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Agricultural Insects / Pests

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2013 Insect Pest Management In Virginia Cotton, Peanut, Soybean, and Sorghum Dec 10, 2013 AREC-61NP
A Summary of Recent Pesticide Registrations and Other Updates (Extracted from the Virginia Crop Pest Advisory Newsletter)

The EPA has granted a Section 18 registration again this year for Topsin M WSB fungicide manufactured by Cerexagri, Inc. for the control of white mold or timber rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in tomato.

Aug 10, 2009 2906-1373
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control

Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.

May 1, 2009 444-018
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010

This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010. If not noted otherwise in the individual reports, all research was conducted at the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Painter, VA and at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Virginia Beach, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices. Soil type at the ESAREC is a Bojac Sandy Loam. Soil type at the HRAREC is tetotum loam (average pH: 5.7). Most of the research involves field evaluations of federally‐labeled and experimental insecticides. Much of the information presented herein will be published in a similar format in Arthropod Management Tests: 2011, vol. 36 (Entomological Society of America). We hope that this information will be of value to those interested in insect pest management on vegetable crops, and we wish to make the information accessible. All information, however, is for informational purposes only. Because most of the data from the studies are based on a single season’s environmental conditions, it is requested that the data not be published, reproduced, or otherwise taken out of context without the permission of the authors. The authors neither endorse any of the products in these reports nor discriminate against others. Additionally, some of the products evaluated are not commercially available and/or not labeled for use on the crop(s) in which they were used.

Feb 22, 2011 3102-1532
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2011 Feb 1, 2012 ENTO-1
Asian Needle Ant Jan 7, 2013 ENTO-29NP
Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Scarabaeidae

Species: Maladera castanea (Arrow)

Size: The adult beetle is 5/16 to 7/16 of an inch long (slightly smaller than a Japanese beetle adult). A fully developed grub (third instar) measures about 3/4 inch long

Color: The adult is chestnut brown or reddish brown in color and faintly iridescent (Fig. 1). The grub (immature stage) is off white except for a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs that vary from in color from orange to dark brown.

Description: The beetle abdomen is covered by a pair of hardened forewings, or elytra, which are not used in flight. Instead, their main purpose is to protect the hind wings, which are folded up under the elytra when the insect is not in flight. The grub has a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs and will fold into a 'C' shape when disturbed (Fig. 2). It is very easy to differentiate an Asiatic garden beetle grub from other annual white grub species with the aid of a 10x power hand lens. The grub has a single transverse row of spines on the underside of the last abdominal segment, or raster, and a 'Y' shaped anal slit (Fig. 3).

May 1, 2009 444-108
Asparagus Beetles

Two species of asparagus beetles are found in Virginia, the asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi (L.), and the spotted asparagus beetle Crioceris duodecimpunctata (L.). Adults of the asparagus beetle are 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) long, metallic blue to black, and have wing covers with three or four white spots and reddish margins. The thorax is red and usually marked with two black spots. The spotted asparagus beetle is about 1/3 inch (8.3 mm) long and orange with 12 spots on its wing covers. Larvae of both are olive green to dark gray with a black heads and legs. Larvae measure about 6/100 inch (1.5 mm) at hatching, and as they develop they become plump and attain a length of about 1/3 inch (8 mm). Both have eggs that are approximately 4/100 inch (1 mm) long, oblong, shiny, black,\ and are attached by one end to asparagus spears.

May 1, 2009 444-620
Asparagus Beetles on Asparagus

The asparagus beetle is a sporadic pest that can be aggravating for asparagus growers throughout Virginia. The shoot damage not only reduces the quality of the spears but this beetle is also unique in the pest world, as it is an insect that is controlled because the eggs laid on the shoots is objectionable to consumers. With a little background on this pest most growers are able develop an effective pest management program.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1352
Baldfaced Hornet Jun 11, 2010 3006-1449
Bean Leaf Beetle Biology and Management in Snap Beans

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Chrysomelidae

Species: Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster)

Size: Adults are about 1/4 inch (64 mm) long.

