water balance. Knowledge about soil water relationships can inform the decision-making process in agricultural operations or natural resource management, such as determining what crops to plant, when to plant them, and when various management practices should be scheduled. Understanding these concepts is useful for addressing both agronomic and policy issues related to agricultural water management.Zachary M. Easton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech Emily Bock, Graduate Research Assistant, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
Mar 22, 2016 BSE-194P
Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia
In the Commonwealth of Virginia, water resources are increasingly being scrutinized due to changing surface water or groundwater availability. Access to good quality water is a continuing concern, and in many communities, managing water use — particularly consumptive use — is a priority to conserve public water supplies to meet the needs of a growing population.
Sep 23, 2016 BSE-198P
Factors When Considering an Agricultural Drainage System Feb 23, 2017 BSE-208P
Using Groundwater for Agricultural Irrigation in Virginia Dec 1, 2017 BSE-215P
Managing Climate Risks and Extreme Weather in Agriculture Jun 14, 2018 BSE-226P
Managing Drainage From Agricultural Lands with Denitrifying Bioreactors in the Mid-Atlantic Nov 5, 2018 BSE-234P
Estimating Financial Costs and Benefits of Supplemental Irrigation with the Irrigation Financial Estimator Tool (IFET) Nov 30, 2018 BSE-237P
Irrigation Scheduling in Humid Climates Using the Checkbook Method Jan 30, 2019 BSE-239P
Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
Aug 21, 2019 BSE-49P (BSE-264P)
Denitrification Management Mar 27, 2018 BSE-54P (BSE-223P)
The Socrates Project - Poisonous Plants in Virginia Jun 29, 2018 CNRE-13NP (CNRE-21NP)
Analysis of Financial Statements Using Ratios May 10, 2019 CNRE-43P
Virginia Master Naturalist Basic Training Course: Ichthyology Oct 8, 2019 CNRE-73P
Soybean Growth and Development
Proper management of the soybean crop requires knowledge of how environmental conditions and pests affect growth during vegetative and reproductive stages. For example, too little or too much soil moisture at certain stages may hinder growth and lower yield, and insect pests may damage the crop at one stage but not another. The information below can help you determine the proper timing of various management practices.
Nov 13, 2015 CSES-134NP
Lawn Fertilization in Virginia
Fertilization of lawns is essential for the production of quality turf in Virginia. However, exceeding recommended fertilizer application rates or improper application timing can negatively impact surface water and groundwater quality.
Dec 11, 2015 430-011 (CSES-135P)
Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Soil
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on measuring water movement through in situ saturated soil (saturated hydraulic conductivity, or Ksat) as it relates to dispersal and treatment of on-site sewage (wastewater) through an on-site wastewater dispersal area
Mar 22, 2016 CSES-141P (CSES-164P)
Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes May 23, 2016 CSES-146P
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
Sep 30, 2016 CSES-155P
Understanding the Texture of Your Soil for Agricultural Productivity Jul 20, 2016 CSES-162P
Soil Judging in Virginia Jan 25, 2018 CSES-183
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Planting Trees in Pastures Dec 11, 2017 CSES-185P
Predicting Soybean Reproductive Stages in Virginia Oct 7, 2017 CSES-197P
Internationalizing the Land Grant Mission: Lessons from Senegal Mar 20, 2018 CSES-207P
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems Mar 27, 2018 CSES-22P (SPES-5P)
Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
Feb 21, 2020 CSES-98P(SPES-178P)
A Decision-Making Tool to Determine the Feasibility of Purchasing Virginia Milk Commission Base
Dairy farmers are usually subject to net income fluctuations due to volatility in both milk and feed prices. Risk management tools, such as hedging milk prices in the futures market, may be used to protect dairy farmers against milk price volatility. Alternatively, dairy farmers selling milk in Virginia can buy Virginia milk commission base (MCB) to obtain higher milk prices and, therefore, sustain or increase net cash flows.
Mar 23, 2018 DASC-30P (DASC-111P)
Income Over Feed Costs in the Dairy Enterprise
Typically, feed costs are directly related to milk production, so the more you feed, the more you produce. However, milk production is not necessarily related to profitability. Production-oriented management, which focuses on maximizing outputs (i.e., milk yield) through increased utilization of inputs (i.e., feed), does not necessarily ensure the dairy business will be profitable.
Sep 10, 2015 DASC-51P
Aseptic Technique for Milk Sampling and Teat Infusions Apr 8, 2016 DASC-61P
Bacillus spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 11, 2016 DASC-62P
Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Staphylococcus hyicus: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 11, 2016 DASC-63P
Corynebacterium bovis: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 11, 2016 DASC-64P
Enterobacter spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis Apr 12, 2016 DASC-65P
Mycoplasma spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 12, 2016 DASC-66P
Pasteurella spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 12, 2016 DASC-67P
Proteus spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 13, 2016 DASC-68P
Prototheca spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 5, 2016 DASC-69P
Pseudomonas spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 5, 2016 DASC-70P
Trueperella pyogenes: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 15, 2016 DASC-71P
Yeast and Molds: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 15, 2016 DASC-72P
Comparative Nutritional Quality of Winter Crops for Silage Feb 23, 2017 DASC-93P
Spotted Lanternfly
The spotted lanternfly (SLF) originates from China where its presence has been documented in detail dating as far back as the 12th century.
