Resources for Garden Insects Pests

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs
Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings
Jun 30, 2011 2802-7027
Plants Attacked: Juniper, arborvitae, other cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, Chinese elm, honeylocust, primarily. Also on crabapple, maple, sycamore, box elder, willow, linden, poplar, and many others.
Nov 3, 2014 2808-1008 (ENTO-83NP)
Cucumber Beetles May 1, 2009 2808-1009
Dogwood Borer
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
Nov 18, 2014 2808-1010 (ENTO-90NP)
Cottony Maple Scale
Heavily infested plants will have large numbers of scales on the branches and twigs. Large numbers of feeding scales will reduce the amount of nutrients reaching the leaves and will cause them to turn yellow and fall prematurely. Scale insects feed on plant sap with their long thread-like mouthparts (stylets), which are six to eight times longer than the insect itself. Feeding by scales slowly reduces plant vigor. Heavily infested plants grow poorly and may suffer dieback of twigs and branches. Occasionally, an infested host will be so weakened that it will die.
Nov 14, 2014 2808-1011 (ENTO-89NP)
Scale Insects
Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.
Feb 26, 2015 2808-1012 (ENTO-106NP)
Fall Webworm
Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.
Nov 21, 2014 2808-1013 (ENTO-94NP)
Gypsy Moth Management for Homeowners on Small Properties May 1, 2009 2811-1021
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug May 21, 2009 2902-1100
Japanese Beetle
The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United States. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.
Dec 11, 2014 2902-1101 (ENTO-97NP)
Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries Sep 15, 2009 2909-1411
Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show
Ornamental plants enrich our lives every day and improve our environment. Flowers, shrubs, and trees beautify our yards and parks, while houseplants add a pleasant living touch to our indoor environment. Perhaps you are one of the many people who find satisfaction in planting and caring for ornamental plants. If so, sooner or later you will be confronted with insects which threaten to ruin your plants and undo your hard work. Learning to identify pest insects is the first step toward an effective pest management strategy. Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants is a five part program which will introduce you to the common pests of shade trees, shrubs, flowers, and houseplants in Virginia.
Mar 6, 2015 2909-1414 (ENTO-121NP)
Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show Mar 6, 2015 2909-1415 (ENTO-122NP)
Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar
Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa, their only host. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the activity of parasites.
Nov 14, 2014 2911-1421 (ENTO-88NP)
European Hornet
The European hornet is a stout hornet approximately 1-inch long. The color of the head and thorax is dark reddish brown with deep yellow and brown black markings on the abdomen. The markings on the abdomen are similar to the markings found on yellow jackets. The European hornet resembles the cicada killer wasp but is more robust and has more hair on the thorax and abdomen (but is not as hairy as a bee).
Mar 12, 2015 2911-1422 (ENTO-123NP)
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner
These beetles cause very conspicuous damage in late summer. The leaves on large numbers of twigs and branches will be observed to turn brown prematurely. These twigs and branches sometimes fall from trees in great numbers and accumulate. On close examination, the twigs have one of two kinds of damage. Twigs damaged by the twig girdler are cut as neatly as by a knife. The cut end has been gnawed almost straight across with a faint rounding and is slightly roughened by the chewing. The twig girdler is more commonly found on pecan and hickory. The twig pruner causes a slightly different type of cut. The twig will be observed to have a hollowed out space at the cut end filled with sawdust like frass. The twig when split open will have a long tunnel through most of its length. The twig pruner is more commonly found on oak.
Mar 16, 2015 2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Dec 16, 2016 3006-1451 (ENTO-228NP)
Balsam Woolly Adelgid
Native to central Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid is now distributed throughout eastern and western North America. It attacks all true firs, Abies spp., including balsam and Fraser fir.
Jun 24, 2015 3006-1452(ENTO-161NP)
Redheaded Pine Sawfly
The redheaded pine sawfly occurs from S.E. Canada throughout the eastern U.S. Feeding is primarily restricted to the two and three-needled pines, such as Jack, red, shortleaf, loblolly, slash, longleaf, and pitch pines. White pine and Norway spruce may also be defoliated.
