Resources for Enhanced Digital Publications

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Pressure Canning Dec 5, 2019 348-585 (FST-222)
Understanding and Managing Food Allergies Jan 24, 2018 348-940 (FST-283)
Food Storage Guidelines For Consumers Mar 23, 2018 348-960 (FST-286P)
Elaboración de Conservas a Presión
El proceso para envasar alimentos en casa o conservas caseras, depende de la acidez del alimento, lo cual se determina por su pH. Los alimentos de baja acidez tienen un pH más grande que 4.6, y los alimentos de alta acidez tienen un pH menos que 4.6. En general, los vegetales (verduras o hortalizas) y carnes son alimentos de baja acidez, y las frutas son alimentos alta acidez. Los alimentos de alta acidez pueden procesarse de manera segura por agua hirviendo, pero los alimentos de baja acidez se deben procesar en una olla a presión para conservas.
Sep 1, 2021 348-585S (FST-233P)
The Impact of a 4-H Youth Development Program on the Future College/Career Aspirations of Youth Ages 14-19 Feb 28, 2018 380-023 (4H-777)
Teen Leadership and Development Fact Sheets: Preparing Teens for Opportunities Beyond the Local Level
Virginia 4-H offers a wide variety of opportunities beyond the local level that enable teens to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and aspirations needed for success. However, before we involve teens in opportunities such as State 4-H Cabinet, State 4-H Congress, Virginia 4-H All Stars, Citizenship Washington Focus, National 4-H Congress, and National 4-H Conference, we — as 4-H professionals — must be sure the teens are adequately prepared for such ventures. This fact sheet provides tips on how to prepare your teens for district, state, national, and international 4-H opportunities.
Feb 14, 2020 4H-283P (4H-880P)
Teen Leadership and Development Fact Sheets: Working Effectively With Teen Volunteers Oct 2, 2020 4H-510P
4-H Animal Science Financial Record Keeping Lessons
This is the first in a series of six lessons that focus on 4-H livestock financial record keeping. It discusses the importance of matching your livestock project animal with your farm’s facilities. This activity will help members learn to set and achieve goals in their animal projects. The discussion about the factors to consider and the questions to ask themselves will help members answer the questions in the project planning section of the record book.
Feb 22, 2022 4H-540P
The Value of Teen Leadership: Quick Guide Jul 19, 2018 4H-785P
The Value of Teen Leadership Jul 19, 2018 4H-786P
Sod Source Selection, Installation, Maintenance, and Producers in Virginia
While high-quality sod is available outside of the VCIA-certified sod program, the consumer is encouraged to be aware of factors that are important in determining sod quality. Quality sod contains excellent turf varieties with good sod strength (i.e., easy to handle for both harvest and installation) and has no serious insect, weed, or disease problems.
Feb 3, 2021 418-040 (CSES-151P)
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer Aug 30, 2019 418-142
Managing Wildlife Damage: Snakes Nov 7, 2019 420-021 (CNRE-56P)
Learning to Live with Coyotes in Metropolitan Areas Nov 7, 2019 420-050 (CNRE-57P)
An Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia
Each year many landowners in Virginia consider Christmas tree farming as an alternative enterprise for their unused open land. The number of growers in the Commonwealth is increasing steadily, and currently Virginia ranks eighth in the nation in Christmas tree production, with about 1.8 million trees harvested in 1990.
Mar 11, 2021 420-080 (CNRE-131P)
Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners
As a private woodland owner, you are a vital link in the sustainability of Virginia’s forest resources. Your land provides many benefits to all Virginians, including wood products, wildlife habitat, clean air and water, and recreational opportunities.
Feb 3, 2016 420-139 (ANR-157P)
Invasive Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)
Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise- tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.
Jan 8, 2021 420-322 (CNRE-128NP)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)
Several species of Asian honeysuckle have been introduced in the United States for their ornamental and wildlife values. Honeysuckle is perhaps the most widespread exotic invasive in the U.S., now found in at least 38 states. The Asian honeysuckle produces abundant seeds which are dispersed by birds and other wildlife. It also spreads by sprouting from its roots. Because it tolerates shade from other plants, it grows in forest understories.
Apr 1, 2020 420-323 (CNRE-95P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - What Is Aquatic Biodiversity; Why Is it Important?
Aquatic biodiversity is the rich and wonderful variety of plants and animals—from crayfish to catfish, from mussels to mayflies, from tadpoles to trout—that live in watery habitats. It is the number of different native species, or species richness.