Jul 26, 2018 ENTO-180NP (ENTO-284NP)
Economic Pests of Turfgrass Jan 31, 2018 ENTO-237NP
Varroa Mite Biology and Feeding Damage Sep 19, 2019 ENTO-331NP
Varroa Mite Sampling Methods Sep 12, 2019 ENTO-332NP
Varroa Mite Management Methods Sep 12, 2019 ENTO-333NP
Learning in Families Together: School-Age Children and Bullying May 8, 2019 FCS-56P
Aprendiendo juntos en familia: Los niños en edad escolar y el acoso escolar
El acoso escolar o intimidación ocurre cuando un niño es el blanco de acciones hirientes una y otra vez por alguien más.
Apr 1, 2016 FCS-56S (FCS-77S)
IMPORTANT FACTS About the Safety of Unpasteurized (Raw) Milk
The majority of the milk and dairy products sold in the United States are pasteurized, which means they go through a heat process that kills harmful bacteria (e.g., Salmonella, E. coli, Campylobacter, etc.) that can be found in unpasteurized (raw) milk. Pasteurization not only improves the safety of the milk but also lengthens its shelf life.
Oct 1, 2019 FST-139P (FST-331P)
Safe Handling and Storing of Raw Fruits and Vegetables Aug 29, 2016 FST-234P
Ozone Application in Aquaculture Apr 5, 2017 FST-244P
Waterless Shipment of Warm-Water Shrimp Mar 28, 2017 FST-245P
Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding Jul 5, 2017 420-256 (FST-269P)
Fish Slaughter Jul 25, 2017 FST-276
A Guide to the Aquaponics Food Safety Plan Development: Green Aquaponics LLC as a Model Feb 21, 2019 FST-302P
What do I need to know to provide SAMPLES at the farmers market? Feb 27, 2019 FST-310P
What do I need to know to sell MAPLE SYRUP at the farmers market? Jul 22, 2019 FST-311NP
What do I need to know about LABELING my foods for sale? Feb 27, 2019 FST-312P
How is Cold Plasma Used to Process Food? Apr 24, 2019 FST-314P
How Is Pasteurization Used to Process Food? Jul 22, 2019 FST-315P
Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule: Soil Amendments Jul 17, 2019 FST-316P
Packinghouse Best Practices To Support the FSMA Produce Safety Rule Jul 19, 2019 FST-317P
How is Microwave Technology Used to Process Foods? Nov 4, 2019 FST-324P
How is Chlorine Dioxide Gas Used to Process Foods? Nov 15, 2019 FST-325NP
Microbial Quality of Water Used in Potato Packinghouse Operations Oct 15, 2019 FST-348P
Demystifying Agricultural Production Water Testing under the FSMA Produce Safety Rule Sep 10, 2019 FST-350NP
Reduced Oxygen Packaging and Food Safety Concerns in Seafood Jan 21, 2020 FST-351NP (FST-358NP)
Caffeinated Energy Drinks/Energy Shots Among Young Adults
There are more than 300 energy drink and energy shot products available in the United States, and of these, Red Bull, Monster, Rockstar, 5-Hour Energy, Stacker 2 6-Hour Power, and private labels are the topselling brands. Manufacturers have now shifted their marketing focus from athletes to young adults, and these drinks are being aggressively marketed on college campuses. Thirty-four percent of 18- to 24-year-olds use energy drinks regularly as a means of improving performance, endurance, and alertness before and during exercise; staying awake in demanding situations; and compensating for loss of sleep, especially during exams.
Dec 9, 2015 HNFE-299P
To Soy or Not to Soy: Effects of Soybeans on Breast Cancer, Menopause and Heart Disease
Originating in China, soybeans have been cultivated for more than 5,000 years. They were introduced to America in the 19th century, and since the 1940s, they have become one of the most important economic crops in this country.
Mar 29, 2016 HNFE-339P
Is a Gluten-Free Diet Healthy for People Without Celiac Disease? Apr 15, 2016 HNFE-350P
Fasting During Ramadan: Nutrition and Health Impacts and Food Safety Recommendations Sep 26, 2016 HNFE-351P
Are Low-Fat or Fat-Free Products Problem-Free? Nov 17, 2016 HNFE-370P
Can Flaxseed Lower Cholesterol Levels? Oct 13, 2017 HNFE-444P
Anti-Diabetic Potentials of Bitter Melon May 17, 2018 HNFE-512
Anti-diabetic Potentials of White Mulberry Aug 30, 2018 HNFE-518P
UNDERSTANDING CANCER: What we know about cervical cancer Sep 18, 2018 HNFE-521P
Advanced Irrigation Management for Container-Grown Ornamental Crop Production
Container-grown plants are constrained with regard to root growth, and are affected by factors including container size, substrate, weather, nutrition, and irrigation. Typical soilless substrates will hold less plant-available water than a typical field soil, making water management a critical component of any container-grown plant production system. A well-designed and managed irrigation system, which works in concert with the aforementioned factors, can provide the necessary quantity of water to support plant growth in an efficient manner.
