|2013 Insect Pest Management In Virginia Cotton, Peanut, Soybean, and Sorghum||Dec 10, 2013||AREC-61NP|
|2014 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton and Peanut||Feb 9, 2015||ENTO-109NP|
|A Summary of Recent Pesticide Registrations and Other Updates (Extracted from the Virginia Crop Pest Advisory Newsletter)||
The EPA has granted a Section 18 registration again this year for Topsin M WSB fungicide manufactured by Cerexagri, Inc. for the control of white mold or timber rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in tomato.
|Aug 10, 2009||2906-1373|
|Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control||
Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-018|
|Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010||
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010. If not noted otherwise in the individual reports, all research was conducted at the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Painter, VA and at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Virginia Beach, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices. Soil type at the ESAREC is a Bojac Sandy Loam. Soil type at the HRAREC is tetotum loam (average pH: 5.7). Most of the research involves field evaluations of federally‐labeled and experimental insecticides. Much of the information presented herein will be published in a similar format in Arthropod Management Tests: 2011, vol. 36 (Entomological Society of America). We hope that this information will be of value to those interested in insect pest management on vegetable crops, and we wish to make the information accessible. All information, however, is for informational purposes only. Because most of the data from the studies are based on a single season’s environmental conditions, it is requested that the data not be published, reproduced, or otherwise taken out of context without the permission of the authors. The authors neither endorse any of the products in these reports nor discriminate against others. Additionally, some of the products evaluated are not commercially available and/or not labeled for use on the crop(s) in which they were used.
|Feb 22, 2011||3102-1532|
|Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2011||Feb 1, 2012||ENTO-1|
|Asian Needle Ant||Jan 7, 2013||ENTO-29NP|
|Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn||
Species: Maladera castanea (Arrow)
Size: The adult beetle is 5/16 to 7/16 of an inch long (slightly smaller than a Japanese beetle adult). A fully developed grub (third instar) measures about 3/4 inch long
Color: The adult is chestnut brown or reddish brown in color and faintly iridescent (Fig. 1). The grub (immature stage) is off white except for a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs that vary from in color from orange to dark brown.
Description: The beetle abdomen is covered by a pair of hardened forewings, or elytra, which are not used in flight. Instead, their main purpose is to protect the hind wings, which are folded up under the elytra when the insect is not in flight. The grub has a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs and will fold into a 'C' shape when disturbed (Fig. 2). It is very easy to differentiate an Asiatic garden beetle grub from other annual white grub species with the aid of a 10x power hand lens. The grub has a single transverse row of spines on the underside of the last abdominal segment, or raster, and a 'Y' shaped anal slit (Fig. 3).
|May 1, 2009||444-108|
Two species of asparagus beetles are found in Virginia, the asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi (L.), and the spotted asparagus beetle Crioceris duodecimpunctata (L.). Adults of the asparagus beetle are 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) long, metallic blue to black, and have wing covers with three or four white spots and reddish margins. The thorax is red and usually marked with two black spots. The spotted asparagus beetle is about 1/3 inch (8.3 mm) long and orange with 12 spots on its wing covers. Larvae of both are olive green to dark gray with a black heads and legs. Larvae measure about 6/100 inch (1.5 mm) at hatching, and as they develop they become plump and attain a length of about 1/3 inch (8 mm). Both have eggs that are approximately 4/100 inch (1 mm) long, oblong, shiny, black,\ and are attached by one end to asparagus spears.
|May 1, 2009||444-620|
|Asparagus Beetles on Asparagus||
The asparagus beetle is a sporadic pest that can be aggravating for asparagus growers throughout Virginia. The shoot damage not only reduces the quality of the spears but this beetle is also unique in the pest world, as it is an insect that is controlled because the eggs laid on the shoots is objectionable to consumers. With a little background on this pest most growers are able develop an effective pest management program.
|Jul 29, 2009||2906-1352|
|Baldfaced Hornet||Nov 3, 2014||3006-1449 (ENTO-84NP)|
|Banded Ash Borer||
Adult banded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 8–18 mm (0.3–0.7 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. Adults are grayish-black in color with lighter colored hairs all over the body
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-133NP|
|Bean Leaf Beetle Biology and Management in Snap Beans||
Species: Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster)
Size: Adults are about 1/4 inch (64 mm) long.
