Resources for Enhanced Digital Publications
|Pressure Canning||Apr 20, 2016||348-585 (FST-222)|
|Understanding and Managing Food Allergies||Jan 24, 2018||348-940 (FST-283)|
|Storage and Handling of Commercially Packaged Foods||
Proper selection of foods at the grocery store and appropriate storage and handling practices at home are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of commercially processed foods and perishable foods. When foods are improperly handled or stored, bacteria can grow, causing the product to spoil quickly or be unsafe to eat — regardless of the expiration date on the package.
|Jun 23, 2015||348-954(AREC-149P)|
|Food Storage Guidelines For Consumers||Mar 23, 2018||348-960 (FST-286P)|
|Elaboración de Conservas a Presión||
El proceso para envasar alimentos en casa o conservas caseras, depende de la acidez del alimento, lo cual se determina por su pH. Los alimentos de baja acidez tienen un pH más grande que 4.6, y los alimentos de alta acidez tienen un pH menos que 4.6. En general, los vegetales (verduras o hortalizas) y carnes son alimentos de baja acidez, y las frutas son alimentos alta acidez. Los alimentos de alta acidez pueden procesarse de manera segura por agua hirviendo, pero los alimentos de baja acidez se deben procesar en una olla a presión para conservas.
|May 4, 2016||348-585S (FST-233P)|
|The Impact of a 4-H Youth Development Program on the Future College/Career Aspirations of Youth Ages 14-19||Feb 28, 2018||380-023 (4H-777)|
|Teen Leadership and Development Fact Sheets: Preparing Teens for Opportunities Beyond the Local Level||
Virginia 4-H offers a wide variety of opportunities beyond the local level that enable teens to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and aspirations needed for success. However, before we involve teens in opportunities such as State 4-H Cabinet, State 4-H Congress, Virginia 4-H All Stars, Citizenship Washington Focus, National 4-H Congress, and National 4-H Conference, we — as 4-H professionals — must be sure the teens are adequately prepared for such ventures. This fact sheet provides tips on how to prepare your teens for district, state, national, and international 4-H opportunities.
|Feb 14, 2020||4H-283P (4H-880P)|
|Teen Leadership and Development Fact Sheets: Working Effectively With Teen Volunteers||Oct 21, 2015||4H-510P|
|4-H Animal Science Financial Record Keeping Lessons||
This is the first in a series of six lessons that focus on 4-H livestock financial record keeping. It discusses the importance of matching your livestock project animal with your farm’s facilities. This activity will help members learn to set and achieve goals in their animal projects. The discussion about the factors to consider and the questions to ask themselves will help members answer the questions in the project planning section of the record book.
|Aug 29, 2016||4H-540P|
|The Value of Teen Leadership: Quick Guide||Jul 19, 2018||4H-785P|
|The Value of Teen Leadership||Jul 19, 2018||4H-786P|
|Sod Source Selection, Installation, Maintenance, and Producers in Virginia||
While high-quality sod is available outside of the VCIA-certified sod program, the consumer is encouraged to be aware of factors that are important in determining sod quality. Quality sod contains excellent turf varieties with good sod strength (i.e., easy to handle for both harvest and installation) and has no serious insect, weed, or disease problems.
|Feb 19, 2016||418-040 (CSES-151P)|
|Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer||Aug 30, 2019||418-142|
|Managing Wildlife Damage: Snakes||Nov 7, 2019||420-021 (CNRE-56P)|
|Learning to Live with Coyotes in Metropolitan Areas||Nov 7, 2019||420-050 (CNRE-57P)|
|Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia||
Each year many landowners in Virginia consider Christmas tree farming as an alternative enterprise for their unused open land. The number of growers in the Commonwealth is increasing steadily, and currently Virginia ranks eighth in the nation in Christmas tree production, with about 1.8 million trees harvested in 1990.
|May 12, 2020||420-080 (AREC-122P)|
|Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners||
As a private woodland owner, you are a vital link in the sustainability of Virginia’s forest resources. Your land provides many benefits to all Virginians, including wood products, wildlife habitat, clean air and water, and recreational opportunities.
|Feb 3, 2016||420-139 (ANR-157P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)||
Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise- tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.
|May 4, 2015||420-322(ANR-122P)|
|Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Selected Freshwater Fish Families||
This is the largest and most ecologically diverse family of freshwater fishes in the world. Minnows are exclusively freshwater, although some species stray into brackish, tidal waters. Over 290 species of minnows occur in North America.
|Feb 12, 2020||420-526 (CNRE-90P)|
|Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Frog Biodiversity and Conservation||
Frogs can be found in all landscapes, from deep under the water to high in trees. There are more than 100 species of frogs in the United States, and many of these are of conservation concern. This publication describes frog biology, diversity, and conservation issues.