Dec 18, 2019 420-520 (CNRE-77P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Why Is Aquatic Biodiversity Declining?
When a species goes extinct, all the genetic information carried by individuals of that species is lost forever, never to be reproduced again. Extinction is a terrible waste of life and a loss of potential solutions to future problems such as possible cures to disease and solutions for survival in a changing world.
Jan 7, 2020 420-521 (CNRE-78P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Aquatic Habitats: Homes for Aquatic Animals
Natural aquatic habitats include ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, springs, estuaries, bays, and various types of wetlands. Some of these habitats are shallow and others deep, some are cold-water and others warm-water, some are freshwater and others saltwater, and some have high oxygen levels and others little oxygen.
Feb 11, 2020 420-522 (CNRE-79P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation
Nearly 300 species of mussels inhabit freshwater rivers, streams, and lakes in the United States. This is the richest diversity of mussels found in the world and an extraordinary natural heritage that needs protection. Because of the lustrous, pearl-like interior of the shells, some of these pearly mussels have important commercial value in the cultured pearl and jewelry industry.
Jan 7, 2020 420-523 (CNRE-80P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Fish Biodiversity and Conservation
Nearly 800 native fish species in 36 families inhabit the freshwater rivers, streams, and lakes of the United States and Canada. North America has the most diverse temperate freshwater fish fauna in the world.
Feb 11, 2020 420-525 (CNRE-83P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Selected Freshwater Fish Families
This is the largest and most ecologically diverse family of freshwater fishes in the world. Minnows are exclusively freshwater, although some species stray into brackish, tidal waters. Over 290 species of minnows occur in North America.
Feb 12, 2020 420-526 (CNRE-90P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Frog Biodiversity and Conservation
Frogs can be found in all landscapes, from deep under the water to high in trees. There are more than 100 species of frogs in the United States, and many of these are of conservation concern. This publication describes frog biology, diversity, and conservation issues.
Feb 12, 2020 420-527 (CNRE-87P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Salamander Biodiversity and Conservation
Of the more than 700 species of salamanders found worldwide, more than 200 live in North America, and over 40 percent of these are considered to be at risk. Although these secretive creatures are unknown to many people, they are important parts of our natural world and in serious need of our protection. This publication describes salamander biology and conservation concerns.
Feb 12, 2020 420-528 (CNRE-88P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Snail Biodiversity and Conservation
Six hundred fifty different species of snails are widely distributed across the streams, rivers, and lakes of North America. There are unique species associated with every type of aquatic habitat from the Canadian Arctic to the Everglades of Florida.
Nov 5, 2019 420-530 (CNRE-76P)
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation
The diversity of insects can only be described as amazing. More than half of all known species of living things (microbes, plants, and animals) are insects.
Dec 17, 2019 420-531 (CNRE-81P)
Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates Aug 30, 2019 424-035
Plant Propagation from Seed Oct 11, 2019 426-001
Propagation by Cuttings, Layering and Division Oct 11, 2019 426-002
What Is a Watershed? Aug 29, 2018 426-041 (SPES-2P)
Rain Garden Plants
A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water as it seeps into the ground and evaporates back into the atmosphere. For a rain garden to work, plants must be selected, installed, and maintained properly.
Dec 21, 2018 426-043 (SPES-57P)
Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration
Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment — an important part of the natural water cycle (VADEQ 2010).
Jun 2, 2020 426-046(HORT-160P)
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be! May 9, 2018 426-109 (HORT-292P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Disconnection Dec 4, 2019 426-120 (BSE-269P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 2: Sheet Flow to Open Space
Sheet flow to open space (SOS) is a group of best management practices (BMPs) designed to disperse concentrated runoff to sheet flow into filter strips or a riparian buffer. An SOS reduces runoff volume and associated sediment and nutrients that are carried with it (see figure 1). It is used as a stormwater treatment practice in both urban and rural areas. This practice is often used after another treatment practice to disperse or eliminate runoff. In a few cases, an SOS can be used as a pretreatment to remove small amounts of sediment via a vegetated filter strip — prior to a bioretention device, for example.
Dec 4, 2019 426-121 (BSE-270P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 3: Grass Channels Dec 11, 2019 426-122 (BSE-271P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 4: Soil Restoration
Soil restoration (SR) is the technique of enhancing compacted soils to improve their porosity and nutrient retention. It includes biological (worms) and mechanical aeration, mechanical loosening (tilling), planting dense vegetation, and applying soil amendments. Soil amendments involve the spreading and mixing of mature compost into disturbed and compacted urban soils (see Figure 1).