Description: Adults range in color from yellow to a dull red with variable numbers of black spots (Fig. 1). Although some have no spots, most will have four black spots down the center of the back with marginal spots or stripes on the edge of the elytra. The distinguishing characteristic is that all have a distinct black triangle behind the prothorax. Eggs are reddish orange ovals about 3/100 inch (0.8 mm) long and have tapered ends. Larvae are white, cylindrical grubs with a black head and anal plate. They have well-developed thoracic legs as well as anal prolegs. The pupae are white and resemble the adult in size and shape.
|May 1, 2009||444-009|
|Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans||Sep 9, 2010||3009-1461|
|Beet Webworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1542|
|Beet Webworms||Sep 1, 2014||ENTO-77NP|
|Biology and Management of Hessian Fly in the Southeast||Feb 27, 2013||AREC-39P (ANR-1069)|
|Blister Beetles||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1543|
Adult blow flies are generally
medium to large, robust flies. They vary in
length, with the largest species measuring about 16 mm (0.6 inches) long. They can be green, blue, or black with metallic reflections. Some species have conspicuous bristles. All adults have large, noticeable reddish-brown eyes. The wings are transparent and held flat over the back. Adults often cluster in the sun on warm sides of buildings, outcroppings, fences, and other prominent structures. They are sometimes found visiting flowers and feeding on nectar.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-134NP|
|Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass||
The bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus, is a weevil native to Virginia. Weevils belong to the family Curculionidae, which is contained within the order for beetles, Coleoptera. Like most weevils, the bluegrass billbug has a relatively narrow range of host plants, feeding on a handful of cool-season grass species.
|Jul 1, 2010||444-040|
|Boxelder bug, Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus||Jan 24, 2011||3101-1525|
|Brown Marmorated Stink Bug||
Homoptera: Penatomidae: Halyomorpha halys
Distribution and Hosts
The brown marmorated stink bug, (BMSB), is an invasive insect not native to North America. It was accidentally introduced near Allentown, PA in 1996 and has spread since that time. It was found in Virginia in 2004 and by 2010, it was found throughout most of the Commonwealth. The BMSB feeds on a wide range of tree fruits and seedpods as well as many vegetables including tomatoes, peppers, beans, cucurbits, and sweet corn. High densities of this pest species have also been seen in soybeans and corn. However, so far in Virginia, the most severely damaged crops have been tree fruit (apples and peaches). For homeowners, it is mainly a nuisance pest, as it invades houses in the winter looking for a place to over-winter. For businesses such as hotels and restaurants and other commercial settings with public interface, the presence of high numbers of these bugs in the fall can have economic consequences.
|May 21, 2009||2902-1100|
|Brown Recluse Spider||
Brown recluse spiders belong to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. Their name refers to a characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern on their head region directly behind their eyes (never on the abdomen). Brown recluse spiders range in color from tan to dark brown, but often they are a golden brown. The coloration is generally uniform (head and abdomen are about the same color) with no stripes or bands on the legs. The fiddle marking is usually dark brown or black, with the neck of the fiddle pointing towards the abdomen. Hairs on the body are fine, not coarse, and the fiddle pattern is often shiny. The body measures 8–10 mm long (about 0.4 inch).