|Feb 12, 2020||420-527 (CNRE-87P)|
|Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Snail Biodiversity and Conservation||
Six hundred fifty different species of snails are widely distributed across the streams, rivers, and lakes of North America. There are unique species associated with every type of aquatic habitat from the Canadian Arctic to the Everglades of Florida.
|Nov 5, 2019||420-530 (CNRE-76P)|
|Plant Propagation from Seed||Oct 11, 2019||426-001|
|Propagation by Cuttings, Layering and Division||Oct 11, 2019||426-002|
|Urban Water-Quality Management: Insect Pests of Water Garden Plants||
Aphids are often called plant lice. Several species are troublesome pests on above-water leaves (a), stems, and flower buds of aquatic plants. These sucking insects distort succulent new leaves, causing them to curl, wilt, or turn yellow.
|Apr 8, 2015||426-040 (HORT-124P)|
|What Is a Watershed?||Aug 29, 2018||426-041 (SPES-2P)|
|Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration||
Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment — an important part of the natural water cycle (VADEQ 2010).
|Jun 2, 2020||426-046(HORT-160P)|
|Gardening and Your Health: Protecting Your Hands and Feet||
The skin on hands and feet is like most ornamental plants. Neither likes the extremes of being dried out or kept too wet. Treat skin as tenderly as the most sensitive plants and safeguard your horticultural health.
|Apr 29, 2015||426-061 (HORT-135P)|
|Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!||May 9, 2018||426-109 (HORT-292P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Disconnection||Dec 4, 2019||426-120 (BSE-269P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 2: Sheet Flow to Open Space||
Sheet flow to open space (SOS) is a group of best management practices (BMPs) designed to disperse concentrated runoff to sheet flow into filter strips or a riparian buffer. An SOS reduces runoff volume and associated sediment and nutrients that are carried with it (see figure 1). It is used as a stormwater treatment practice in both urban and rural areas. This practice is often used after another treatment practice to disperse or eliminate runoff. In a few cases, an SOS can be used as a pretreatment to remove small amounts of sediment via a vegetated filter strip — prior to a bioretention device, for example.
|Dec 4, 2019||426-121 (BSE-270P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 8: Infiltration Practices||
Infiltration practices provide temporary surface and/or subsurface storage, allowing infiltration of runoff into soils. In practice, an excavated trench is usually filled with gravel or stone media, where runoff is stored in pore spaces or voids between the stones (see figure 1). These systems can reduce significant quantities of stormwater by enhancing infiltration, as well as provide filtering and adsorption of pollutants within the stone media and soils. Infiltration practices are part of a group of stormwater treatment practices, also known as best management practices (BMPs)
|Dec 4, 2019||426-127 (BSE-276P)|
|Planning the Vegetable Garden||
How much time will you be able to devote to your garden on a regular basis? The answer to this question will dictate the size of your garden. You must remember that, once planted, the garden will have to be weeded once a week, irrigated during droughts, and vegetables harvested when ripe. Depending on the type of vegetables, you may also need to undertake pest control measures.
|Dec 11, 2015||426-312 (HORT-209P)|
The ideal soil for a vegetable garden is deep, friable, and well-drained with a high organic matter content. Proper soil preparation provides the basis for good seed germination and the subsequent growth of garden crops. Careful use of various soil amendments can improve garden soil and provide the best possible starting ground for your crops.
|Aug 12, 2015||426-313 (HORT-191P)|
|Mulches for the Home Vegetable Garden||
Mulching is a practice adaptable to nearly all home gardens. To mulch is simply to cover the soil around plants with a protective material, organic or inorganic.
|Mar 20, 2015||426-326(HORT-140P)|
Tomatoes are valuable garden plants in that they require relatively little space for large production. Each standard tomato plant, properly cared for, yields 10 to 15 pounds or more of fruit.Diane Relf, Retired Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Alan McDaniel, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Ronald Morse, Former Associate Professor, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Reviewed by John Freeborn, Assistant Master Gardener Coordinator, Horticulture, Virginia Tech
|Sep 29, 2016||426-418 (HORT-288P)|
|Herb Culture and Use||Oct 11, 2019||426-420|
|Selecting Landscape Plants: Boxwoods||Mar 23, 2018||426-603 (HORT-290P)|
|Understanding Pesticide Labels||Jan 14, 2016||426-707 (HORT-201P)|
|Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Gardens||Sep 12, 2019||426-708 (ENTO-330NP)|
|Conserving Energy with Landscaping||
Well-placed plantings can significantly alter the microclimate around a home, resulting in a more comfortable environment and significant savings in heating and cooling costs over time.
