Authors as Published

Alex X. Niemiera, Professor, School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech

This publication is available in a PDF file format only.

American hornbeam, also called blue beech, musclewood, water beech, and ironwood, is a small to medium tree. In its youth, and even sometimes at maturity, this species tends be multi-trunked and densely branched. It also tends to develop major branches near ground level which can be a desirable or undesirable characteristic depending on how this species is intended to be used in the landscape. Unpruned trees have a more “natural” appearance (less symmetrical, more dense, less kempt). In contrast, pruned trees have a more symmetrical, less dense, and kempt appearance. In native haunts, American hornbeam is found near streams or other wet areas, thus it can tolerate moist soils; it is moderately drought tolerant. 

Virginia Cooperative Extension materials are available for public use, reprint, or citation without further permission, provided the use includes credit to the author and to Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University.

Virginia Cooperative Extension is a partnership of Virginia Tech, Virginia State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments. Its programs and employment are open to all, regardless of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, gender expression, national origin, political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, military status, or any other basis protected by law.

Publication Date

October 4, 2018