Resources for Trees, Shrubs, & Groundcovers

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Plants Attacked: Juniper, arborvitae, other cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, Chinese elm, honeylocust, primarily. Also on crabapple, maple, sycamore, box elder, willow, linden, poplar, and many others.
Nov 3, 2014 2808-1008 (ENTO-83NP)
Dogwood Borer
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
Nov 18, 2014 2808-1010 (ENTO-90NP)
Cottony Maple Scale
Heavily infested plants will have large numbers of scales on the branches and twigs. Large numbers of feeding scales will reduce the amount of nutrients reaching the leaves and will cause them to turn yellow and fall prematurely. Scale insects feed on plant sap with their long thread-like mouthparts (stylets), which are six to eight times longer than the insect itself. Feeding by scales slowly reduces plant vigor. Heavily infested plants grow poorly and may suffer dieback of twigs and branches. Occasionally, an infested host will be so weakened that it will die.
Nov 14, 2014 2808-1011 (ENTO-89NP)
Scale Insects
Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.
Feb 26, 2015 2808-1012 (ENTO-106NP)
Fall Webworm
Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.
Nov 21, 2014 2808-1013 (ENTO-94NP)
Fusarium Wilt of Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)
Fusarium wilt is a common and lethal disease of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)1, also commonly known as silktree. In the United States this disease occurs in the east from New York southward and also in Louisiana, Arkansas and California. Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis perniciosum. Albizia spp. are the only known host of F. oxysporum'' f.sp. ''perniciosum''. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. perniciosum colonizes and clogs the tree’s vascular (water-conducting) tissue, and interferes with the movement of plant sap. This results in relatively rapid tree death.
Jan 20, 2015 2811-1020(PPWS-53NP)
American Beautyberry May 1, 2009 2901-1033
American Yellowood May 1, 2009 2901-1034
Evergreen Azalea May 1, 2009 2901-1035
Beautybush May 1, 2009 2901-1036
Cherrylaurel May 1, 2009 2901-1038
Cotoneaster May 1, 2009 2901-1039
Crapemyrtle May 1, 2009 2901-1040
Doublefile Viburnum May 1, 2009 2901-1041
Drooping Leucothoe May 1, 2009 2901-1042
European White Birch May 1, 2009 2901-1043
Flowering Quince May 1, 2009 2901-1044
Fraser Photinia, Red Tip May 1, 2009 2901-1045
Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree May 1, 2009 2901-1046
Goldenraintree May 1, 2009 2901-1047
Green Ash May 1, 2009 2901-1048
Japanese Maple May 1, 2009 2901-1049
Japanese Barberry May 1, 2009 2901-1050
Japanese Camillia May 1, 2009 2901-1051
Japanese Holly May 1, 2009 2901-1052
Japanese Pagodatree, Sophora May 1, 2009 2901-1053
Leatherleaf Viburnum May 1, 2009 2901-1054
Littleleaf Linden May 1, 2009 2901-1055
Live Oak May 1, 2009 2901-1056
London Planetree May 1, 2009 2901-1057
Nandina, Heavenly Bamboo May 1, 2009 2901-1058
Norway Maple May 1, 2009 2901-1059
Old Fashioned Weigela May 1, 2009 2901-1060
Oregon Grape Holly (Manhonia) May 1, 2009 2901-1061
Pin Oak May 1, 2009 2901-1062
Privet May 1, 2009 2901-1063
Red Maple May 1, 2009 2901-1064
Evergreen Rhododendron May 1, 2009 2901-1065
Rose of Sharon, Shrub Althea May 1, 2009 2901-1066
Scarlet Firethron, Pyracantha May 1, 2009 2901-1067
Smokebush, Smoketree May 1, 2009 2901-1068
Southern Magnolia May 1, 2009 2901-1069
Southern Waxmyrtle May 1, 2009 2901-1070
Sugar Maple May 1, 2009 2901-1071
Sweetgum May 1, 2009 2901-1072
Thornless Common Honeylocust May 1, 2009 2901-1073
Tuliptree May 1, 2009 2901-1074
Vanhoutte Spirea May 1, 2009 2901-1075
White Oak May 1, 2009 2901-1076
Winterberry May 1, 2009 2901-1077
Wintercreeper Euonymus May 1, 2009 2901-1078
Yaupon Holly Cultivars May 1, 2009 2901-1079
Pales Weevil
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
Dec 11, 2014 2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)
Emerald Ash Borer Mar 17, 2016 2904-1290 (ENTO-200NP)
Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Landscape Trees Jan 11, 2010 3001-1433