|Apr 6, 2015||426-712 (HORT-110P)|
|The Value of Landscaping||
Landscaping is an integral part of our culture and plays an essential role in the quality of our environment, affecting our economic well-being and our physical and psychological health. If we are to keep our communities strong and prosperous, we must take responsibility for our environment. Environmental responsibility is a step beyond awareness, developed only through experience. Through our gardens and landscapes, we acquire a personal awareness and responsibility for the environment while we relieve the tensions and frustrations of everyday life.
|Nov 17, 2016||426-721 (HORT-234)|
|Small Fruit in the Home Garden||
As a general rule, plant selection and production area in a home garden should be limited to what you can properly care for. It is better to have a small, welltended planting area rather than a large, neglected one. Small fruits offer certain advantages over fruit trees for home culture because small fruits require less space for the amount of fruit produced, and they bear fruit one or two years after planting. Success with small-fruit planting will depend on the attention given to all phases of production, including crop and variety selection, site selection, soil management, fertilization, pruning, and pest management.
|Oct 13, 2016||426-840 (HORT-216P)|
|Fertilización del Césped en Virginia||Jan 20, 2017||430-011s (CSES-166P)|
|Fertilización de árboles y arbustos||
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
|Feb 18, 2016||430-018S (HORT-165P)|
|Dealing with the High Cost of Energy for Greenhouse Operations||Mar 16, 2018||430-101 (HORT-284P)|
|Using Plant Growth Regulators on Containerized Herbaceous Perennials||Mar 22, 2018||430-103 (HORT-281)|
|Resources for Greenhouse and Nursery Operations and Operators||May 6, 2016||430-104 (HORT-188P)|
|Virginia Firescapes: Firewise Landscaping for Woodland Homes||
When the forest becomes a community, forest fires and homes are inseparable. A home in a woodland setting is surrounded by flammable vegetation. Firewise landscaping can help you create a defensible space or buffer zone around your home. This not only helps to keep fire from approaching your woodland home, but it also provides a safe space in which firefighters can work.
|Jul 14, 2015||430-300(HORT-136P)|
|Fall Lawn Care||
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
|Jul 2, 2015||430-520(CSES-109P)|
|Droplet Chart / Selection Guide||
When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.
|Aug 13, 2019||442-031 (BSE-263P)|
|Nozzles: Selection and Sizing||
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
|Aug 13, 2019||442-032 (BSE-262P)|
|Compost Bedded-pack Dairy Barns||May 16, 2018||442-124 (BSE-228P)|
|Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans||Aug 30, 2019||442-310|
|Respiratory Protection in Agriculture||
Farm workers can encounter a variety of respiratory problems ranging from temporary discomfort caused by allergic reactions to fatal asphyxiation. However, the risk of contracting serious lung diseases or death can be significantly decreased by using respiratory protection (fig. 1). See the sidebar for a list of farm work that requires respiratory protection.
|Feb 28, 2020||442-601 (BSE-286P)|
|Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness||
Farmers account for more than 30 percent of adults dis- abled by respiratory illness. Yet, a large percentage of farmers are nonsmokers. If smoking is not to blame for these ailments, then what is? The answer is farmer’s lung.
|Feb 28, 2020||442-602 (BSE-287P)|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Iron and Manganese in Household Water||Feb 25, 2020||442-656 (BSE-285P)|
|Filtration, Treatment, and Maintenance Considerations for Micro-Irrigation Systems||May 8, 2018||442-757 (BSE-222P)|
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be made from vegetable oil, animal fat, and recycled cooking oils. Oils produced from algae, fungi, bacteria, molds, and yeast can also be used to produce biodiesel.
|Jan 14, 2015||442-880 (BSE-180P)|
|The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory||
The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.
|Nov 22, 2019||444-351(ENTO-340P)|
|Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes||
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
|Jun 27, 2016||450-236 (PPWS-69P)|
|Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes||
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
|Oct 19, 2016||450-237 (PPWS-70P)|
|Juniper Tip Blights||Mar 30, 2017||450-601 (PPWS-91 NP)|
|Entomosporium Leaf Spot of Photinia||
Photinia, a shrub belonging to the plant family Rosaceae, is a popular landscape shrub in the southeastern U.S. Several species are grown, but the most popular is the hybrid Photinia ×fraseri, or “redtip”, so named for its bright red, immature foliage. The biggest drawback to growing photinia is a leaf spot disease caused by the fungus Diplocarpon mespili (syn. Entomosporium mespili) to which redtip is highly susceptible.