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-135NP|
|Buck Moth||Oct 8, 2012||ENTO-18NP|
|Bug vs. Bug - Managing Plant Diseases with Biofungicides||
Diseases in greenhouse vegetables and floriculture crops can be managed effectively with biological fungicides (biofungicides). A biofungicide is composed of beneficial microorganisms, such as specialized fungi and bacteria that attack and control plant pathogens and the diseases they cause (USDA). These specialized fungi and bacteria are microorganisms that normally inhabit most soils.
|Jul 29, 2009||2906-1354|
|Cabbage Looper||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1544|
The cabbage webworm is found throughout the southern United States from Virginia to Florida and west to California. It is rarely a pest in northern climates. In eastern Virginia, it is a common pest on broccoli and cabbage, particularly late in the summer and fall.
|May 1, 2009||2811-1022|
|Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot||
Cabbage maggots canbe very destructive pests of early-season plantings of cole crops: cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. Additional hosts include beet, radish, turnip, and celery.
Seedcorn maggots are known to attack asparagus, cabbage, turnip, radish, onion, beet, spinach, potato, and sprouting corn seeds. Seedcorn maggots can also be very damaging to beans and peas and new plantings of alfalfa.
|May 1, 2009||444-231|
|Carpenter Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus spp.||May 13, 2011||3104-1573|
|Carpet Beetles - Coleoptera: Dermestidae||May 16, 2011||3104-1588|
|Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar||
Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa, their only host. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the activity of parasites.
|Nov 14, 2014||2911-1421 (ENTO-88NP)|
|Celery Leaftier||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1545|
|Centipede - Chilopoda||May 13, 2011||3104-1574|
|Cerceris fumipennis “The Smokey Winged Beetle Bandit”||
Cerceris fumipennis is a solitary digger wasp (crabronid) native to eastern North America. It is a predator almost exclusively of adult beetles of the family Buprestidae. This wasp gathers many species of native metallic wood-boring beetles, as well as the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (EAB). The conspicuous manner with which C. fumipennis provisions its nest, as well as its docile response to human handling, makes it a useful biosurveillance tool for detection of EAB.
|Sep 24, 2015||ENTO-171NP|
|Cereal Leaf Beetle, Biology and Management||
Cereal leaf beetle, a native to Europe and Asia, was first detected in Michigan in 1962. Since that time it has spread throughout most of the mid-western and eastern United States and has become a significant pest of Virginia and North Carolina small grains. This insect can become very numerous in small grain fields and the larvae are capable of reducing grain yield by eating the green leaf tissue.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-350|
|Chemical Control of European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper||
The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most economically important pests of agricultural crops in much of the eastern and central United States.
|Jul 29, 2009||2906-1355|
|Click Beetle - Coleoptera: Elateridae||May 13, 2011||3104-1575|
|Clothes Moths - Lepidoptera: Tineidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1576|
Adult cluster flies are medium-sized, robust, somewhat bristly flies about 7 mm (0.3 inches) long. They are brownish-gray with numerous short yellow hairs on the thorax, a checkered pattern on the abdomen, and large, reddish-brown eyes. Adults are typically slow fliers. In the fall they begin to cluster in the sun on the warm sides of buildings, outcroppings, fences, and other prominent structures as they seek protected places to overwinter. They may enter houses and other buildings in large numbers. Homes built on the top of a hill or otherwise stand out in the landscape may attract many cluster flies. While cluster flies are a nuisance in the home, they do not bite, are not associated with the transmission of disease, and do not reproduce inside buildings. Cluster fly larvae (maggots) are parasites of earthworms and develop in the soil. They are not known to reduce earthworm populations to the extent that they disrupt soil ecology.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-136NP|
|Colorado Potato Beetle||
Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Size: Adults are ~ 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide; mature larvae are 1/2 inch long.
Color: The adult thorax is orange with black spots and the wing covers have five yellowish white and five black alternating stripes running lengthwise (Fig. 1); the larvae are reddish in color with two rows of black spots along each side (Fig. 2); and eggs are yellow (Fig. 3).