Dec 11, 2019 426-123 (BSE-272P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 5: Vegetated Roofs
A vegetated roof (VR) is a best management practice (BMP) that reduces stormwater runoff and pollution. Vegetation and media create a permeable system on a previously impervious surface. The VR intercepts rainfall and filters runoff while reducing the volume and velocity. Vegetated roofs consist of a waterproofing barrier, drainage system, and engineered growing media. There are two types of VRs: intensive and extensive. Intensive vegetated roofs are deeper and heavier, while extensive vegetated roofs are shallower, lighter, and more common (see Figure 1). The type of VR determines the amount of maintenance necessary to maintain the vegetation.
Dec 11, 2019 426-124 (BSE-273P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 6: Rainwater Harvesting
Rainwater harvesting (RWH), also known as rainwater harvesting systems or cisterns, are devices that intercept, divert, store, and release collected roof runoff from rainfall for later use as an alternative water supply (see figure 1). RWH can also be designed to provide runoff reduction benefits. Therefore, it is classified as a best management practice (BMP) for treatment of urban stormwater. Because of its dual purpose and benefit, RWH is often classified as a sustainable urban BMP.
Dec 11, 2019 426-125 (BSE-274P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 7: Permeable Pavement
Permeable pavement (PP) is a modified form of asphalt or concrete with a top layer that is pervious to water due to voids intentionally created during mixing. PPs include pervious concrete, porous asphalt, and interlocking concrete pavers. These materials are used as stormwater treatment practices in urban areas. They are used in place of traditionally impervious surfaces to allow infiltration and storage, thus reducing runoff (see figure 1).
Jan 22, 2020 426-126 (BSE-275P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 8: Infiltration Practices
Infiltration practices provide temporary surface and/or subsurface storage, allowing infiltration of runoff into soils. In practice, an excavated trench is usually filled with gravel or stone media, where runoff is stored in pore spaces or voids between the stones (see figure 1). These systems can reduce significant quantities of stormwater by enhancing infiltration, as well as provide filtering and adsorption of pollutants within the stone media and soils. Infiltration practices are part of a group of stormwater treatment practices, also known as best management practices (BMPs)
Dec 4, 2019 426-127 (BSE-276P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 13: Constructed Wetlands
Constructed wetlands are a series of ponds with varying depths that treat stormwater using wetland processes. In terms of biological activity, wetlands are extremely productive; and thus constructed wetlands can provide significant water quality treatment to urban runoff. This fact sheet describes these benefits, and provides guidance on their design and limitations.
Jan 22, 2020 426-132 (BSE-281P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 14: Wet Ponds
Wet ponds are ponds designed to retain water through storage. They provide treatment through settling and biological uptake. They can also attenuate peak flows and provide flood and streambank protection. This fact sheet describes wet ponds and their benefits and limitations.
Jan 22, 2020 426-133 (BSE-282)
Virginia’s Home Garden Vegetable Planting Guide: Recommended Planting Dates and Amounts to Plant Jan 21, 2020 426-331 (SPES-170P)
Tomatoes
Tomatoes are valuable garden plants in that they require relatively little space for large production. Each standard tomato plant, properly cared for, yields 10 to 15 pounds or more of fruit.Diane Relf, Retired Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Alan McDaniel, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Ronald Morse, Former Associate Professor, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Reviewed by John Freeborn, Assistant Master Gardener Coordinator, Horticulture, Virginia Tech
May 5, 2021 426-418 (HORT-288P)
Herb Culture and Use Oct 11, 2019 426-420
Selecting Landscape Plants: Boxwoods Mar 23, 2018 426-603 (HORT-290P)
Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Gardens Sep 12, 2019 426-708 (ENTO-330NP)
Fertilización del Césped en Virginia Jan 20, 2017 430-011s (CSES-166P)
Fertilizing Landscape Trees and Shrubs
Maintenance programs should be developed for trees and shrubs in both residential and commercial landscapes. A good maintenance program includes monitoring and controlling insect and disease problems, suppressing weed competition, and making timely applications of water, mulch, and fertilizer. Tree and shrub fertilization is especially important in urban and suburban areas of Virginia where soils have been altered due to construction. These urban soils tend to be heavily compacted, poorly aerated, poorly drained, and low in organic matter. Even where soils have not been affected, fertilization may be needed as part of a maintenance program to increase plant vigor or to improve root or top growth.