Jun 24, 2015 3006-1453(ENTO-162NP)
Leaf‐ Footed Bugs Dec 21, 2010 3012-1522
Earwigs in Virginia Mar 11, 2016 3101-1527 (ENTO-194NP)
Locust Leafminer Mar 17, 2016 3101-1528 (ENTO-205NP)
Pine Tortoise Scale
Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years - most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.
Mar 24, 2016 3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010.
Feb 22, 2011 3102-1532
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596
Urban Water-Quality Management: Insect Pests of Water Garden Plants
Aphids are often called plant lice. Several species are troublesome pests on above-water leaves (a), stems, and flower buds of aquatic plants. These sucking insects distort succulent new leaves, causing them to curl, wilt, or turn yellow.
Apr 8, 2015 426-040 (HORT-124P)
Gardening and Your Health: Ticks May 1, 2009 426-066
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be! May 1, 2009 426-109
Weeds in the Home Vegetable Garden Apr 22, 2015 426-364 (HORT-157P)
Pest Management for Water Quality
Research has shown that consumers find reading and understanding the label to be the most difficult aspect of applying pesticides. However, an understanding of the label information is essential before work begins. The label printed on or attached to a container of pesticide tells how to use it correctly and warns of any environmental or health safety measures to take. Read the label when you purchase a pesticide and again before mixing or applying it. If you are confused about any part of the label, consult your Extension agent or a representative of the company that makes the product. Many pesticides now list a toll-free number for consumers. The label includes specific information that you should be aware of and learn to understand.Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Reviewed by David Close, Consumer Horticulture and Master Gardener Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech
Mar 18, 2015 426-615 (HORT-138P)
Storing Pesticides Safely May 1, 2009 426-705
Choosing Pesticides Wisely
Healthy plants are less susceptible to attack by pests, and good cultural practices can reduce pest outbreaks.
Jan 15, 2016 426-706 (HORT-202P)
Understanding Pesticide Labels Jan 14, 2016 426-707 (HORT-201P)
Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Gardens May 1, 2009 426-708
Applying Pesticides Safely Jan 19, 2016 426-710 (HORT-199P)
Diagnosing Plant Problems May 1, 2009 426-714
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-040
Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-041
Insect Identification and Diagnosis Request May 19, 2016 444-113 (ENTO-196NP)
Black Vine Weevil
The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.
Nov 14, 2014 444-210 (ENTO-86NP)
Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers
Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more. Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Adults are called longhorned beetles because of their long and distinctive 11-segmented antennae, often longer than the beetle's body. The thorax and wing covers on some species bear small, stout spines. Roundheaded borers (larvae) are elongate, cylindrical, and have large gnawing mandibles. The name roundheaded borer refers to the enlarged thorax directly behind the head. Order: Coleoptera, Family: Cerambycidae.
Dec 11, 2014 444-215 (ENTO-100NP)
Bark Beetles
Species identification is difficult because the adult beetles of the various species are very similar, cylindrical and hard-shelled. Over 600 species in the sub-family. Adult beetles are between 1/8 and 1/3 inch long. Nearly all bark beetles are black or brown. Bark beetles are in the Order: Coleoptera, Family: Curculionidae, Sub Family: Scolytinae.
Nov 10, 2014 444-216 (ENTO-85NP)
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see. Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands. Order: Homoptera, Family: Aphididae
Nov 3, 2014 444-220 (ENTO-82NP)
Spider Mites
Spider mites (Family Tetranychidae, Order Acari) are not insects; they are closely related to spiders, harvestmen (daddy longlegs), and ticks. Unlike insects, which have six legs and three body parts, spider mites have eight legs and a one-part body. They also lack wings, antennae, and compound eyes. Individual spider mites are almost microscopic, yet when they occur in large numbers, they can cause serious damage. Dozens of species attack shade trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
Feb 26, 2015 444-221 (ENTO-107NP)
Spruce Spider Mite
The spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae, Oligonychus unuguis (Jacobi)) lives in all areas of Virginia and is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the United States and Canada. It attacks spruce, arborvitae, juniper, hemlock, pine, Douglas fir, Fraser fir, and larch, among others.