|Sep 30, 2016||450-609 (PPWS-82P)|
|Brown Rot on Peach and Other Stone Fruits||
Brown rot is one of the most destructive diseases of peach and nectarine in Virginia, and also occurs on other stone fruits such as apricot, cherry, and plum. When environmental conditions favor this disease, crop loss can be devastating.
|Mar 18, 2020||450-721 (SPES-24P)|
|Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback of Trees and Shrubs in the Landscape||
Most trees and shrubs are susceptible to dieback and cankers caused by several species of the fungal genus Botryosphaeria. Botryosphaeria fungi are typically opportunistic pathogens. Opportunistic pathogens only cause disease on plants that are stressed. Therefore, avoiding plant stress, which predisposes plant tissue to infection and colonization by this fungal group, is the best strategy to prevent Botryosphaeria disease problems.
|Mar 18, 2020||450-726 (SPES-23P)|
|Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation||
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose.
|Aug 29, 2018||452-014 (SPES-1)|
|Sources of Lime for Acid Soils in Virginia||
Acid soil limits crop yields on many Virginia farms. This soil acidity can be directly toxic to plants, but more often it reduces the plants' efficiency at nutrient utilization.
|Aug 9, 2019||452-510 (SPES-158P)|
|Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops||
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
|Sep 9, 2019||452-702 (CSES-100P)|
|Forests of Virginia: Importance, Composition, Ecology, Threats, and Management||Mar 4, 2016||465-315 (ANR-163P)|
|To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question||
The economic and ecological considerations of clear cutting wooded acreage.
|Sep 25, 2019||465-340(CNRE-66P)|
|Artemia Culture for Intensive Finfish and Crustacean Larviculture||Aug 21, 2019||600-106 (CNRE-60P)|
|Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part I: Overview of Financial Systems for New and Beginning Farmers||Dec 9, 2016||AAEC-114P|
|Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part II: Introduction of Financial Systems for New and Beginning Farmers||
There are many factors to consider before starting a new farm enterprise. Financial management is an important component in the startup and decision-making processes for beginning farmers. The purpose of this series of publications is to inform Virginia agribusiness owners and managers about farm financial risk management tools, techniques, and resources available to help them prepare and use a financial systems approach for their operations.
|Oct 19, 2016||AAEC-115P|
|Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part III: Introduction to Farm Planning Budgets for New and Beginning Farmers||
There are many factors to consider before starting a new farm enterprise. Financial management is an important component in the startup and decision-making processes for beginning farmers. The purpose of this series of publications is to inform Virginia agribusiness owners and managers about farm financial risk management tools, techniques, and resources available to help them prepare and use a financial systems approach for their operations.
|Oct 19, 2016||AAEC-116P|
|Becoming a Certified Organic Producer in Virginia||May 14, 2019||AAEC-168P|
|Produce Safety, Perceived Risk, and Consumer Choice||Jul 15, 2019||AAEC-187P|
|Production and Economic Considerations for Fresh Market Edamame in Southwest Virginia||Jul 15, 2019||AAEC-188P|
|Edamame: Costs, Revenues, and Profitability||Jul 15, 2019||AAEC-189P|
|Grain and Soybean Production and Storage in Virginia: A Summary and Spatial Examination||
Grain and soybean production is a critical component of Virginia agriculture — the state’s No. 1 industry (VDACS 2013). Virginia’s farmers produced more than half a billion bushels of grain and soybeans over the span of 2006 to 2012 (USDA-NASS 2013b)1. The objectives of this publication are to characterize the market for grain production and storage in Virginia.
|Sep 26, 2019||AAEC-60P|
|An Evaluation of Program, Training, and Resource Needs of Virginia Beginning Farmers and Ranchers: Virginia Beginning Farmer and Rancher Coalition Program||
With funding from the USDA Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program in fall 2010, the Virginia Beginning Farmer and Rancher Coalition Program aims to meet the expressed needs of Virginia’s beginning farmers and support the development of social networks through which they can gain vital skills, information, technical assistance, and business capacity for long-term agricultural viability (see www.vabeginningfarmer.org).
|Oct 4, 2019||AEE-81P|
|Understanding and Developing an Agribusiness||Dec 20, 2018||ALCE-176P|
|All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot||
Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.
|Sep 12, 2019||ANR-132NP (CNRE-70NP)|
|Thinning Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot||
Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.
|Sep 12, 2019||ANR-133NP (CNRE-69NP)|
|Welcome to the Woods! A Guide for New Virginia Woodland Owners||
We all depend on and benefit from the woods every day, whether we know it or not. The trees, shrubs, plants, animals, and soil that make up your woods provide you, your neighbors, and your region with a host of environmental, social, and economic benefits.