Jul 12, 2021 430-018 (HORT-120P)
Fertilización de árboles y arbustos
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
Jul 12, 2021 430-018S (SPES-338P)
Dealing with the High Cost of Energy for Greenhouse Operations Mar 16, 2018 430-101 (HORT-284P)
Using Plant Growth Regulators on Containerized Herbaceous Perennials Mar 22, 2018 430-103 (HORT-281)
Fall Lawn Care
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
Jul 20, 2020 430-520(SPES-223P)
Droplet Chart / Selection Guide
When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.
Aug 13, 2019 442-031 (BSE-263P)
Nozzles: Selection and Sizing
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
Aug 13, 2019 442-032 (BSE-262P)
Using Tractor Test Data for Selecting Farm Tractors
The test reports published by Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory (NTTL) can be extremely useful for selecting tractors or for comparing the performance of different makes and models of tractors. For example, when farmers are in the market for a tractor, the performance data in the NTTL reports can be used to select a tractor that will meet their needs. These reports can also serve as an effective tool for making tractor sales. Dealership personnel can use the performance data to compare their products to those of their competitors.
May 26, 2020 442-072 (BSE-329P)
Compost Bedded-pack Dairy Barns May 16, 2018 442-124 (BSE-228P)
Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans Aug 30, 2019 442-310
Respiratory Protection in Agriculture
Farm workers can encounter a variety of respiratory problems ranging from temporary discomfort caused by allergic reactions to fatal asphyxiation. However, the risk of contracting serious lung diseases or death can be significantly decreased by using respiratory protection (fig. 1). See the sidebar for a list of farm work that requires respiratory protection.
Feb 28, 2020 442-601 (BSE-286P)
Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness
Farmers account for more than 30 percent of adults dis- abled by respiratory illness. Yet, a large percentage of farmers are nonsmokers. If smoking is not to blame for these ailments, then what is? The answer is farmer’s lung.
Feb 28, 2020 442-602 (BSE-287P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Iron and Manganese in Household Water Feb 25, 2020 442-656 (BSE-285P)
Filtration, Treatment, and Maintenance Considerations for Micro-Irrigation Systems May 8, 2018 442-757 (BSE-222P)
Biodiesel Fuel
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be made from vegetable oil, animal fat, and recycled cooking oils. Oils produced from algae, fungi, bacteria, molds, and yeast can also be used to produce biodiesel.
Jan 7, 2021 442-880 (BSE-336P)
Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA) Dec 9, 2019 444-284 (ENTO-342P)
The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory
The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.
Nov 22, 2019 444-351(ENTO-340P)
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
Jun 27, 2022 450-236 (PPWS-69P)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
Jun 29, 2022 450-237 (PPWS-70P)
Juniper Tip Blights Mar 30, 2017 450-601 (PPWS-91 NP)
Brown Rot on Peach and Other Stone Fruits
Brown rot is one of the most destructive diseases of peach and nectarine in Virginia, and also occurs on other stone fruits such as apricot, cherry, and plum. When environmental conditions favor this disease, crop loss can be devastating.
Mar 18, 2020 450-721 (SPES-24P)
Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback of Trees and Shrubs in the Landscape
Most trees and shrubs are susceptible to dieback and cankers caused by several species of the fungal genus Botryosphaeria. Botryosphaeria fungi are typically opportunistic pathogens. Opportunistic pathogens only cause disease on plants that are stressed. Therefore, avoiding plant stress, which predisposes plant tissue to infection and colonization by this fungal group, is the best strategy to prevent Botryosphaeria disease problems.
Mar 18, 2020 450-726 (SPES-23P)
Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose.
Aug 29, 2018 452-014 (SPES-1)
Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener
This publication explains how to obtain representative soil samples and to submit them for analysis to the Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory.
Feb 6, 2020 452-129 (SPES-176P)
Sources of Lime for Acid Soils in Virginia
Acid soil limits crop yields on many Virginia farms. This soil acidity can be directly toxic to plants, but more often it reduces the plants' efficiency at nutrient utilization.
Aug 9, 2019 452-510 (SPES-158P)
Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
Sep 9, 2019 452-702 (CSES-100P)
Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures Aug 30, 2019 452-705
Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report) Oct 11, 2019 452-719
Forests of Virginia: Importance, Composition, Ecology, Threats, and Management Mar 4, 2016 465-315 (ANR-163P)
To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question
The economic and ecological considerations of clear cutting wooded acreage.