Description: Adults range in color from yellow to a dull red with variable numbers of black spots (Fig. 1). Although some have no spots, most will have four black spots down the center of the back with marginal spots or stripes on the edge of the elytra. The distinguishing characteristic is that all have a distinct black triangle behind the prothorax. Eggs are reddish orange ovals about 3/100 inch (0.8 mm) long and have tapered ends. Larvae are white, cylindrical grubs with a black head and anal plate. They have well-developed thoracic legs as well as anal prolegs. The pupae are white and resemble the adult in size and shape.

May 1, 2009 444-009
Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans Sep 9, 2010 3009-1461
Beet Webworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1542
Biology and Management of Hessian Fly in the Southeast Feb 27, 2013 AREC-39P (ANR-1069)
Blister Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1543
Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass

The bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus, is a weevil native to Virginia. Weevils belong to the family Curculionidae, which is contained within the order for beetles, Coleoptera. Like most weevils, the bluegrass billbug has a relatively narrow range of host plants, feeding on a handful of cool-season grass species.

Jul 1, 2010 444-040
Boxelder bug, Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus Jan 24, 2011 3101-1525
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Homoptera: Penatomidae: Halyomorpha halys

Distribution and Hosts

The brown marmorated stink bug, (BMSB), is an invasive insect not native to North America. It was accidentally introduced near Allentown, PA in 1996 and has spread since that time. It was found in Virginia in 2004 and by 2010, it was found throughout most of the Commonwealth. The BMSB feeds on a wide range of tree fruits and seedpods as well as many vegetables including tomatoes, peppers, beans, cucurbits, and sweet corn. High densities of this pest species have also been seen in soybeans and corn. However, so far in Virginia, the most severely damaged crops have been tree fruit (apples and peaches). For homeowners, it is mainly a nuisance pest, as it invades houses in the winter looking for a place to over-winter. For businesses such as hotels and restaurants and other commercial settings with public interface, the presence of high numbers of these bugs in the fall can have economic consequences.

May 21, 2009 2902-1100
Buck Moth Oct 8, 2012 ENTO-18NP
Bug vs. Bug - Managing Plant Diseases with Biofungicides

Diseases in greenhouse vegetables and floriculture crops can be managed effectively with biological fungicides (biofungicides). A biofungicide is composed of beneficial microorganisms, such as specialized fungi and bacteria that attack and control plant pathogens and the diseases they cause (USDA). These specialized fungi and bacteria are microorganisms that normally inhabit most soils.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1354
Bumble Bee - Hymenoptera, Apidae May 13, 2011 3104-1572
Cabbage Looper Apr 25, 2011 3104-1544
Cabbage Webworm

The cabbage webworm is found throughout the southern United States from Virginia to Florida and west to California. It is rarely a pest in northern climates. In eastern Virginia, it is a common pest on broccoli and cabbage, particularly late in the summer and fall.

May 1, 2009 2811-1022
Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot
Cabbage maggots canbe very destructive pests of early-season plantings of cole crops: cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. Additional hosts include beet, radish, turnip, and celery.

Seedcorn maggots are known to attack asparagus, cabbage, turnip, radish, onion, beet, spinach, potato, and sprouting corn seeds. Seedcorn maggots can also be very damaging to beans and peas and new plantings of alfalfa.

May 1, 2009 444-231
Carpenter Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus spp. May 13, 2011 3104-1573
Carpenter Bee Jun 11, 2010 3006-1450
Carpet Beetles - Coleoptera: Dermestidae May 16, 2011 3104-1588
Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar

Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the
activity of parasites.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1421
Celery Leaftier Apr 25, 2011 3104-1545
Centipede - Chilopoda May 13, 2011 3104-1574
Cereal Leaf Beetle, Biology and Management

Cereal leaf beetle, a native to Europe and Asia, was first detected in Michigan in 1962. Since that time it has spread throughout most of the mid-western and eastern United States and has become a significant pest of Virginia and North Carolina small grains. This insect can become very numerous in small grain fields and the larvae are capable of reducing grain yield by eating the green leaf tissue.