Mar 2, 2015 444-235 (ENTO-108NP)
White Pine Weevil
The white pine weevil (WPW) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Pissodes strobi (Peck)) is found throughout Virginia. Its preferred hosts are eastern white pine and Norway spruce, but it can attack Scotch and other pines as well.
Mar 3, 2015 444-270 (ENTO-113NP)
Eastern Tent Caterpillar
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
Nov 18, 2014 444-274 (ENTO-92NP)
Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia
Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk. Once inside, insecticides are not recommended except for severe cases. Sweep up with a broom and dustpan all beetles that collect in windowsills and on walls. Beetles can also be picked up with a vacuum cleaner but bags will need to be discarded so that beetles do not escape.
Dec 11, 2014 444-275 (ENTO-102NP)
Periodical Cicada
In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.
Feb 25, 2015 444-276 (ENTO-105NP)
Euonymus Scale
Eggs are laid early in the spring and hatch in late May or early June. The crawlers settle quickly and produce a second brood by mid-July. A third brood is produced in October. There is continuous overlapping of broods, so that all stages may be found during favorable conditions. Two to three-plus generations per year may occur in Virginia. The overwintering stage is the adult female.
Nov 21, 2014 444-277 (ENTO-93NP)
Lilac Borer/Ash Borer
The adult has clear wings and is wasp-like in appearance. Size: The moth is about 1 inch long with a wingspan of 1 1/2 inches. Color: The fore wings are brown or chocolate color and the hind wings are clear with a dark border. The larvae are pure white worms with brown heads. Order: Lepidoptera Family: Sesiidae Species: Podosesia syringae (Harris).
Dec 11, 2014 444-278 (ENTO-99NP)
Whiteflies are white insects with pale yellow bodies that are approximately 2 mm long. They belong to the order Homoptera and are close relatives of aphids, scales, mealybugs, hoppers and cicadas.
Mar 3, 2015 444-280 (ENTO-114NP)
Adult thrips are small, pale-yellow insects (occasionally black) with elongated bodies, and fringed wings. Their life cycle consists of an egg, nymph, pre-pupa, pupa and an adult. The exact time required for thrips to complete their life cycle varies with species, temperature and the host plant. Western flower thrips complete their life cycle, from egg to adult, in approximately 10 days at 80° F. Adults insert eggs in leaf tissue which hatch in approximately three days. Nymphs feed for four to five days and then drop from the plant to pupate in the soil. Adults emerge after two days of pupation and begin feeding.
Mar 3, 2015 444-281 (ENTO-110NP)
Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA) Mar 5, 2010 444-284
Pine Shoot Beetle
Pine shoot beetles are in the same family as bark beetles and resemble bark beetles in appearance with their cylindrical shape. The adults are 1/8 to 1/4 inches long. The larvae are legless and can be up to 1/4 inch long. Pine shoot beetles are dark brown. The larvae have a dark brown head and creamy white body.
Apr 27, 2015 444-291 (ENTO-149NP)
Field Guide to Stink Bugs
Field Guide to Stink Bugs of Agricultural Importance in the United States
Nov 17, 2014 444-356 (ENTO-68)
Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains Oct 4, 2012 444-360
Widow Spiders Dec 18, 2012 444-422
Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2017
This 2017 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for controlling diseases, insects, and weeds for home grounds and animals. The chemical controls in this guide are based on the latest pesticide label information at the time of writing. Because pesticide labels change, read the label directions carefully before buying and using any pesticide. Regardless of the information provided here, always follow the latest product label instructions when using any pesticide.