Mar 2, 2022 465-340 (CNRE-139P)
Intensive Marine Finfish Larviculture
Marine finfish production is a rapidly expanding field, both in research and industrial aquaculture. A driving force behind this growth is the inherently high value placed upon marine finfish products in the marketplace.
Feb 7, 2020 600-050 (CNRE-84P)
Rotifer Production (as a First Feed Item) for Intensive Finfish Larviculture Aug 30, 2019 600-105 (CNRE-61P)
Artemia Culture for Intensive Finfish and Crustacean Larviculture Aug 21, 2019 600-106 (CNRE-60P)
Becoming a Certified Organic Producer in Virginia May 14, 2019 AAEC-168P
Produce Safety, Perceived Risk, and Consumer Choice Jul 15, 2019 AAEC-187P
Production and Economic Considerations for Fresh Market Edamame in Southwest Virginia Jul 15, 2019 AAEC-188P
Edamame: Costs, Revenues, and Profitability Jul 15, 2019 AAEC-189P
Grain and Soybean Production and Storage in Virginia: A Summary and Spatial Examination
Grain and soybean production is a critical component of Virginia agriculture — the state’s No. 1 industry (VDACS 2013). Virginia’s farmers produced more than half a billion bushels of grain and soybeans over the span of 2006 to 2012 (USDA-NASS 2013b)1. The objectives of this publication are to characterize the market for grain production and storage in Virginia.
Sep 26, 2019 AAEC-60P
An Evaluation of Program, Training, and Resource Needs of Virginia Beginning Farmers and Ranchers: Virginia Beginning Farmer and Rancher Coalition Program
With funding from the USDA Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program in fall 2010, the Virginia Beginning Farmer and Rancher Coalition Program aims to meet the expressed needs of Virginia’s beginning farmers and support the development of social networks through which they can gain vital skills, information, technical assistance, and business capacity for long-term agricultural viability (see www.vabeginningfarmer.org).
Oct 4, 2019 AEE-81P
Understanding and Developing an Agribusiness Dec 20, 2018 ALCE-176P
All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot
Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.
Sep 12, 2019 ANR-132NP (CNRE-70NP)
Thinning Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot
Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.
Sep 12, 2019 ANR-133NP (CNRE-69NP)
Welcome to the Woods! A Guide for New Virginia Woodland Owners
We all depend on and benefit from the woods every day, whether we know it or not. The trees, shrubs, plants, animals, and soil that make up your woods provide you, your neighbors, and your region with a host of environmental, social, and economic benefits.
Jul 16, 2020 ANR-136P(CNRE-110P)
Commercial Chinese Chestnut Production in Virginia Sep 21, 2017 ANR-279P
One-Year Health, Mortality, and Growth in Southeast Virginia of Shortleaf Pine From Three Sources
Restoration of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) in Virginia has become a priority of various state and federal agencies. For shortleaf pine restoration to be successful in Virginia, private lands must be considered because 89 percent of forestland in Virginia is privately owned, and most private landowners are likely to use commercially available seedling sources. Shortleaf seedlings from commercially available sources in Virginia, Arkansas, and Missouri were planted in two sites in Southeast Virginia to test growth and yield. After one year, height and ground-line diameter were measured and observations were made on health and mortality of the plants. The Virginia seed source was significantly taller than the Arkansas source. At the first site, mortality and disease were low, but at the second site, mortality and poor health were very high, possibly due to soils combined with weather conditions. No significant seed source effects on disease and mortality were found at either site.