May 1, 2009 444-350
Chemical Control of European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most economically important pests of agricultural crops in much of the eastern and central United States.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1355
Click Beetle - Coleoptera: Elateridae May 13, 2011 3104-1575
Clothes Moths - Lepidoptera: Tineidae May 13, 2011 3104-1576
Colorado Potato Beetle

Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Size: Adults are ~ 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide; mature larvae are 1/2 inch long.

Color: The adult thorax is orange with black spots and the wing covers have five yellowish white and five black alternating stripes running lengthwise (Fig. 1); the larvae are reddish in color with two rows of black spots along each side (Fig. 2); and eggs are yellow (Fig. 3).

Description: The adult beetle is convex above; larvae are smooth, soft-bodied, and humpbacked; and individual eggs somewhat resemble small sausages standing on end.

May 1, 2009 444-012
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs

Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings (Figure 1). Heavy WG infestations can cause stand and yield losses of up to 20%. Because grubs occur in the soil, their presence in fields and subsequent damage to corn may go unnoticed until too late. Also, 30% overwintering mortality in WG densities is typical in VA. Insecticidal seed treatments such as clothianidin (PonchoTM) and thiamethoxam (CruiserTM) are the tools of choice for controlling soil insect pests. Growers typically must decide whether to purchase insecticide-treated seed well in advance of spring planting.

Jun 30, 2011 2802-7027
Confused Flour Beetle - Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Tribolium confusum May 13, 2011 3104-1577
Controlling Bean Leaf Beetle on Snap Beans

In eastern Virginia, the bean leaf beetle (BLB), Ceratoma trifucata (Forster), has caused serious damage to snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in recent years.

Jul 16, 2009 2906-1332
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans

Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.

May 1, 2009 444-770
Corn Earworm on Vegetables Mar 22, 2011 3103-1537
Cruiser 5FS: Supplemental Label for Use on Edible Beans

A supplemental label has been approved in Virginia for the use of Cruiser 5FS (Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc.) seed treatment for beans, both shelled and edible podded. Snap beans and wax beans are included on this label, as well as lima beans, broad beans, blackeyed peas, southern peas, cowpeas, runner beans, asparagus beans, Chinese longbeans, moth beans and yardlong beans.

Jul 30, 2009 2906-1357
Cucumber Beetle Management in Melons

Cucumber beetles can be a major pest of cucurbit crops in Virginia, particularly cantaloupes and cucumbers. This was displayed in dramatic fashion this spring at the Eastern Shore AREC.

Jul 21, 2009 2906-1303
Cucumber Beetles

Plants Attacked: Cucumber, cantaloupe, winter squash, pumpkin, gourd, summer squash, and watermelon, as well as many other species of cucurbits. Cucumber beetles may also feed on beans, corn, peanuts, potatoes, and other crops.

May 1, 2009 2808-1009
Cutworms Apr 25, 2011 3104-1547
Diamondback Moth in Virginia

The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered to be the most destructive insect pest of crucifer crops worldwide. DBM larvae feed on leaves of crucifer crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, and Brussels sprouts. All plant growth stages from seedling to head are susceptible to attack. DBM larvae can reach high densities and cause substantial defoliation as well as contamination and malformation of heads in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. The absence and reduction of effective natural enemies, especially parasitoids, as well as insecticide resistance, contribute to the status of DBM as a pest.

May 1, 2009 444-007
Droplet Chart / Selection Guide

Nozzle type and application pressure govern droplet size (see Nozzles: Selection and Sizing, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-032), which in turn affects system output (application rate), target deposition, uniformity, efficacy, and the risk of drift. Off-target movement in the form of spray drift is a major concern because it diverts the chemical from the intended target, reduces efficacy, and deposits pesticide where it is not needed or wanted. When a pesticide drifts, it may cause both environmental and economic damage, including exposure to people and property, injury to susceptible vegetation, harm to wildlife, deposition of illegal residues on crops, and contamination of water supplies.