|May 13, 2015||ANR-136P|
|Virginia Citizen’s Guide to Environmental Credit Trading Programs: An Overview||May 4, 2016||ANR-173P|
|Commercial Chinese Chestnut Production in Virginia||Sep 21, 2017||ANR-279P|
|Lean at Hardwood Lumber Inc.||Jun 9, 2017||ANR-226|
|Transitioning Beef Cattle to a Defined Breeding and Calving Season||Jun 25, 2018||APSC-145P|
|Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part I. Biology of Reproduction||Nov 4, 2019||APSC-157P|
|Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants Part II: Puberty and Estrous Cycles||Feb 14, 2020||APSC-158P|
|Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part III. Breeding and Management Systems||Nov 26, 2019||APSC-159P|
|Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part IV. Breed/Selection||Nov 26, 2019||APSC-160NP|
|Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part V. Nutrition and Health||Dec 3, 2019||APSC-164P|
|Using Fecal Egg Counts On Your Farm||Sep 17, 2019||APSC-166NP|
|Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center||Oct 23, 2019||AREC-115NP (AREC-250NP)|
|Safe and Nutritious Seafood in Virginia||
Consumers enjoy eating a variety of seafood and can find many choices of fresh as well as frozen seafood in the refrigerated and freezer cases of grocery stores.Abigail Villalba, Extension Specialist, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center Michael Jahncke, Professor, Food Science and Technology, and Director, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center Michael Schwarz, Extension Specialist, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center David Kuhn, Assistant Professor, Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech Alisha Farris, Extension Specialist, Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech
|Jan 15, 2016||AREC-156P|
|Southwest Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center||Oct 23, 2019||AREC-179NP (AREC-248NP)|
|Middleburg Agricultural Research and Extension Center||Oct 23, 2019||AREC-187NP (AREC-256NP)|
|Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop||Nov 16, 2012||AREC-25NP|
|Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center||Oct 23, 2019||AREC-69NP (AREC-247NP)|
|Southern Piedmont Agricultural Research and Extension Center||Oct 23, 2019||AREC-70NP (AREC-254NP)|
|Reynolds Homestead Forestry Resources Research Center||Oct 23, 2019||AREC-74NP (AREC-253NP)|
|Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center||Oct 23, 2019||AREC-75NP (AREC-252NP)|
|Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center||Oct 23, 2019||AREC-77NP (AREC-251NP)|
|Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center||Oct 23, 2019||AREC-81NP (AREC-255NP)|
|Soil and Soil Water Relationships||
This publication presents and discusses concepts that are fundamental to understanding soil, water, and plant relationships and the soil water balance. Knowledge about soil water relationships can inform the decision-making process in agricultural operations or natural resource management, such as determining what crops to plant, when to plant them, and when various management practices should be scheduled. Understanding these concepts is useful for addressing both agronomic and policy issues related to agricultural water management.Zachary M. Easton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech Emily Bock, Graduate Research Assistant, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
|Mar 22, 2016||BSE-194P|
|Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia||
In the Commonwealth of Virginia, water resources are increasingly being scrutinized due to changing surface water or groundwater availability. Access to good quality water is a continuing concern, and in many communities, managing water use — particularly consumptive use — is a priority to conserve public water supplies to meet the needs of a growing population.
|Sep 23, 2016||BSE-198P|
|Factors When Considering an Agricultural Drainage System||Feb 23, 2017||BSE-208P|
|Using Groundwater for Agricultural Irrigation in Virginia||Dec 1, 2017||BSE-215P|
|Managing Climate Risks and Extreme Weather in Agriculture||Jun 14, 2018||BSE-226P|
|Managing Drainage From Agricultural Lands with Denitrifying Bioreactors in the Mid-Atlantic||Nov 5, 2018||BSE-234P|
|Estimating Financial Costs and Benefits of Supplemental Irrigation with the Irrigation Financial Estimator Tool (IFET)||Nov 30, 2018||BSE-237P|
|Irrigation Scheduling in Humid Climates Using the Checkbook Method||Jan 30, 2019||BSE-239P|
|Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide||
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
|Aug 21, 2019||BSE-49P (BSE-264P)|
|Denitrification Management||Mar 27, 2018||BSE-54P (BSE-223P)|
|The Socrates Project - Poisonous Plants in Virginia||Jun 29, 2018||CNRE-13NP (CNRE-21NP)|
|Analysis of Financial Statements Using Ratios||May 10, 2019||CNRE-43P|
|Virginia Master Naturalist Basic Training Course: Ichthyology||Oct 8, 2019||CNRE-73P|
|Soybean Growth and Development||
Proper management of the soybean crop requires knowledge of how environmental conditions and pests affect growth during vegetative and reproductive stages. For example, too little or too much soil moisture at certain stages may hinder growth and lower yield, and insect pests may damage the crop at one stage but not another. The information below can help you determine the proper timing of various management practices.