Oct 25, 2018 ANR-28P (CNRE-28P)
Lean at Hardwood Lumber Inc. Jun 27, 2022 ANR-226
Transitioning Beef Cattle to a Defined Breeding and Calving Season Jun 25, 2018 APSC-145P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part I. Biology of Reproduction Nov 4, 2019 APSC-157P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants Part II: Puberty and Estrous Cycles Feb 14, 2020 APSC-158P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants Part III. Breeding and Management Systems Mar 11, 2021 APSC-159P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants Part IV: Breed/Selection Mar 10, 2021 APSC-160P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part V. Nutrition and Health Dec 3, 2019 APSC-164P
Enhancing Reproductive Performance in Small Ruminants: Part VI. Reproductive Management Techniques Dec 3, 2019 APSC-165P
Using Fecal Egg Counts On Your Farm Sep 17, 2019 APSC-166NP
Castration in the U.S. Swine Industry: Animal Welfare Implications and Alternatives Dec 11, 2020 APSC-174P
The Importance of Temperament and Acclimation to Handling on Beef Cattle Production Jul 14, 2021 APSC-175P
Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-115NP (AREC-250NP)
Safe and Nutritious Seafood in Virginia
Consumers enjoy eating a variety of seafood and can find many choices of fresh as well as frozen seafood in the refrigerated and freezer cases of grocery stores.Abigail Villalba, Extension Specialist, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center Michael Jahncke, Professor, Food Science and Technology, and Director, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center Michael Schwarz, Extension Specialist, Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center David Kuhn, Assistant Professor, Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech Alisha Farris, Extension Specialist, Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech
May 6, 2021 AREC-156P
Southwest Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-179NP (AREC-248NP)
Reynolds Homestead Forestry Resources Research Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-74NP (AREC-253NP)
Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oct 23, 2019 AREC-77NP (AREC-251NP)
Soil and Soil Water Relationships
This publication presents and discusses concepts that are fundamental to understanding soil, water, and plant relationships and the soil water balance. Knowledge about soil water relationships can inform the decision-making process in agricultural operations or natural resource management, such as determining what crops to plant, when to plant them, and when various management practices should be scheduled. Understanding these concepts is useful for addressing both agronomic and policy issues related to agricultural water management.Zachary M. Easton, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech Emily Bock, Graduate Research Assistant, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
Mar 1, 2021 BSE-194P
Factors When Considering an Agricultural Drainage System Jun 7, 2022 BSE-208P (BSE-343P)
Using Groundwater for Agricultural Irrigation in Virginia Dec 1, 2017 BSE-215P
Managing Climate Risks and Extreme Weather in Agriculture Jun 14, 2018 BSE-226P
Managing Drainage From Agricultural Lands with Denitrifying Bioreactors in the Mid-Atlantic Nov 5, 2018 BSE-234P
Estimating Financial Costs and Benefits of Supplemental Irrigation with the Irrigation Financial Estimator Tool (IFET) Nov 30, 2018 BSE-237P
Irrigation Scheduling in Humid Climates Using the Checkbook Method Jan 30, 2019 BSE-239P
Soil Moisture Sensors for Agricultural Irrigation: An Overview on Sensor Types Jul 21, 2021 BSE-338P
Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
Aug 21, 2019 BSE-49P (BSE-264P)
Denitrification Management Mar 27, 2018 BSE-54P (BSE-223P)
The Socrates Project - Poisonous Plants in Virginia Jun 29, 2018 CNRE-13NP (CNRE-21NP)
Analysis of Financial Statements Using Ratios May 10, 2019 CNRE-43P
Virginia Master Naturalist Basic Training Course: Ichthyology Oct 8, 2019 CNRE-73P
Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Soil
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on measuring water movement through in situ saturated soil (saturated hydraulic conductivity, or Ksat) as it relates to dispersal and treatment of on-site sewage (wastewater) through an on-site wastewater dispersal area
Mar 22, 2016 CSES-141P (CSES-164P)
Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes May 6, 2021 CSES-146P
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
Apr 20, 2021 CSES-155P
Understanding the Texture of Your Soil for Agricultural Productivity Jul 20, 2016 CSES-162P
Soil Judging in Virginia Jan 25, 2018 CSES-183
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Planting Trees in Pastures Dec 11, 2017 CSES-185P
Predicting Soybean Reproductive Stages in Virginia Oct 7, 2017 CSES-197P
Internationalizing the Land Grant Mission: Lessons from Senegal Mar 20, 2018 CSES-207P
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems Mar 27, 2018 CSES-22P (SPES-5P)
Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
Feb 21, 2020 CSES-98P(SPES-178P)
A Decision-Making Tool to Determine the Feasibility of Purchasing Virginia Milk Commission Base
Dairy farmers are usually subject to net income fluctuations due to volatility in both milk and feed prices. Risk management tools, such as hedging milk prices in the futures market, may be used to protect dairy farmers against milk price volatility. Alternatively, dairy farmers selling milk in Virginia can buy Virginia milk commission base (MCB) to obtain higher milk prices and, therefore, sustain or increase net cash flows.
Mar 23, 2018 DASC-30P (DASC-111P)
Income Over Feed Costs in the Dairy Enterprise
Typically, feed costs are directly related to milk production, so the more you feed, the more you produce. However, milk production is not necessarily related to profitability. Production-oriented management, which focuses on maximizing outputs (i.e., milk yield) through increased utilization of inputs (i.e., feed), does not necessarily ensure the dairy business will be profitable.