Description: The adult beetle is convex above; larvae are smooth, soft-bodied, and humpbacked; and individual eggs somewhat resemble small sausages standing on end.
|May 1, 2009||444-012|
|Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs||
Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings (Figure 1). Heavy WG infestations can cause stand and yield losses of up to 20%. Because grubs occur in the soil, their presence in fields and subsequent damage to corn may go unnoticed until too late. Also, 30% overwintering mortality in WG densities is typical in VA. Insecticidal seed treatments such as clothianidin (PonchoTM) and thiamethoxam (CruiserTM) are the tools of choice for controlling soil insect pests. Growers typically must decide whether to purchase insecticide-treated seed well in advance of spring planting.
|Jun 30, 2011||2802-7027|
|Confused Flour Beetle - Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Tribolium confusum||May 13, 2011||3104-1577|
|Controlling Bean Leaf Beetle on Snap Beans||
In eastern Virginia, the bean leaf beetle (BLB), Ceratoma trifucata (Forster), has caused serious damage to snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in recent years.
|Jul 16, 2009||2906-1332|
|Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans||
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-770|
|Corn Earworm on Vegetables||Mar 22, 2011||3103-1537|
|Cruiser 5FS: Supplemental Label for Use on Edible Beans||
A supplemental label has been approved in Virginia for the use of Cruiser 5FS (Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc.) seed treatment for beans, both shelled and edible podded. Snap beans and wax beans are included on this label, as well as lima beans, broad beans, blackeyed peas, southern peas, cowpeas, runner beans, asparagus beans, Chinese longbeans, moth beans and yardlong beans.
|Jul 30, 2009||2906-1357|
|Cucumber Beetle Management in Melons||
Cucumber beetles can be a major pest of cucurbit crops in Virginia, particularly cantaloupes and cucumbers. This was displayed in dramatic fashion this spring at the Eastern Shore AREC.
|Jul 21, 2009||2906-1303|
Plants Attacked: Cucumber, cantaloupe, winter squash, pumpkin, gourd, summer squash, and watermelon, as well as many other species of cucurbits. Cucumber beetles may also feed on beans, corn, peanuts, potatoes, and other crops.
|May 1, 2009||2808-1009|
|Cutworms||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1547|
|Diamondback Moth in Virginia||
The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered to be the most destructive insect pest of crucifer crops worldwide. DBM larvae feed on leaves of crucifer crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, and Brussels sprouts. All plant growth stages from seedling to head are susceptible to attack. DBM larvae can reach high densities and cause substantial defoliation as well as contamination and malformation of heads in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. The absence and reduction of effective natural enemies, especially parasitoids, as well as insecticide resistance, contribute to the status of DBM as a pest.
|May 1, 2009||444-007|
|Droplet Chart / Selection Guide||
When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.
|Sep 25, 2014||442-031 (BSE-149P)|
|Eggplant Lace Bug||May 13, 2015||3104-1548(ENTO-153NP)|
|Emerald Ash Borer||Feb 7, 2014||HORT-69NP|
|European Corn Borer||
Description of DamageEuropean corn borer (ECB) is a major pest of corn grown for grain in Virginia. This pest is found throughout the commonwealth, but its population density fluctuates from year to year in a given locality. Typical damage to corn plants caused by this insect are reduced plant vigor leading to subsequent ear drop and stalk lodging.
When fully grown, ECB larvae are 3/4 to 1 inch in length and creamy-white to pink in color. The larval head capsule is dark brown and, on top of each abdominal ring or segment, there are several small dark brown or black spots. (Figure 1)
|May 1, 2009||444-232|
|European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper||
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a significant pest to over 200 different plant species. In Virginia, it is the number one pest of pepper, Capsicum annuum L. This pest can damage over 50 percent of pepper fruit if control measures are not taken.
|May 1, 2009||444-006|
|European Hornet||Mar 12, 2015||2911-1422 (ENTO-123NP)|
|Fall Armyworm in Vegetable Crops||
Scientific Name: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)
Color: Larvae vary in color from light tan or green to dark brown (nearly black) [base color ranging from yellow-green to a dark brown to gray] with three yellowish-white lines down the sides and back from head to tail and four dark circular spots on the upper portion of each abdominal segment. Front of the head is marked with a prominent inverted white Y, but this characteristic is not always a reliable identifier. The forewing of adult male moths is generally shaded gray and brown, with triangular white spots at the tip and near the center of the wing. The forewings of females are less distinctly marked, ranging from a uniform grayish brown to a fine mottling of gray and brown. The hind wing is iridescent silver-white with a narrow dark border in both sexes.