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Dec 16, 2016 3006-1451 (ENTO-228NP)
Austrian Pine, Pinus nigra Nov 3, 2010 3010-1462
Bigleaf Hydrangea, Hydrangea macrophylla Nov 3, 2010 3010-1463
Bradford Callery Pear (and other cultivars) Pyrus calleryana ‘Bradford’ Nov 3, 2010 3010-1464
Canadian Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1465
Carolina Silverbell, Halesia carolina (formerly H. tetraptera) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1466
Cedars, Cedrus spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1467
Chastetree, Monk’s Pepper Tree, Vitex agnus-castus Nov 3, 2010 3010-1468
Chinese Juniper, Juniperus chinensis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1469
Colorado Spruce, Picea pungens var. glauca Nov 3, 2010 3010-1470
Common Periwinkle, Lesser Periwinkle, Vinca minor Nov 3, 2010 3010-1471
Cornelian Cherry Dogwood, Cornus mas Nov 3, 2010 3010-1472
Creeping Juniper, Juniperus horizontalis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1473
Dawn Redwood, Metasequoia glyptostroboides Nov 3, 2010 3010-1474
Dwarf Alberta Spruce, Picea glauca ‘Conica’ Nov 3, 2010 3010-1475
Eastern Arborvitae, American Arborvitae, White Cedar, Thuja occidentalis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1476
Eastern Redcedar, Juniperus virginiana Nov 3, 2010 3010-1477
English Ivy, Hedera helix Nov 3, 2010 3010-1478
European Cranberrybush Viburnum (Guelder Rose), Viburnum opulus Nov 3, 2010 3010-1479
European Hornbeam, Carpinus betulus Nov 3, 2010 3010-1480
European Larch, Larix decidua Nov 3, 2010 3010-1481
Evergreen Hollies, (Ilex spp.) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1482
Flowering Crabapple, Malus spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1483
Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida Nov 3, 2010 3010-1484
Franklinia, Franklinia alatamaha Nov 3, 2010 3010-1485
Garden Sumacs, Rhus spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1486
Giant Arborviatae, Western Arborvitae, Thuja plicata Nov 3, 2010 3010-1487
Glossy Abelia, Abelia ×grandiflora Nov 3, 2010 3010-1488
Heaths (several species of Erica) and Heathers (Calluna vulgaris) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1489
Japanese Garden Juniper, Juniperus procumbens ‘Nana’ Nov 3, 2010 3010-1490
Japanese Pachysandra, Japanese Spurge, Pachysandra terminalis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1491
Japanese Pieris, Pieris japonica Nov 3, 2010 3010-1492
Lilacs, Syringa spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1493
Mountain-Laurel, Kalmia latifolia Nov 3, 2010 3010-1494
Mugo Pine, Pinus mugo Nov 3, 2010 3010-1495
Oriental Arborvitae, Thuja orientalis (also known as Platycladus orientalis) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1496
Red Twig Dogwoods, Tatarian Dogwood (Cornus alba) and Redosier Dogwood (Cornus sericea) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1497
Shore Juniper, Juniperus conferta Nov 3, 2010 3010-1498
White Fringetree, Old-man’s-beard, Chionanthus virginicus Nov 3, 2010 3010-1499
Yews, Taxus spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1500
Yuccas, Yucca spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1501
Pine Tortoise Scale
Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years - most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.
Mar 24, 2016 3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)
Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners May 1, 2009 420-165
Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management
Invasive exotic species are plants that are not native to a given area and have the ability to out-compete indigenous plant species. Invasive exotics are often brought into their non-native surroundings by humans with good intentions.
Mar 18, 2015 420-320(AREC-106P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)
Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.
Dec 3, 2014 420-321 (ANR-123P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)
Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise- tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.