May 27, 2009 442-031
Eggplant Lace Bug Apr 25, 2011 3104-1548
Emerald Ash Borer Feb 7, 2014 HORT-69NP
European Corn Borer

Description of Damage

European corn borer (ECB) is a major pest of corn grown for grain in Virginia. This pest is found throughout the commonwealth, but its population density fluctuates from year to year in a given locality. Typical damage to corn plants caused by this insect are reduced plant vigor leading to subsequent ear drop and stalk lodging.


Identification

When fully grown, ECB larvae are 3/4 to 1 inch in length and creamy-white to pink in color. The larval head capsule is dark brown and, on top of each abdominal ring or segment, there are several small dark brown or black spots. (Figure 1)
May 1, 2009 444-232
European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a significant pest to over 200 different plant species. In Virginia, it is the number one pest of pepper, Capsicum annuum L. This pest can damage over 50 percent of pepper fruit if control measures are not taken.

May 1, 2009 444-006
European Hornet

The European hornet is a stout hornet approximately 1-inch long. The color of the head and thorax is dark reddish brown with deep yellow and brown black markings on the abdomen. The  markings on the abdomen are similar to the markings found on yellow jackets. The European hornet resembles the cicada killer wasp but is more robust and has more hair on the thorax and
abdomen (but is not as hairy as a bee).

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1422
Fall Armyworm in Vegetable Crops

Scientific Name: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)
Size: Caterpillars vary in length from 1/2 inch (2mm) as first instar larvae to 3/4 to 1 inch (35 to 50mm) as mature larvae (See Fig. 1). Adult moths have a wingspan of 1.2 to 1.6 inches (32 to 40mm).

Color: Larvae vary in color from light tan or green to dark brown (nearly black) [base color ranging from yellow-green to a dark brown to gray] with three yellowish-white lines down the sides and back from head to tail and four dark circular spots on the upper portion of each abdominal segment. Front of the head is marked with a prominent inverted white Y, but this characteristic is not always a reliable identifier. The forewing of adult male moths is generally shaded gray and brown, with triangular white spots at the tip and near the center of the wing. The forewings of females are less distinctly marked, ranging from a uniform grayish brown to a fine mottling of gray and brown. The hind wing is iridescent silver-white with a narrow dark border in both sexes.

Description: Larvae are hairless and smooth skinned (See Fig. 1).

May 1, 2009 444-015
Field Guide to Stink Bugs Jul 29, 2009 444-356
Firebrat - Thysanura: Lepismatidae May 13, 2011 3104-1578
Flea Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1549
Fungus Gnat - Diptera: Sciaridae May 13, 2011 3104-1579
Gardening for Bees in Hampton Roads

The following are categories of plants known to thrive in the southeastern/Hampton Roads area of
Virginia that also support bees. *Plants identified as major honey plants for bees

Apr 21, 2011 3104-1541
Grasshoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1550
Green Peach Aphid on Vegetables

Homoptera: Aphididae, Myzus persicae

Distribution. The green peach aphid can be found worldwide and is considered a pest of numerous vegetable crops throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia.

May 1, 2009 2902-1081
Green Stink Bug Apr 11, 2014 ENTO-67NP
Hag Moth Caterpillar Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-19NP
Hickory Horned Devil Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-20NP
Hornworms on Tomato Apr 25, 2011 3104-1551
House Fly Maggot - Diptera: Muscidae May 13, 2011 3104-1580
Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-041
Identifying Soybean Fields at Risk to Leaf-Feeding Insects


What is LAI? Leaf area index (LAI) is the ratio of leaf area to land area. Soybean requires LAI values of at least 3.5 to 4.0 by early to mid-reproductive developmental stages to achieve maximum yield for that year and environment. A soybean crop that does not achieve adequate LAI could be at risk to yield loss from insect leaf-feeders, whereas, fields with high (4+) LAI can sustain significant insect feeding with little to no effect on yield. This publication will aid producers in evaluating soybean fields at risk to yield reduction from leaf-feeding insects.