Description: Larvae are hairless and smooth skinned (See Fig. 1).
|May 1, 2009||444-015|
|Field Guide to Stink Bugs||Nov 17, 2014||444-356 (ENTO-68)|
|Firebrat - Thysanura: Lepismatidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1578|
|Flea Beetles||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1549|
|Florida Predatory Stink Bug||
The Florida predatory stink bug (FPSB) is a native stink bug species in the southeastern United States. It predominately occurs in neotropical regions, but can be found as far north as Pennsylvania. This species is a natural enemy that feeds on a variety of insects including many agricultural pests (Figs. 1 & 2).
|Jun 5, 2015||ENTO-131NP|
|Fungus Gnat - Diptera: Sciaridae||May 13, 2011||3104-1579|
|Galls and Rust made by Mites||
Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-147NP|
|Galls made by Wasps||May 14, 2015||ENTO-145NP|
|Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges||May 8, 2015||ENTO-146NP|
|Gardening for Bees in Hampton Roads||
The following are categories of plants known to thrive in the southeastern/Hampton Roads area of
|Apr 21, 2011||3104-1541||
|Grasshoppers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1550|
|Green Peach Aphid on Vegetables||
Homoptera: Aphididae, Myzus persicae
Distribution. The green peach aphid can be found worldwide and is considered a pest of numerous vegetable crops throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1081|
|Green Stink Bug||Apr 11, 2014||ENTO-67NP|
|Hag Moth Caterpillar||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-19NP|
|Hickory Horned Devil||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-20NP|
|Hornworms on Tomato||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1551|
|House Fly Maggot - Diptera: Muscidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1580|
Adult house flies are medium-sized flies about 6 mm (0.25 inch) long. They are grayish-black in color, with 4 dark bands running the length of the thorax and conspicuous bristles on the body. The abdomen is usually yellowish or gray, with a dark midline. The large eyes are reddish-brown and there are silvery patches between the eyes on the face. There are two pairs of wings, but the hind wings are small and modified for balance during flight. Adults often cluster in the sun on the warm sides of buildings, outcroppings, fences, and other prominent structures. House fly larvae (maggots) are found in dung, garbage, and rotting organic materials. Homeowners may find house fly maggots in garbage cans that have been left uncovered and not emptied regularly, or in improperly stored food.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-137NP|
|Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass||Jul 1, 2010||444-041|
|IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact||Nov 13, 2014||ANR-105P|
|IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact||May 13, 2015||AREC-135NP|
|Identifying Soybean Fields at Risk to Leaf-Feeding Insects||
||May 1, 2009||444-203|
|Imported Cabbageworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1552|
|Imported Willow Leaf Beetle||
Imported willow leaf beetle was identified in the United States in 1915. It likely arrivedon landscape plants shipped from Europe, where it is native.
|May 20, 2015||ENTO-139NP|
|Indian Meal Moth - Lepidoptera: Pyralidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1582|
|Insect Identification Lab||Sep 25, 2013||ENTO-45NP|
|Insect Pest Management in Virginia: Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2010||May 1, 2009||2812-1027|
|Insecticide Label Updates||
Here are several new insecticide labels and label changes that have occurred recently for vegetable and field crop production in Virginia.
|Jul 27, 2009||2906-1337|
|Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual||
Integrated Pest ManagementIn the competitive global peanut market, you need to lower production costs. At the same time, you also need to keep pesticide residues in peanuts to a minimum; protect rivers, streams, and lakes from runoff; and prevent chemicals from leaching through the soil to groundwater. Using IPM to protect crops only from pests that are likely to cause economic losses is a good way to meet these goals.
