ID

420-522 (CNRE-79P)

Authors as Published

Authored by Louis A. Helfrich, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Tech, and James Parkhurst, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Tech

This publication is available in an enhanced digital version and PDF.

Natural aquatic habitats include ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, springs, estuaries, bays, and various types of wetlands. Some of these habitats are shallow and others deep, some are cold-water and others warm-water, some are freshwater and others saltwater, and some have high oxygen levels and others little oxygen.


Virginia Cooperative Extension materials are available for public use, reprint, or citation without further permission, provided the use includes credit to the author and to Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Edwin J. Jones, Director, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg; M. Ray McKinnie, Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State University, Petersburg.

Publication Date

February 11, 2020