|Nov 13, 2015||CSES-134NP|
|Lawn Fertilization in Virginia||
Fertilization of lawns is essential for the production of quality turf in Virginia. However, exceeding recommended fertilizer application rates or improper application timing can negatively impact surface water and groundwater quality.
|Dec 11, 2015||430-011 (CSES-135P)|
|Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Soil||
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on measuring water movement through in situ saturated soil (saturated hydraulic conductivity, or Ksat) as it relates to dispersal and treatment of on-site sewage (wastewater) through an on-site wastewater dispersal area
|Mar 22, 2016||CSES-141P (CSES-164P)|
|Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes||May 23, 2016||CSES-146P|
|Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands||
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
|Sep 30, 2016||CSES-155P|
|Understanding the Texture of Your Soil for Agricultural Productivity||Jul 20, 2016||CSES-162P|
|Soil Judging in Virginia||Jan 25, 2018||CSES-183|
|Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Planting Trees in Pastures||Dec 11, 2017||CSES-185P|
|Predicting Soybean Reproductive Stages in Virginia||Oct 7, 2017||CSES-197P|
|Internationalizing the Land Grant Mission: Lessons from Senegal||Mar 20, 2018||CSES-207P|
|Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems||Mar 27, 2018||CSES-22P (SPES-5P)|
|Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options||
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
|Feb 21, 2020||CSES-98P(SPES-178P)|
|A Decision-Making Tool to Determine the Feasibility of Purchasing Virginia Milk Commission Base||
Dairy farmers are usually subject to net income fluctuations due to volatility in both milk and feed prices. Risk management tools, such as hedging milk prices in the futures market, may be used to protect dairy farmers against milk price volatility. Alternatively, dairy farmers selling milk in Virginia can buy Virginia milk commission base (MCB) to obtain higher milk prices and, therefore, sustain or increase net cash flows.
|Mar 23, 2018||DASC-30P (DASC-111P)|
|Income Over Feed Costs in the Dairy Enterprise||
Typically, feed costs are directly related to milk production, so the more you feed, the more you produce. However, milk production is not necessarily related to profitability. Production-oriented management, which focuses on maximizing outputs (i.e., milk yield) through increased utilization of inputs (i.e., feed), does not necessarily ensure the dairy business will be profitable.
|Sep 10, 2015||DASC-51P|
|Aseptic Technique for Milk Sampling and Teat Infusions||Apr 8, 2016||DASC-61P|
|Bacillus spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 11, 2016||DASC-62P|
|Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Staphylococcus hyicus: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 11, 2016||DASC-63P|
|Corynebacterium bovis: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 11, 2016||DASC-64P|
|Enterobacter spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis||Apr 12, 2016||DASC-65P|
|Mycoplasma spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 12, 2016||DASC-66P|
|Pasteurella spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 12, 2016||DASC-67P|
|Proteus spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 13, 2016||DASC-68P|
|Prototheca spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 5, 2016||DASC-69P|
|Pseudomonas spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 5, 2016||DASC-70P|
|Trueperella pyogenes: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 15, 2016||DASC-71P|
|Yeast and Molds: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis||Apr 15, 2016||DASC-72P|
|Comparative Nutritional Quality of Winter Crops for Silage||Feb 23, 2017||DASC-93P|
The spotted lanternfly (SLF) originates from China where its presence has been documented in detail dating as far back as the 12th century.
|Jul 26, 2018||ENTO-180NP (ENTO-284NP)|
|Economic Pests of Turfgrass||Jan 31, 2018||ENTO-237NP|
|Varroa Mite Biology and Feeding Damage||Sep 19, 2019||ENTO-331NP|
|Varroa Mite Sampling Methods||Sep 12, 2019||ENTO-332NP|
|Varroa Mite Management Methods||Sep 12, 2019||ENTO-333NP|
|Learning in Families Together: School-Age Children and Bullying||May 8, 2019||FCS-56P|
|Aprendiendo juntos en familia: Los niños en edad escolar y el acoso escolar||
El acoso escolar o intimidación ocurre cuando un niño es el blanco de acciones hirientes una y otra vez por alguien más.