Mar 15, 2017 456-018 (ENTO-220P)
Biology and Management of Hessian Fly in the Southeast Feb 27, 2013 AREC-39P (ANR-1069)
Turf and Garden Tips: What can be done about crayfish in lawns? Aug 16, 2013 CSES-64NP
2014 Arthropod Pest Management Research On Vegetable in Virginia
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2014. Research was conducted at several
Apr 22, 2015 ENTO-127NP
Banded Ash Borer
Adult banded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 8–18 mm (0.3–0.7 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. Adults are grayish-black in color with lighter colored hairs all over the body. There is a yellow band on the leading edge of the thorax directly behind the head and several yellow bands across the wing covers.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-133NP
Blow Flies
Adult blow flies are generally medium to large, robust flies. They vary in length, with the largest species measuring about 16 mm (0.6 inches) long.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-134NP
Brown Recluse Spider
Brown recluse spiders belong to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. Their name refers to a characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern on their head region directly behind their eyes (never on the abdomen). Brown recluse spiders range in color from tan to dark brown, but often they are a golden brown.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-135NP
Cluster Fly
Adult cluster flies are medium-sized, robust, somewhat bristly flies about 7 mm (0.3 inches) long.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-136NP
House fly
Adult house flies are medium-sized flies about 6 mm (0.25 inch) long. They are grayish-black in color, with 4 dark bands running the length of the thorax and conspicuous bristles on the body.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-137NP
Imported Willow Leaf Beetle
Imported willow leaf beetle was identified in the United States in 1915. It likely arrived on landscape plants shipped from Europe, where it is native.
May 20, 2015 ENTO-139NP
Iris Borer
Adult iris borers are stout, medium sized moths with a wingspan of 3.8–5 cm (1.5–2 inches). The head and forewings are covered with purplish brown scales and the hind wings are yellowish. The forewings have thin dark zigzag lines, a more conspicuous dark kidney-shaped spot, and variable sooty shading around the margins
May 20, 2015 ENTO-140NP
Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Forst.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
The locust borer is a native insect that attacks black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and its ornamental cultivars. Adult locust borers are conspicuous black and yellow beetles with long black antennae and reddish legs. There is a yellow W-shaped band across the wing covers with other yellow stripes.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-141NP
Redheaded Ash Borer
Adult redheaded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 4–13 mm (0.16–0.5 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. The head, thorax and legs are reddish brown and there are four yellow dorsal bands on the darker wing covers.
May 7, 2015 ENTO-142NP
Psocids: Barklice and Booklice
Psocids are small, oval insects with soft bodies that usually measure only several millimeters long. A psocid measuring 6 mm (0.25 inches) long is rather large for this group of insects. Psocids generally occur in shades of brown, black, or pale colors; some have distinctive mottled or striped markings.
May 7, 2015 ENTO-143NP
Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges
Galls made by made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges occur on many different plants. Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Most are harmless to trees, but a few are pests.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-146NP
Large and unusual Insects Found in Virginia
Several different insects are found in Virginia that cause concern due to their large size and coloration. They are for the most part harmless and just curiosities of nature.
May 5, 2015 ENTO-148NP
Pediobius foveolatus – A parasitoid of the Mexican bean beetle
Pediobius foveolatus, is a tiny exotic parasitoid wasp that is used as a biological control agent for Mexican bean beetle, an important defoliating pest of beans in Virginia.
Sep 24, 2015 ENTO-170NP
Cerceris fumipennis “The Smokey Winged Beetle Bandit”
Cerceris fumipennis is a solitary digger wasp (crabronid) native to eastern North America. It is a predator almost exclusively of adult beetles of the family Buprestidae. This wasp gathers many species of native metallic wood-boring beetles, as well as the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (EAB).