May 1, 2009 444-203
Imported Cabbageworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1552
Indian Meal Moth - Lepidoptera: Pyralidae May 13, 2011 3104-1582
Insect Identification Lab Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-45NP
Insect Pest Management in Virginia: Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2010 May 1, 2009 2812-1027
Insecticide Label Updates

Here are several new insecticide labels and label changes that have occurred recently for vegetable and field crop production in Virginia.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1337
Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual

Integrated Pest Management

In the competitive global peanut market, you need to lower production costs. At the same time, you also need to keep pesticide residues in peanuts to a minimum; protect rivers, streams, and lakes from runoff; and prevent chemicals from leaching through the soil to groundwater. Using IPM to protect crops only from pests that are likely to cause economic losses is a good way to meet these goals.

The Three Keys to IPM

  1. Scout the crop regularly and systematically to identify pests.
  2. Use control measures only when monitoring shows that a pest is likely to reach economically damaging levels.
  3. Apply the lowest effective amount of pesticide using equipment that is correctly calibrated.
May 1, 2009 444-126
Japanese Beetle

Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Popillia japonica

Distribution:  The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United Stages. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.

May 1, 2009 2902-1101
Japanese Beetle in Field Corn

Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Popillia japonica Newman

Size: Adult is 1/3 to 1/2 inch long; the fully developed grub or larva is 1/2 to 1 inch long.

Color: The adult is shiny metallic green with copperbrown wing covers and is characterized by the presence of five tufts of white hairs which protrude from under the wing covers along each side of the abdomen, with two additional tufts of white hairs on the tip of the abdomen (Fig. 1); the grub has a distinct head capsule that is dark brown to orange in color with the rest of the body an off-white or grayish color due to the presence of soil or fecal matter in the hindgut (Fig. 2).

May 1, 2009 444-106
Lace Bugs - Hemiptera: Tingidae May 13, 2011 3104-1581
Leafhoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1553
Leafminers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1554
Leaf‐ Footed Bugs Dec 21, 2010 3012-1522
Living Well Newsletter, Volume 7, Issue 2 Apr 23, 2013 370-108
Making Replant Decisions for Slug Damaged Corn and Soybean Stands

Slugs cause significant economic injury to corn and soybean crops in Virginia every year. Symptoms of slug feeding will vary depending on the size or the growth stage of the crop, and the size of the slug. In corn, slug damage is typically limited to defoliation of emerging leaves.

May 14, 2009 2905-1293
Management of Aphids in Spinach

In Virginia, spinach can be a profitable crop to grow and is harvested in the spring and the fall. Aphids, especially the green peach aphid (GPA), Myzus personae Sulzer) (see Figure), can be major pests to spinach production.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1338
Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region

Stink bug pests across the south eastern cotton belt consist of three main species: the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say); and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)  Due to the diverse environmental conditions across this production region, population levels of these species vary widely across seasons, states, and fields. In North Carolina and Virginia, green and brown stink bugs are the primary species, while southern green and brown stink bugs predominate in Georgia,and all three species are commonly observed in South Carolina.

Sep 23, 2009 444-390
Mexican Bean Beetle Apr 25, 2011 3104-1555
Nozzles: Selection and Sizing

This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.

Jan 31, 2014 442-032 (BSE-103P)
Obscure Scale - Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Melanaspis obscura (Comstock) May 13, 2011 3104-1583
Onion Thrips Apr 25, 2011 3104-1556
Parsleyworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1557
Pepper Maggot in Sweet (Bell) Pepper

The pepper maggot, Zonosemata electa (Say) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to eastern North America and is thought to have moved from the weedy perennial horse nettle, Solanium carolinense L., to domesticated crops like the bell pepper. Pepper maggot occurrence in pepper is patchy and sporadic. However, infestation can reach 100 percent of the fruit with only a single maggot causing the destruction of an entire pepper fruit.