Sep 1, 2020 DASC-51P
Aseptic Technique for Milk Sampling and Teat Infusions Apr 8, 2016 DASC-61P
Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Staphylococcus hyicus: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 11, 2016 DASC-63P
Pasteurella spp.: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis Apr 12, 2016 DASC-67P
Comparative Nutritional Quality of Winter Crops for Silage Feb 7, 2022 DASC-93P
Spotted Lanternfly
The spotted lanternfly (SLF) originates from China where its presence has been documented in detail dating as far back as the 12th century.
Jul 26, 2018 ENTO-180NP (ENTO-284NP)
Economic Pests of Turfgrass Jan 31, 2018 ENTO-237NP
Varroa Mite Biology and Feeding Damage Sep 19, 2019 ENTO-331NP
Varroa Mite Sampling Methods Sep 12, 2019 ENTO-332NP
Varroa Mite Management Methods Sep 12, 2019 ENTO-333NP
Sugarcane Aphid in Virginia Sorghum Sep 12, 2019 ENTO-334NP
Small Hive Beetle Oct 22, 2019 ENTO-338NP
Learning in Families Together: School-Age Children and Bullying Apr 6, 2021 FCS-56P
Aprendiendo juntos en familia: Los niños en edad escolar y el acoso escolar
El acoso escolar o intimidación ocurre cuando un niño es el blanco de acciones hirientes una y otra vez por alguien más.
Apr 6, 2021 FCS-56S (FCS-77S)
IMPORTANT FACTS About the Safety of Unpasteurized (Raw) Milk
The majority of the milk and dairy products sold in the United States are pasteurized, which means they go through a heat process that kills harmful bacteria (e.g., Salmonella, E. coli, Campylobacter, etc.) that can be found in unpasteurized (raw) milk. Pasteurization not only improves the safety of the milk but also lengthens its shelf life.
Oct 1, 2019 FST-139P (FST-331P)
Safe Handling and Storing of Raw Fruits and Vegetables Aug 20, 2021 FST-234P
Ozone Application in Aquaculture Apr 5, 2017 FST-244P
Waterless Shipment of Warm-Water Shrimp Aug 29, 2022 FST-245P
Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding Jul 5, 2017 420-256 (FST-269P)
Fish Slaughter Jul 25, 2017 FST-276
A Guide to the Aquaponics Food Safety Plan Development: Green Aquaponics LLC as a Model Feb 21, 2019 FST-302P
What do I need to know to provide SAMPLES at the farmers market? Feb 27, 2019 FST-310P
What do I need to know to sell MAPLE SYRUP at the farmers market? Jul 22, 2019 FST-311NP
What do I need to know about LABELING my foods for sale? Feb 27, 2019 FST-312P
How is Cold Plasma Used to Process Food? Apr 24, 2019 FST-314P
How Is Pasteurization Used to Process Food? Jul 22, 2019 FST-315P
Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule: Soil Amendments Jul 17, 2019 FST-316P
Packinghouse Best Practices To Support the FSMA Produce Safety Rule Jul 19, 2019 FST-317P
What do I need to know to sell ACIDIFIED FOODS at the farmers market? Sep 24, 2019 FST-321NP
What do I need to know to sell PET FOODS or PET TREATS at the farmers market? Jul 1, 2020 FST-322NP (FST-366P)
How is Microwave Technology Used to Process Foods? Nov 4, 2019 FST-324P
How is Chlorine Dioxide Gas Used to Process Foods? Nov 15, 2019 FST-325NP
Why are Foods Processed? Jan 22, 2020 FST-326P
Microbial Quality of Water Used in Potato Packinghouse Operations Oct 15, 2019 FST-348P
Demystifying Agricultural Production Water Testing under the FSMA Produce Safety Rule Sep 10, 2019 FST-350NP
Reduced Oxygen Packaging and Food Safety Concerns in Seafood Jan 21, 2020 FST-351NP (FST-358NP)
Fasting During Ramadan: Nutrition and Health Impacts and Food Safety Recommendations Mar 18, 2022 HNFE-351P
Are Low-Fat or Fat-Free Products Problem-Free? Nov 17, 2016 HNFE-370P
Can Flaxseed Lower Cholesterol Levels? Oct 13, 2017 HNFE-444P
Anti-Diabetic Potentials of Bitter Melon May 17, 2018 HNFE-512
Anti-diabetic Potentials of White Mulberry Aug 30, 2018 HNFE-518P
UNDERSTANDING CANCER: What we know about cervical cancer Sep 18, 2018 HNFE-521P
Mixed Infection of Strawberry Mottle Virus and Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge Virus in the Southeastern United States Oct 25, 2017 HORT-268P
Sweetpotato Production and Variety Performance in Southeast Virginia, 2015-2016 May 8, 2018 HORT-282P
Low Tunnels in Vegetable Crops: Beyond Season Extension May 30, 2018 HORT-291P
Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom
Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter? The answer is definitely yes! Many people are familiar with the hourglass-shaped vase filled with water and topped with a hyacinth bulb, or a low bowl filled with several Paper White narcissus, and the popular boxed amaryllis bulb as a welcome winter holiday gift. Most bulbs can be forced but additional planning is required in order to have a successful period of blooms.