The Three Keys to IPM
|Nov 13, 2014||444-126|
Adult iris borers are stout, medium sized moths with a wingspan of 3.8–5 cm (1.5–2 inches). The head and forewings are covered with purplish brown scales and the hind wings are yellowish. The forewings have thin dark zigzag lines, a more conspicuous dark kidney-shaped spot, and variable sooty shading around the margins. The bottom edge of the forewings is noticeably scalloped. Eggs are highly sculptured and are found primarily in the folds of dried out, brown, dead leaves of iris plants. Initially a creamy color with a greenish tinge, the eggs turn lavender with age. Full grown caterpillars are cylindrical, smooth, and pinkish-white. They measure up to 4.4 cm (1.7 inches) long. Pupae are dark brown to nearly black and very shiny.
|May 20, 2015||ENTO-140NP|
The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United States. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.
|Dec 11, 2014||2902-1101 (ENTO-97NP)|
|Japanese Beetle in Field Corn||
Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Popillia japonica Newman
Size: Adult is 1/3 to 1/2 inch long; the fully developed grub or larva is 1/2 to 1 inch long.
Color: The adult is shiny metallic green with copperbrown wing covers and is characterized by the presence of five tufts of white hairs which protrude from under the wing covers along each side of the abdomen, with two additional tufts of white hairs on the tip of the abdomen (Fig. 1); the grub has a distinct head capsule that is dark brown to orange in color with the rest of the body an off-white or grayish color due to the presence of soil or fecal matter in the hindgut (Fig. 2).
|May 1, 2009||444-106|
|Lace Bugs - Hemiptera: Tingidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1581|
|Leafhoppers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1553|
|Leafminers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1554|
|Leaf‐ Footed Bugs||Dec 21, 2010||3012-1522|
|Living Well Newsletter, Volume 7, Issue 2||Apr 23, 2013||370-108|
|Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Forst.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae||May 8, 2015||ENTO-141NP|
|Making Replant Decisions for Slug Damaged Corn and Soybean Stands||
Slugs cause significant economic injury to corn and soybean crops in Virginia every year. Symptoms of slug feeding will vary depending on the size or the growth stage of the crop, and the size of the slug. In corn, slug damage is typically limited to defoliation of emerging leaves.
|May 14, 2009||2905-1293|
|Management of Aphids in Spinach||
In Virginia, spinach can be a profitable crop to grow and is harvested in the spring and the fall. Aphids, especially the green peach aphid (GPA), Myzus personae Sulzer) (see Figure), can be major pests to spinach production.
|Jul 27, 2009||2906-1338|
|Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region||
Stink bug pests across the south eastern cotton belt consist of three main species: the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say); and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) Due to the diverse environmental conditions across this production region, population levels of these species vary widely across seasons, states, and fields. In North Carolina and Virginia, green and brown stink bugs are the primary species, while southern green and brown stink bugs predominate in Georgia,and all three species are commonly observed in South Carolina.
|Sep 23, 2009||444-390|
|Mexican Bean Beetle||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1555|
|Native and Solitary Bees In Virginia||May 8, 2015||ENTO-151NP|
|Non-Chemical Bed Bug Management||
Bed bugs have proven to be a very challenging pest. While most people would like to have a pest management professional come to their home and spray a magic potion that eliminates bed bugs forever, no such potion exists. Bed bugs are highly resistant to a number of insecticides and their eggs are impervious to most insecticide formulations.
|Apr 29, 2015||ENTO-130NP|
|Nozzles: Selection and Sizing||
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
|Jan 31, 2014||442-032 (BSE-103P)|
|Obscure Scale - Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Melanaspis obscura (Comstock)||May 13, 2011||3104-1583|
|Onion Thrips||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1556|
|Parsleyworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1557|
|Pediobius foveolatus – A parasitoid of the Mexican bean beetle||
Pediobius foveolatus, is a tiny exotic parasitoid wasp that is used as a biological control agent for Mexican bean beetle, an important defoliating pest of beans in Virginia.