May 1, 2009 444-005
Pepper Weevil Apr 25, 2011 3104-1558
Performance of Insecticides on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug on Vegetables Dec 14, 2012 ENTO-28NP
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2014 Feb 3, 2014 456-016 (ENTO-37P)
Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2014 Jan 28, 2014 456-018 (ENTO-36P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2014 Jan 28, 2014 456-017 (ENTO-38P)
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Pickleworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1559
Potato Aphid on Tomatoes

Homoptera: Aphididae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Distribution

The potato aphid is found throughout the United States and southern Canada but is only considered a serious pest in the northeast and north central regions of the United States.

May 1, 2009 2901-1031
Potato Tuberworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1560
Pristine Labeled for Berries

Pristine fungicide from BASF has been approved for use in crops in the berry crop grouping (blueberries, currants, gooseberries, currants, huckleberries, blackberries or raspberries, and their hybrids) and strawberries.

Jul 28, 2009 2906-1343
Raspberry Crown Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1561
Rednecked Cane Borer, Agrilus ruficollis (F.) Apr 25, 2011 3104-1562
Rhubarb Curculio Apr 25, 2011 3104-1563
Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn

Order: Tylenchida

Family: Heteroderidae

Species: Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode), M. arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), M. javanica (Javanese root-knot nematode), M. hapla (northern root-knot nematode; not found in corn)

Size: Adult females are up to 1/16 inch in diameter.

Color: Adult females are a translucent cream color.

Description: Adult females are pear shaped and sedentary.

May 1, 2009 444-107
Rose Chafer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1564
Rose Scale Apr 25, 2011 3104-1565
Sampling Methods for Varroa Mites on the Domesticated Honeybee

Varroa mites (Fig. 1) are serious pests of the apiculture industry throughout the Americas. The mites were first reported in the United States in Florida in 1987, apparently as an accidental introduction along with illegally imported South American queen bees. By 1989, the mite was found in 19 of the southern states and has continued to spread throughout the United States and much of Canada. To date, the varroa mite has killed one-half of the managed honeybee colonies and almost all of the feral honeybee colonies in North America. If a varroa mite infestation is left untreated, it can kill a bee colony within one to three years. As a result, the varroa mite is considered to be one of the most severe threats to the apiculture industry.

May 1, 2009 444-103
Sampling for European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most economically important pests of agricultural crops in much of the eastern and central United States. O. nubilalis is particularly damaging to sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) because it causes direct injury to the fruit, premature fruit ripening, and fruit rot, a result of pathogens such as Erwinia carotovora entering the feeding wound.

Jul 30, 2009 2906-1356
Sap Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1546
Sawtoothed Grain Beetle - Coleoptera: Silvanidae May 13, 2011 3104-1584
Scouting for Wireworms before Planting Vegetables

Wireworms are the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are worm-like, hard-bodied, and have 3 pair of legs and a distinct head.

Jul 24, 2009 2906-1329
Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains Oct 4, 2012 444-360
Silverfish and Firebrats Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-24NP
Slugs in Field Corn

Scientific Names: Deroceras reticulatum (gray garden slug) (Fig. 1), Deroceras laeve (marsh slug) (Fig. 2), Arion subfuscus (dusky slug) (Fig. 3)

Size: Mature slugs vary in size from 1/2 inch to several inches in length; however, the typical size range of slugs found in cornfields is about 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches.

Color: Mature slugs are gray to brownish-gray, depending on the species. Immature slugs resemble adults in color (Fig. 4).