May 4, 2015 420-322(ANR-122P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)
Several species of Asian honeysuckle have been introduced in the United States for their ornamental and wildlife values. Honeysuckle is perhaps the most widespread exotic invasive in the U.S., now found in at least 38 states. The Asian honeysuckle produces abundant seeds which are dispersed by birds and other wildlife. It also spreads by sprouting from its roots. Because it tolerates shade from other plants, it grows in forest understories.
Jan 20, 2015 420-323(ANR-124P)
Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees
Forest management is a complex process. Silviculture—a system in which healthy communities of trees and other vegetation are established and maintained for the benefit of people—uses forest ecology to guide complex management prescriptions that mimic forest disturbances and processes. Silvics—the natural characteristics of trees—play an important role in prescribing effective silviculture.
Dec 15, 2014 420-351 (ANR-118NP)
Managing Winter Injury to Trees and Shrubs
It is often necessary to provide extra attention to plants in the fall to help them over-winter and start spring in peak condition. Understanding certain principles and cultural practices will significantly reduce winter damage that can be divided into three categories: desiccation, freezing, and breakage.
Apr 9, 2015 426-500 (HORT-121P)
The Art of Bonsai Mar 3, 2015 426-601 (HORT-158P)
Growing Azaleas and Rhododendrons
The spectacular spring flowers of azaleas and rhododendrons make them among the most popular garden shrubs. However, azaleas and rhododendrons are shrubs for all seasons. Throughout the summer and fall the leaves add a pleasing, deep‑green color to the garden. Some deciduous azaleas add bright fall color before the leaves drop. In winter, some varieties stand out with large, evergreen leaves.
Mar 30, 2015 426-602 (HORT-103P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Boxwoods Feb 5, 2013 426-603 (HORT-45P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Rare and Unusual Trees
There are many tree species that can be successfully grown in Virginia, but are rarely seen in our landscapes. Although not ordinarily recommended or readily available, these trees may be useful to carry out a specific landscape theme, to substitute for an exotic type which is not locally adapted, or may be prized for unusual form, flowers, fruits, bark, or foliage.
Jun 18, 2015 426-604(HORT-107P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Conifers
Conifers, also known as narrow-leaved or needled evergreens, are planted primarily for the attractiveness of their evergreen foliage. The variety of sizes, shapes, and colors available contributes to their popularity. Conifers range in size from prostrate plants growing only a few inches tall to large trees. Shapes include flat ground covers; horizontal spreaders; upright, pyramidal forms; and even weeping and contorted forms. Foliage color ranges from a gold and cream variegation to all shades of green, gray-green, and blue-green.
Apr 6, 2015 426-605 (HORT-108P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Broad-Leaved Evergreens
There are a large number of highly ornamental broadleaved evergreens. However, many of them require special attention if they are to develop into attractive, long-lived plants. Wide fluctuations in temperature, prolonged dry periods, drying winds, and bright sunshine are not ideal conditions for most broad-leaved evergreens, yet these conditions frequently occur in Virginia. Good soil preparation and a carefully selected location will help ensure the success of these plants. However, the year-round beauty and special effect that they give to the landscape make them well worth the extra care needed to grow them.
Apr 3, 2015 426-607 (HORT-105P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Groundcovers Nov 29, 2012 426-609 (HORT-31P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees
Trees are the basic element for any landscape plan. They set the stage for the entire home grounds design. The type used and their location determine to a great extent what other plantings are appropriate. Providing shade usually requires tall, sturdy, long-living species. Density of foliage, which determines the amount of shading, is important. A tree such as a Norway maple will produce a very dense shade that prevents other plants from growing under it, while a honey locust will produce a light partial shade which is not a hindrance to other plants growing below it. Deciduous trees should be used to shade the south windows of a home in the summer, thus allowing the sun to penetrate in the winter.