|Apr 1, 2016||FCS-56S (FCS-77S)|
|IMPORTANT FACTS About the Safety of Unpasteurized (Raw) Milk||
The majority of the milk and dairy products sold in the United States are pasteurized, which means they go through a heat process that kills harmful bacteria (e.g., Salmonella, E. coli, Campylobacter, etc.) that can be found in unpasteurized (raw) milk. Pasteurization not only improves the safety of the milk but also lengthens its shelf life.
|Oct 1, 2019||FST-139P (FST-331P)|
|Safe Handling and Storing of Raw Fruits and Vegetables||Aug 29, 2016||FST-234P|
|Ozone Application in Aquaculture||Apr 5, 2017||FST-244P|
|Waterless Shipment of Warm-Water Shrimp||Mar 28, 2017||FST-245P|
|Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding||Jul 5, 2017||420-256 (FST-269P)|
|Fish Slaughter||Jul 25, 2017||FST-276|
|A Guide to the Aquaponics Food Safety Plan Development: Green Aquaponics LLC as a Model||Feb 21, 2019||FST-302P|
|What do I need to know to provide SAMPLES at the farmers market?||Feb 27, 2019||FST-310P|
|What do I need to know to sell MAPLE SYRUP at the farmers market?||Jul 22, 2019||FST-311NP|
|What do I need to know about LABELING my foods for sale?||Feb 27, 2019||FST-312P|
|How is Cold Plasma Used to Process Food?||Apr 24, 2019||FST-314P|
|How Is Pasteurization Used to Process Food?||Jul 22, 2019||FST-315P|
|Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule: Soil Amendments||Jul 17, 2019||FST-316P|
|Packinghouse Best Practices To Support the FSMA Produce Safety Rule||Jul 19, 2019||FST-317P|
|How is Microwave Technology Used to Process Foods?||Nov 4, 2019||FST-324P|
|How is Chlorine Dioxide Gas Used to Process Foods?||Nov 15, 2019||FST-325NP|
|Microbial Quality of Water Used in Potato Packinghouse Operations||Oct 15, 2019||FST-348P|
|Demystifying Agricultural Production Water Testing under the FSMA Produce Safety Rule||Sep 10, 2019||FST-350NP|
|Reduced Oxygen Packaging and Food Safety Concerns in Seafood||Jan 21, 2020||FST-351NP (FST-358NP)|
|Caffeinated Energy Drinks/Energy Shots Among Young Adults||
There are more than 300 energy drink and energy shot products available in the United States, and of these, Red Bull, Monster, Rockstar, 5-Hour Energy, Stacker 2 6-Hour Power, and private labels are the topselling brands. Manufacturers have now shifted their marketing focus from athletes to young adults, and these drinks are being aggressively marketed on college campuses. Thirty-four percent of 18- to 24-year-olds use energy drinks regularly as a means of improving performance, endurance, and alertness before and during exercise; staying awake in demanding situations; and compensating for loss of sleep, especially during exams.
|Dec 9, 2015||HNFE-299P|
|To Soy or Not to Soy: Effects of Soybeans on Breast Cancer, Menopause and Heart Disease||
Originating in China, soybeans have been cultivated for more than 5,000 years. They were introduced to America in the 19th century, and since the 1940s, they have become one of the most important economic crops in this country.
|Mar 29, 2016||HNFE-339P|
|Is a Gluten-Free Diet Healthy for People Without Celiac Disease?||Apr 15, 2016||HNFE-350P|
|Fasting During Ramadan: Nutrition and Health Impacts and Food Safety Recommendations||Sep 26, 2016||HNFE-351P|
|Are Low-Fat or Fat-Free Products Problem-Free?||Nov 17, 2016||HNFE-370P|
|Can Flaxseed Lower Cholesterol Levels?||Oct 13, 2017||HNFE-444P|
|Anti-Diabetic Potentials of Bitter Melon||May 17, 2018||HNFE-512|
|Anti-diabetic Potentials of White Mulberry||Aug 30, 2018||HNFE-518P|
|UNDERSTANDING CANCER: What we know about cervical cancer||Sep 18, 2018||HNFE-521P|
|Advanced Irrigation Management for Container-Grown Ornamental Crop Production||
Container-grown plants are constrained with regard to root growth, and are affected by factors including container size, substrate, weather, nutrition, and irrigation. Typical soilless substrates will hold less plant-available water than a typical field soil, making water management a critical component of any container-grown plant production system. A well-designed and managed irrigation system, which works in concert with the aforementioned factors, can provide the necessary quantity of water to support plant growth in an efficient manner.
|Sep 23, 2016||HORT-218P|
|Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia||
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are of interest among strawberry and vegetable growers in Virginia looking to diversify their crops. Including blackberries in farm plans could allow these growers to keep their farms and pick-your-own activities open to customers for a longer duration, increasing agritourism and sales; however, Virginia growers lack information on blackberry varieties that perform well in the state.