May 1, 2009 444-109
Soybean Insect Guide Feb 7, 2014 AREC-68NP
Springtails Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-23NP
Squash Vine Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1566
Stalk Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1567
Stinger Registered For Virginia-Grown Strawberries

The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the EPA have approved a state label for use of Stinger (clopyralid) on strawberries grown in Virginia.

Jul 28, 2009 2906-1346
Stink Bugs

Adults and nymphs suck sap, feeding primarily on buds and seedpods. This feeding results in weakened plants and malformed buds and fruit. On okra and bean pods, the damage appears as pimples or wart-like growths. On tomatoes and peppers, white marks, often resembling halos, appear on the fruit. On pecans and beans, the damage shows up as brown spots on the nutmeat or seed. On some tree fruit, stink bugs can cause a deforming condition called cat facing on the fruit.

May 1, 2009 444-621
Sugarcane beetle in corn Jun 28, 2012 ENTO-13NP
Tarnished Plant Bug Apr 25, 2011 3104-1568
The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory

The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.

May 1, 2009 444-351
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner

In the larval stage, both the twig girdler and twig pruner are creamy white in color and up to 2 inches in length. They look like typical roundheaded borers in that their heads and bodies are cylindrical in shape and they have legs that are reduced to very small claws. The adult twig girdler is about 5/8 inch long and has a pair of long antennae. The color is brown with irregular patches of fine gray hairs and the antennae are spines on the segments closest to the head.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1423
Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity

Pitfall traps are excellent tools for detecting first activity and monitoring the season-long activity of walking and crawling soil and litter arthropods, especially those that are active at night. Pitfall traps can be used in sampling programs for row crops, orchards, turf, pastures, woodlands, and landscapes.

May 1, 2009 444-416
Vegetable Weevil Apr 25, 2011 3104-1569
Velvet Ants Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-22NP
Virginia Pine Sawfly

Adults resemble flies yet have four wings instead of two.
Small white oval eggs are inserted into the edge of needles at equally spaced
intervals, but in only one needle fascicle. Newly hatched larvae are pale
green, with black head capsules, and are 3 mm long. Full grown larvae are
spotted or marked with longitudinal black stripes and are from 16 to 23 mm
long. Cocoons for pupation are spun in the litter or soil surface under the
trees.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1424
Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs May 11, 2009 vtpp-1
Wheel Bug - Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Arilus cristatus May 13, 2011 3104-1585
White Grubs in Vegetable Gardens Apr 25, 2011 3104-1570
Whitefringed Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1571
Winter Grain Mite

Order: Acarina

Family: Penthaleidae

Species: Penthaleus major (Dugès)

Size: Adult, 1 mm long; eggs, .25 mm long..

Color: Adult is dark brown to almost black with red legs (Figs. 1 and 2); nymph is brownish with orange legs; a young larva is bright pink to orange but darkens to light brown after one day; freshly deposited eggs are smooth, kidney shaped, and reddish orange, but within minutes become wrinkled and after several days become a straw yellow color.

Description: The adult is relatively large compared to other spider mites and is the only mite of economic importance with the anal pore (a tan to orange spot best seen with microscope, but can be seen with a hand lens) on the upper surface of the abdomen.

May 1, 2009 444-037
Wireworm Pest Management in Potatoes

Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are pests of many agricultural crops including corn, sorghum, small grains, tobacco, and various vegetables, but are particularly damaging to potatoes, since the marketable portion of that crop is in the soil. Wireworms are found throughout the world, and species vary greatly across regions. In Virginia, three important pest species of agricultural crops are the corn wireworm, Melanotus communis, the tobacco wireworm, Conoderus vespertinus, and a related species, C. lividus (Fig. 1). A field survey of more than 60 fields in eastern Virginia from 2002 to 2004 revealed that 80% of wireworms collected were the corn wireworm, M. communis. This is the primary soil pest attacking potatoes in Virginia.

May 1, 2009 2812-1026
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596
Wolf Spider - Araneae: Lycosidae May 13, 2011 3104-1586
Yellow Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae May 13, 2011 3104-1587