Apr 1, 2015 426-610 (HORT-104P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees May 1, 2009 426-611
Shrubs: Functions, Planting, and Maintenance May 1, 2009 426-701
Planting Trees May 1, 2009 426-702
Fertilizing Landscape Trees and Shrubs
Maintenance programs should be developed for trees and shrubs in both residential and commercial landscapes. A good maintenance program includes monitoring and controlling insect and disease problems, suppressing weed competition, and making timely applications of water, mulch, and fertilizer. Tree and shrub fertilization is especially important in urban and suburban areas of Virginia where soils have been altered due to construction. These urban soils tend to be heavily compacted, poorly aerated, poorly drained, and low in organic matter. Even where soils have not been affected, fertilization may be needed as part of a maintenance program to increase plant vigor or to improve root or top growth.
Apr 9, 2015 430-018 (HORT-120P)
Fertilización de árboles y arbustos
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
Feb 18, 2016 430-018S (HORT-165P)
Selection and Use of Mulches and Landscape Fabrics
The term “mulch” refers to materials spread or left on the soil surface as protective layers, whether organic or inorganic, loose particles or sheets.
Mar 20, 2015 430-019 (HORT-132P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- The Walnut Tree: Allelopathic Effects and Tolerant Plants Apr 10, 2015 430-021(HORT-113P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution Apr 8, 2015 430-022 (HORT-123P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Landscape Containers and Planters
Planting trees in aboveground containers and planters is becoming a common practice on sites that are not suited for inground planting. Containers differ from raised planters in that they are usually smaller in volume and moveable, whereas planters are generally larger, and often built as part of the permanent hardscape (paving, etc.). The greatest challenge in selecting trees for containers and planters is in choosing trees that can survive temperature extremes, and that can establish roots in a limited volume of substrate (potting soil). Consider several factors when selecting containers and trees including environmental influences, container and planter design, substrate type, and tree characteristics.
Apr 9, 2015 430-023 (HORT-119P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Hot Sites
Hot landscape sites require special consideration before trees are planted. Trees can survive, and even thrive, in hot sites if the site is prepared correctly, if heat-tolerant species are selected, and if the trees are properly maintained. A variety of different locations and situations qualify as hot landscape sites.
Apr 9, 2015 430-024 (HORT-118P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Screening
Using trees as living screens can easily enhance living and working spaces. Before selecting trees for screening, first determine the screen’s purpose, whether functional or environmental. Screening can be used to define an area, modify or hide a view, create privacy, block wind, dust, salt and snow, control noise, filter light, and direct traffic flow.
Apr 9, 2015 430-025 (HORT-117P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Wet and Dry Sites
To grow, all trees require air, light, water and nutrients. Some trees can survive over a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, whereas others are very site specific. Both wet and dry sites present establishment and growth challenges, making selection of the right tree for the right site very important.
Apr 8, 2015 430-026 (HORT-114P)
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
Apr 8, 2015 430-027 (HORT-115P)
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas May 1, 2009 430-028
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
Apr 8, 2015 430-031 (HORT-111P)
24 Ways to Kill a Tree
Few residential trees die of “old age.” Mechanical damage and improper tree care kill more trees than any insects or diseases. Avoid making the tree-damaging mistakes shown in the diagram below. Few of these items alone would kill a tree, but multiple problems will certainly stress, and could eventually kill, a tree.
Apr 8, 2015 430-210 (HORT-112P)
Tree and Shrub Planting Guidelines
Select trees and shrubs well-adapted to conditions of individual planting sites. Poorly-sited plants are doomed from the start, no matter how carefully they’re planted.
Mar 3, 2015 430-295 (HORT-106P)
Pruning Crapemyrtles May 1, 2009 430-451
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Pruning Basics and Tools May 1, 2009 430-455
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Deciduous Trees May 1, 2009 430-456
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Evergreen Trees May 1, 2009 430-457
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Stop Topping Trees! May 1, 2009 430-458
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Shrubs May 1, 2009 430-459
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Decidous Tree Pruning Calendar May 1, 2009 430-460
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Evergreen Tree Pruning Calendar May 1, 2009 430-461
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Shrub Pruning Calendar May 1, 2009 430-462
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
Jun 27, 2016 450-236 (PPWS-69P)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
Oct 19, 2016 450-237 (PPWS-70P)
Juniper Tip Blights Mar 30, 2017 450-601 (PPWS-91 NP)
Botrytis Blight of Peony
Botrytis blight is a common fungal disease that confronts the peony grower each spring. The fungus Botrytis cinerea blights stems, buds, and leaves and can cause plants to look unsightly, especially in wet springs. This fungus causes disease on a wide variety of herbaceous and woody ornamentals, as well as vegetables and small fruits. It is sometimes referred to as “gray mold” because of the conspicuous, fluffy, gray fungal growth that forms on infected plant parts.