|Sep 24, 2015||ENTO-170NP|
|Pepper Maggot in Sweet (Bell) Pepper||
The pepper maggot, Zonosemata electa (Say) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to eastern North America and is thought to have moved from the weedy perennial horse nettle, Solanium carolinense L., to domesticated crops like the bell pepper. Pepper maggot occurrence in pepper is patchy and sporadic. However, infestation can reach 100 percent of the fruit with only a single maggot causing the destruction of an entire pepper fruit.
|May 1, 2009||444-005|
|Pepper Weevil||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1558|
|Performance of Insecticides on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug on Vegetables||Dec 14, 2012||ENTO-28NP|
|Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2015||Feb 13, 2015||456-016 (ENTO-70P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2015||Feb 16, 2015||456-018 (ENTO-69P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2015||Feb 16, 2015||456-017 (ENTO-71P)|
|Pesticide Applicator Manuals||Nov 17, 2011||VTTP-2||
|Pickleworm||May 13, 2015||3104-1559(ENTO-154NP)|
|Potato Aphid on Tomatoes||
Homoptera: Aphididae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae
The potato aphid is found throughout the United States and southern Canada but is only considered a serious pest in the northeast and north central regions of the United States.
|May 1, 2009||2901-1031|
|Potato Tuberworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1560|
|Psocids: Barklice and Booklice||May 7, 2015||ENTO-143NP|
|Raspberry Crown Borer||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1561|
|Redheaded Ash Borer||May 7, 2015||ENTO-142NP|
|Rednecked Cane Borer, Agrilus ruficollis (F.)||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1562|
|Rhubarb Curculio||May 13, 2015||3104-1563(ENTO-155NP)|
|Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn||
Species: Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode), M. arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), M. javanica (Javanese root-knot nematode), M. hapla (northern root-knot nematode; not found in corn)
Size: Adult females are up to 1/16 inch in diameter.
Color: Adult females are a translucent cream color.
Description: Adult females are pear shaped and sedentary.
|May 1, 2009||444-107|
|Rose Chafer||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1564|
|Rose Scale||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1565|
|Sampling Methods for Varroa Mites on the Domesticated Honeybee||
Varroa mites (Fig. 1) are serious pests of the apiculture industry throughout the Americas. The mites were first reported in the United States in Florida in 1987, apparently as an accidental introduction along with illegally imported South American queen bees. By 1989, the mite was found in 19 of the southern states and has continued to spread throughout the United States and much of Canada. To date, the varroa mite has killed one-half of the managed honeybee colonies and almost all of the feral honeybee colonies in North America. If a varroa mite infestation is left untreated, it can kill a bee colony within one to three years. As a result, the varroa mite is considered to be one of the most severe threats to the apiculture industry.
|May 1, 2009||444-103|
|Sampling for European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper||
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most economically important pests of agricultural crops in much of the eastern and central United States. O. nubilalis is particularly damaging to sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) because it causes direct injury to the fruit, premature fruit ripening, and fruit rot, a result of pathogens such as Erwinia carotovora entering the feeding wound.
|Jul 30, 2009||2906-1356|
|Sap Beetles||May 13, 2015||3104-1546(ENTO-157NP)|
|Sawtoothed Grain Beetle - Coleoptera: Silvanidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1584|
|Scouting for Wireworms before Planting Vegetables||
Wireworms are the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are worm-like, hard-bodied, and have 3 pair of legs and a distinct head.
|Jul 24, 2009||2906-1329|
|Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains||Oct 4, 2012||444-360|
|Silverfish and Firebrats||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-24NP|
|Slugs in Field Corn||
Scientific Names: Deroceras reticulatum (gray garden slug) (Fig. 1), Deroceras laeve (marsh slug) (Fig. 2), Arion subfuscus (dusky slug) (Fig. 3)
Size: Mature slugs vary in size from 1/2 inch to several inches in length; however, the typical size range of slugs found in cornfields is about 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches.