Oct 2, 2019 HORT-76NP
Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Showy Flowering Shrubs
This publication features small, medium, and large flowering shrubs (five of each category) with photos. All photos are by the author. There are at least eight shrubs from each category noted in a table (without photos) at the end of this publication. All shrubs — featured or in the table — are landscape worthy and are especially suited to landscapes in Virginia and the Mid-Atlantic States.
Jul 30, 2020 HORT-84P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 2: Rain Barrels Jun 25, 2018 SPES-10P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 3: Permeable Pavement Jun 25, 2018 SPES-11P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 4: Grass Swales Jun 25, 2018 SPES-12P
Leaching Fraction: A Tool to Schedule Irrigation for Container-Grown Nursery Crops Jun 11, 2019 SPES-128P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 5: Rain Gardens Jun 26, 2018 SPES-13P
Crop Load Management in Commercial Apple Orchards: Chemical Fruit Thinning May 31, 2019 SPES-134P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 6: Buffers Jun 26, 2018 SPES-14P
A Survey of Strawberry Production Practices in Virginia Aug 12, 2019 SPES-150P
Mortality of Great Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia
Since 2015, Extension specialists from Virginia Tech (VT) have visited and collected plant and soil samples from several large areas of dying great rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Virginia’s mountainous regions. In 2016 VT specialists met with Virginia Department of Forestry, US Forest Service personnel, and other experts to revisit some of these sites. No consistent cause of this mortality has yet been identified. It is possible that a variety of factors are stressing the rhododendrons in these areas to a point where opportunistic pathogens or insects can successfully attack and kill them. The following information summarizes our observations and diagnostic results from four separate great rhododendron mortality sites in Virginia. This information is not equivalent to a research study, which would also include samples taken from healthy great rhododendron for comparison; however, we are confident that we have ruled out two diseases that are frequently mentioned both online and anecdotally as a cause of this mortality, specifically Phytophthora root rot and Botryosphaeria dieback.
Aug 21, 2019 SPES-151P
Strategies for Managing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue – A Whole-Farm Approach Nov 26, 2019 SPES-163P
Sampling Tall Fescue for Endophyte Infection and Ergot Alkaloid Concentration Oct 19, 2018 SPES-21P
Strawberry Variety Evaluation, Opportunities, and Challenges of High Tunnel Production Feb 9, 2021 SPES-273P
Does Land Application of Biosolids Pose Health Concerns for Grazing Livestock? Aug 3, 2021 SPES-318P
Control of Common Grassy Weeds in Pastures and Hayfields
Grassy weeds in pastures and hayfields compete with desired forage species and reduce the productivity of forage systems. Lack of selective herbicides makes grassy weed species, such as Johnsongrass, Japanese stiltgrass, broomsedge, and foxtail species difficult to control. Proper soil fertility, grazing management, and correct timing and placement of herbicide application can effectively control these species.
Nov 6, 2018 SPES-58P
A Spreadsheet-Based Soil Test Converter for Turfgrass Professionals and Nutrient Management Planning in Virginia Nov 19, 2018 SPES-60
Warm-Season Annual Grasses for Summer Forage Apr 5, 2019 SPES-88P
Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Redirection (Disconnection) Jun 25, 2018 SPES-9P
Irrigation Considerations for Commercial Hop Producers Mar 7, 2019 SPES-95P
A Spreadsheet-Based Calculator for Lawn Fertilizer and Lime Applications in Virginia Nov 19, 2018 SPES-40P
No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes May 6, 2019 SPES-92P