Sep 26, 2016 450-602 (PPWS-93NP)
Powdery Mildew of Ornamental Plants
Powdery mildew fungi attack a variety of ornamental plants grown in Virginia.
May 1, 2009 450-603
Leaf and Flower Gall of Azalea and Camellia
Leaf and flower gall is a disease that is common on azaleas and camellias in the spring. The disease has also been reported on other members of the plant family Ericaceae. It occurs in home landscapes and nurseries, and is often seen on flame azaleas in the forest in the spring. The disease is caused by species of the fungus Exobasidium.
Oct 18, 2016 450-605 (PPWS-92NP)
Entomosporium Leaf Spot of Photinia
Photinia, a shrub belonging to the plant family Rosaceae, is a popular landscape shrub in the southeastern U.S. Several species are grown, but the most popular is the hybrid Photinia ×fraseri, or “redtip”, so named for its bright red, immature foliage. The biggest drawback to growing photinia is a leaf spot disease caused by the fungus Diplocarpon mespili (syn. Entomosporium mespili) to which redtip is highly susceptible.
Sep 30, 2016 450-609 (PPWS-82P)
Rose Rosette Disease
Rose rosette disease (RRD), a disease believed to be caused by the recently identified Rose rosette virus, has been spreading through much of the wild rose population of the Midwestern, Southern, and Eastern United States for years.
Sep 17, 2012 450-620 (PPWS-10P)
Soil Test Note 20: Home Shrubs and Trees May 1, 2009 452-720
Hiring an Arborist to Care for Your Landscape Trees
Landscape trees are valuable assets to your property and for your community. Keeping your trees attractive, healthy, and safe requires careful attention to their planting and care throughout their lives. While many people have a green thumb, there are situations that arise where the expertise of an arborist is needed to address complex or potentially hazardous tree care needs. The purpose of this publication is to inform home owners, property managers, municipal planners, and others about the tree care services provided by an arborist and the steps that should be taken to hire a qualified arborist.
Dec 18, 2014 ANR-131NP
All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot
Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.
Feb 23, 2015 ANR-132NP
Thinning Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot
Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.
Apr 24, 2015 ANR-133NP (ANR-149NP)
TREE Cookies Etc. Winter 2015 Jan 13, 2015 ANR-139NP
So You Want To Sell Timber
Research into the attitudes and actions of private forest landowners shows that although very few own their forestland for the purpose of producing timber, most will sell timber at least once in their lifetimes. Private forest landowners sell timber for a variety of reasons that range from purely financial to solely for management purposes. Often landowners do not consider selling timber until they have an immediate need for cash. Other times the landowner has planned an immediate commercial thinning with a full timber harvest scheduled in 10 years. Whatever the reason(s) for a timber sale, careful consideration of objectives is paramount.
Sep 23, 2015 ANR-154P
Timber Selling Tips: Forestry Fact Sheet for Landowners
Timber harvesting is a valuable tool to help forest landowners realize certain financial and land management goals. Following are some suggestions to consider before selling timber.
Sep 23, 2015 ANR-155P
Trees and Water Jul 30, 2012 ANR-18NP
Woody Florals for Income and Conservation Aug 30, 2012 ANR-22NP
Native Fruit and Nut Trees and Shrubs of the Virginia Mountains and Piedmont Aug 30, 2012 ANR-23NP
One-Year Health, Mortality, and Growth in Southeast Virginia of Shortleaf Pine From Three Sources
Restoration of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) in Virginia has become a priority of various state and federal agencies. For shortleaf pine restoration to be successful in Virginia, private lands must be considered because 89 percent of forestland in Virginia is privately owned, and most private landowners are likely to use commercially available seedling sources. Shortleaf seedlings from commercially available sources in Virginia, Arkansas, and Missouri were planted in two sites in Southeast Virginia to test growth and yield. After one year, height and ground-line diameter were measured and observations were made on health and mortality of the plants. The Virginia seed source was significantly taller than the Arkansas source. At the first site, mortality and disease were low, but at the second site, mortality and poor health were very high, possibly due to soils combined with weather conditions. No significant seed source effects on disease and mortality were found at either site.