Color: Mature slugs are gray to brownish-gray, depending on the species. Immature slugs resemble adults in color (Fig. 4).
|May 1, 2009||444-109|
|Soybean Insect Guide||Feb 7, 2014||AREC-68NP|
|Springtails||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-23NP|
|Squash Vine Borer||May 13, 2015||3104-1566(ENTO-158NP)|
|Stalk Borer||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1567|
|Stinger Registered For Virginia-Grown Strawberries||
The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the EPA have approved a state label for use of Stinger (clopyralid) on strawberries grown in Virginia.
|Jul 28, 2009||2906-1346|
Adults and nymphs suck sap, feeding primarily on buds and seedpods. This feeding results in weakened plants and malformed buds and fruit. On okra and bean pods, the damage appears as pimples or wart-like growths. On tomatoes and peppers, white marks, often resembling halos, appear on the fruit. On pecans and beans, the damage shows up as brown spots on the nutmeat or seed. On some tree fruit, stink bugs can cause a deforming condition called cat facing on the fruit.
|May 1, 2009||444-621|
|Sugarcane beetle in corn||Jun 28, 2012||ENTO-13NP|
|Tarnished Plant Bug||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1568|
|The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory||
The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-351|
|Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner||Mar 16, 2015||2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)|
|Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity||
Pitfall traps are excellent tools for detecting first activity and monitoring the season-long activity of walking and crawling soil and litter arthropods, especially those that are active at night. Pitfall traps can be used in sampling programs for row crops, orchards, turf, pastures, woodlands, and landscapes.
|May 1, 2009||444-416|
|Vegetable Weevil||May 13, 2015||3104-1569(ENTO-156NP)|
|Velvet Ants||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-22NP|
|Virginia Pine Sawfly||Mar 16, 2015||2911-1424 (ENTO-125NP)|
|Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs||May 11, 2009||vtpp-1|
|Wheel Bug - Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Arilus cristatus||May 13, 2011||3104-1585|
|White Grubs in Vegetable Gardens||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1570|
|Whitefringed Beetles||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1571|
|Winter Grain Mite||
Species: Penthaleus major (Dugès)
Size: Adult, 1 mm long; eggs, .25 mm long..
Color: Adult is dark brown to almost black with red legs (Figs. 1 and 2); nymph is brownish with orange legs; a young larva is bright pink to orange but darkens to light brown after one day; freshly deposited eggs are smooth, kidney shaped, and reddish orange, but within minutes become wrinkled and after several days become a straw yellow color.
Description: The adult is relatively large compared to other spider mites and is the only mite of economic importance with the anal pore (a tan to orange spot best seen with microscope, but can be seen with a hand lens) on the upper surface of the abdomen.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-037|
|Wireworm Pest Management in Potatoes||
Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are pests of many agricultural crops including corn, sorghum, small grains, tobacco, and various vegetables, but are particularly damaging to potatoes, since the marketable portion of that crop is in the soil. Wireworms are found throughout the world, and species vary greatly across regions. In Virginia, three important pest species of agricultural crops are the corn wireworm, Melanotus communis, the tobacco wireworm, Conoderus vespertinus, and a related species, C. lividus (Fig. 1). A field survey of more than 60 fields in eastern Virginia from 2002 to 2004 revealed that 80% of wireworms collected were the corn wireworm, M. communis. This is the primary soil pest attacking potatoes in Virginia.
|May 1, 2009||2812-1026|
|Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011||Nov 3, 2011||3110-1596|
|Wolf Spider - Araneae: Lycosidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1586|
|Yellow Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1587|
Yellow-poplar weevils are small black snout beetles and are tick-like in appearance. The adult weevil is about 1/10 inch long and black or dark brown in color. While most weevils are a solid color it has been noted that some southern populations may exhibit yellow antenna, legs, and mouthparts.
|Sep 22, 2015||ENTO-169NP|