Sep 23, 2016 HORT-218P
Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are of interest among strawberry and vegetable growers in Virginia looking to diversify their crops. Including blackberries in farm plans could allow these growers to keep their farms and pick-your-own activities open to customers for a longer duration, increasing agritourism and sales; however, Virginia growers lack information on blackberry varieties that perform well in the state.
Oct 7, 2016 HORT-226P
GroZone Tracker Sep 21, 2016 HORT-227P
Mixed Infection of Strawberry Mottle Virus and Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge Virus in the Southeastern United States Oct 25, 2017 HORT-268P
Sweetpotato Production and Variety Performance in Southeast Virginia, 2015-2016 May 8, 2018 HORT-282P
Low Tunnels in Vegetable Crops: Beyond Season Extension May 30, 2018 HORT-291P
Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom
Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter? The answer is definitely yes! Many people are familiar with the hourglass-shaped vase filled with water and topped with a hyacinth bulb, or a low bowl filled with several Paper White narcissus, and the popular boxed amaryllis bulb as a welcome winter holiday gift. Most bulbs can be forced but additional planning is required in order to have a successful period of blooms.
Oct 2, 2019 HORT-76NP
Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Showy Flowering Shrubs
This publication features small, medium, and large flowering shrubs (five of each category) with photos. All photos are by the author. There are at least eight shrubs from each category noted in a table (without photos) at the end of this publication. All shrubs — featured or in the table — are landscape worthy and are especially suited to landscapes in Virginia and the Mid-Atlantic States.
Jul 30, 2020 HORT-84P
Plant Injury From Herbicide Residue
In recent years, an increased number of cases of injury from herbicide residue in straw/hay, manure, and compost have been diagnosed in the Virginia Tech Plant Disease Clinic. Growers are surprised and dismayed to learn that manure, straw, mulch, or other amendments intended to improve their garden or landscape might have such unforeseen consequences. Of particular concern to organic growers are herbicide residues.
Aug 22, 2016 PPWS-77P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 2: Rain Barrels Jun 25, 2018 SPES-10P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 3: Permeable Pavement Jun 25, 2018 SPES-11P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 4: Grass Swales Jun 25, 2018 SPES-12P
Leaching Fraction: A Tool to Schedule Irrigation for Container-Grown Nursery Crops Jun 11, 2019 SPES-128P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 5: Rain Gardens Jun 26, 2018 SPES-13P
Crop Load Management in Commercial Apple Orchards: Chemical Fruit Thinning May 31, 2019 SPES-134P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 6: Buffers Jun 26, 2018 SPES-14P
A Survey of Strawberry Production Practices in Virginia Aug 12, 2019 SPES-150P
Mortality of Great Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia
Since 2015, Extension specialists from Virginia Tech (VT) have visited and collected plant and soil samples from several large areas of dying great rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia’s mountainous regions. In 2016 VT specialists met with Virginia Department of Forestry, US Forest Service personnel, and other experts to revisit some of these sites. No consistent cause of this mortality has yet been identified. It is possible that a variety of factors are stressing the rhododendrons in these areas to a point where opportunistic pathogens or insects can successfully attack and kill them. The following information summarizes our observations and diagnostic results from four separate great rhododendron mortality sites in Virginia. This information is not equivalent to a research study, which would also include samples taken from healthy great rhododendron for comparison; however, we are confident that we have ruled out two diseases that are frequently mentioned both online and anecdotally as a cause of this mortality, specifically Phytophthora root rot and Botryosphaeria dieback.
Aug 21, 2019 SPES-151P
Strategies for Managing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue – A Whole-Farm Approach Nov 26, 2019 SPES-163P
2019 NASS Cropland and Pastureland Rental Rates Oct 1, 2019 SPES-168NP
Control of Common Grassy Weeds in Pastures and Hayfields
Grassy weeds in pastures and hayfields compete with desired forage species and reduce the productivity of forage systems. Lack of selective herbicides makes grassy weed species, such as Johnsongrass, Japanese stiltgrass, broomsedge, and foxtail species difficult to control. Proper soil fertility, grazing management, and correct timing and placement of herbicide application can effectively control these species.
Nov 6, 2018 SPES-58P
A Spreadsheet-Based Soil Test Converter for Turfgrass Professionals and Nutrient Management Planning in Virginia Nov 19, 2018 SPES-60
Warm-Season Annual Grasses for Summer Forage Apr 5, 2019 SPES-88P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Redirection (Disconnection) Jun 25, 2018 SPES-9P
A Spreadsheet-Based Calculator for Lawn Fertilizer and Lime Applications in Virginia Nov 19, 2018 SPES-40P