Apr 22, 2013 ANR-28P
TREE Cookies Etc. Winter 2012/13 Jan 22, 2013 ANR-33
TREE Cookies Etc. Spring 2010 Mar 15, 2013 ANR-61
TREE Cookies Etc. Winter 2011/12 Mar 18, 2013 ANR-62
How to Plan for and Plant Streamside Conservation Buffers with Native Fruit and Nut Trees and Woody Floral Shrubs Sep 4, 2013 ANR-69P
Yield Potential of Native Warm-Season Grasses Grown in Mixture Jul 19, 2013 CSES-55P
Galls and Rust made by Mites
Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-147NP
Yellow Poplar Weevil
Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.
Nov 6, 2015 ENTO-172NP
Gloomy Scale
Description of Damage: The bark becomes roughened and encrusted with scales. Branches and limbs die back and result in a rapid decline in tree vigor, occasionally resulting in the death of trees. Seriously weakened trees are common in Virginia as a result of scale populations, especially red and silver maples.
Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-44NP
Goldenchain tree, Laburnum × watereri Feb 21, 2012 HORT-10
Hinoki Falsecypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa Feb 21, 2012 HORT-11
Japanese Cryptomeria, Cryptomeria japonica Feb 21, 2012 HORT-12
Japanese Stewartia, Stewartia pseudocamellia Feb 21, 2012 HORT-13
Japanese Zelkova, Zelkova serrata Feb 22, 2012 HORT-14
Katsuratree, Cercidiphyllum japonicum Feb 22, 2012 HORT-15
Kousa Dogwood, Cornus kousa Feb 22, 2012 HORT-16
Lacebark Pine, Pinus bungeana Feb 22, 2012 HORT-17
Leyland Cypress, ×Cupressocyparis leylandii Feb 22, 2012 HORT-18
Mimosa (Silk-tree or Albizia), Albizia julibrissin Feb 22, 2012 HORT-19
Norway Spruce, Picea abies Feb 22, 2012 HORT-20
Paperbark Maple, Acer griseum Feb 27, 2012 HORT-21
Red Buckeye, Aesculus pavia Feb 27, 2012 HORT-22
River Birch, Betula nigra Feb 27, 2012 HORT-23
Saucer Magnolia, Magnolia ×soulangeana Feb 27, 2012 HORT-24
Sawara Falsecypress (Japanese Falsecypress), Chamaecyparis pisifera Feb 27, 2012 HORT-25
Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris Feb 27, 2012 HORT-26
Sourwood, Oxydendrum arboreum Feb 27, 2012 HORT-27
Star Magnolia, Magnolia stellata Feb 27, 2012 HORT-28
Umbrella-Pine (Japanese Umbrella-Pine), Sciadopitys verticillata Feb 27, 2012 HORT-29
Washington Hawthorn, Crataegus phaenopyrum Feb 27, 2012 HORT-30
American Hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana Feb 21, 2012 HORT-5
American (Fagus grandifolia) and European (Fagus sylvatica) Beeches Feb 21, 2012 HORT-6
Chinese Elm (Lacebark Elm), Ulmus parvifolia Feb 21, 2012 HORT-7
Chinese Pistache, Pistacia chinensis Feb 21, 2012 HORT-8
Douglasfir, Pseudotsuga menziesii Feb 21, 2012 HORT-9
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module I: Integrated Pest Management Apr 22, 2015 PPWS-14NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module II: The Plant Disease Triangle Apr 22, 2015 PPWS-15NP
Virginia Boxwood Blight Task Force
To provide leadership in safeguarding and protecting the ornamental horticulture industry, historical gardens and landscape plantings from boxwood blight.
May 20, 2014 PPWS-30