|Oct 7, 2016||HORT-226P|
|GroZone Tracker||Sep 21, 2016||HORT-227P|
|Mixed Infection of Strawberry Mottle Virus and Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge Virus in the Southeastern United States||Oct 25, 2017||HORT-268P|
|Sweetpotato Production and Variety Performance in Southeast Virginia, 2015-2016||May 8, 2018||HORT-282P|
|Low Tunnels in Vegetable Crops: Beyond Season Extension||May 30, 2018||HORT-291P|
|Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom||
Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter? The answer is definitely yes! Many people are familiar with the hourglass-shaped vase filled with water and topped with a hyacinth bulb, or a low bowl filled with several Paper White narcissus, and the popular boxed amaryllis bulb as a welcome winter holiday gift. Most bulbs can be forced but additional planning is required in order to have a successful period of blooms.
|Oct 2, 2019||HORT-76NP|
|Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Showy Flowering Shrubs||
This publication features small, medium, and large flowering shrubs (five of each category) with photos. All photos are by the author. There are at least eight shrubs from each category noted in a table (without photos) at the end of this publication. All shrubs — featured or in the table — are landscape worthy and are especially suited to landscapes in Virginia and the Mid-Atlantic States.
|Aug 19, 2015||HORT-84P|
|Plant Injury From Herbicide Residue||
In recent years, an increased number of cases of injury from herbicide residue in straw/hay, manure, and compost have been diagnosed in the Virginia Tech Plant Disease Clinic. Growers are surprised and dismayed to learn that manure, straw, mulch, or other amendments intended to improve their garden or landscape might have such unforeseen consequences. Of particular concern to organic growers are herbicide residues.
|Aug 22, 2016||PPWS-77P|
|Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 2: Rain Barrels||Jun 25, 2018||SPES-10P|
|Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 3: Permeable Pavement||Jun 25, 2018||SPES-11P|
|Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 4: Grass Swales||Jun 25, 2018||SPES-12P|
|Leaching Fraction: A Tool to Schedule Irrigation for Container-Grown Nursery Crops||Jun 11, 2019||SPES-128P|
|Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 5: Rain Gardens||Jun 26, 2018||SPES-13P|
|Crop Load Management in Commercial Apple Orchards: Chemical Fruit Thinning||May 31, 2019||SPES-134P|
|Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 6: Buffers||Jun 26, 2018||SPES-14P|
|A Survey of Strawberry Production Practices in Virginia||Aug 12, 2019||SPES-150P|
|Mortality of Great Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia||
Since 2015, Extension specialists from Virginia Tech (VT) have visited and collected plant and soil samples from several large areas of dying great rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia’s mountainous regions. In 2016 VT specialists met with Virginia Department of Forestry, US Forest Service personnel, and other experts to revisit some of these sites. No consistent cause of this mortality has yet been identified. It is possible that a variety of factors are stressing the rhododendrons in these areas to a point where opportunistic pathogens or insects can successfully attack and kill them. The following information summarizes our observations and diagnostic results from four separate great rhododendron mortality sites in Virginia. This information is not equivalent to a research study, which would also include samples taken from healthy great rhododendron for comparison; however, we are confident that we have ruled out two diseases that are frequently mentioned both online and anecdotally as a cause of this mortality, specifically Phytophthora root rot and Botryosphaeria dieback.
|Aug 21, 2019||SPES-151P|
|Strategies for Managing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue – A Whole-Farm Approach||Nov 26, 2019||SPES-163P|
|2019 NASS Cropland and Pastureland Rental Rates||Oct 1, 2019||SPES-168NP|
|Control of Common Grassy Weeds in Pastures and Hayfields||
Grassy weeds in pastures and hayfields compete with desired forage species and reduce the productivity of forage systems. Lack of selective herbicides makes grassy weed species, such as Johnsongrass, Japanese stiltgrass, broomsedge, and foxtail species difficult to control. Proper soil fertility, grazing management, and correct timing and placement of herbicide application can effectively control these species.
|Nov 6, 2018||SPES-58P|
|A Spreadsheet-Based Soil Test Converter for Turfgrass Professionals and Nutrient Management Planning in Virginia||Nov 19, 2018||SPES-60|
|Warm-Season Annual Grasses for Summer Forage||Apr 5, 2019||SPES-88P|
|Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Redirection (Disconnection)||Jun 25, 2018||SPES-9P|
|A Spreadsheet-Based Calculator for Lawn Fertilizer and Lime Applications in Virginia||Nov 19, 2018||SPES-40P|