Sep 24, 2015 ENTO-171NP
Benefits of an Insecticide Seed Treatment for Pumpkin Production in Virginia
In recent years cucurbit growers in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. could purchase their seeds pre-treated with the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam. The insecticide seed treatment is currently packaged as FarMore F1400, which also includes three proven and complementary fungicides that provide the first line of defense against several key seed and seedling diseases including Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium, general damping-off and seedling blight.
Dec 21, 2015 ENTO-174NP
Evaluation of the Residual Efficacy of Commercial Slug Baits
Slugs are prevalent pests in no-till and reduced-till crop systems in Virginia. These slimy mollusks utilize plant residue to hide during the day, and at night, they feed on numerous crops causing irregular feeding holes and shredded leaves. Slugs cause the most damage during early plant growth.
Jan 29, 2016 ENTO-178NP
Spotted Lanternfly
The spotted lanternfly (SLF) originates from China where its presence has been documented in detail dating as far back as the 12th century.
Feb 3, 2016 ENTO-180NP
Boxelder Bug
This bug is about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 as wide. It is black with three red lines on the thorax, a red line along each side, and an oblique red line on each wing. The wings lie flat on the back when at rest. The young nymphs are red and gray. The population of bugs may number into the thousands. Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus
Feb 26, 2016 ENTO-186NP
The pest caterpillars of cole crops in Virginia
Caterpillars, or the larval stage of Lepidoptera, are probably the most damaging of insect groups that feed on cole crops, such as collard, kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, and Chinese cabbage.
Mar 2, 2012 ENTO-2
Fall cankerworm: Alsophila pometaria
Cankerworms are also known as inchworms, loop worms, and spanworms - this is credited to their distinctive way of moving. In order to travel, a cankerworm must grab leaves or branches with its front legs and then pull the rest of its body forward. This causes the abdomen area to contract and gives the worm the appearance of arching its back.
Aug 5, 2016 ENTO-223NP
Insect Identification Laboratory Annual Report 2016 Mar 7, 2017 ENTO-233
Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood
Three pests, the boxwood leafminer, mite and psyllid commonly attack American and English boxwood in Virginia and cause spotting, yellowing, and puckering of leaves.
Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-42NP
Millipedes range from 1 to 4 inches (25.4-100mm) and are usually dark brown. Millipedes are slow crawling, round-bodied pests, which have two sets of legs on each, body segment. Millipedes develop best in damp and dark locations with abundant organic matter (food). They often curl up into a tight "C" shape, like a watch spring, and remain motionless when touched. The body is long and cylindrical.
Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-43NP
Insect Identification Lab
Welcome to the Insect Identification Laboratory at Virginia Tech. The Insect Identification Lab covers all insects found in all situations and commodities in Virginia. This diagnostic lab started in 1967 and is a service for Extension Agents and Citizens of Virginia.
Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-45NP
DESCRIPTION: Yellowjackets are from 5/8 to 1 inch (14-25.4mm) long, have black and yellow markings in a bold pattern. Since they are a type of wasp, they have a definite waist. They fold their wings lengthwise when at rest. Like all wasps, yellowjackets prey on a wide variety of insects and other arthropods. Yellowjackets are unusual in that workers also forage on foods consumed by people, especially sweets and meats.
Sep 26, 2013 ENTO-49NP
Mexican Bean Beetle
Mexican Bean Beetle (MBB), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Fig. 1), is an herbivorous lady beetle (Coccinellidae) that feeds on bean crops (legumes) in North America. It is similar to the squash lady beetle, Epilachna borealis, which feeds primarily on cucurbits. MBB can cause significant defoliation damage to various bean crops particularly in the genus Phaseolus (snap beans, lima beans, pole beans, etc.). It will also feed on soybean, alfalfa, beggarweed, kudzu, and other legumes.
Dec 13, 2013 ENTO-51NP
Improving Pest Management with Farmscaping
Farmscaping is a holistic ecologically-based approach to pest management that emphasizes the arrangement or configuration of plants that promote biological pest management by attracting and sustaining beneficial organisms. Ideal farmscape plantings provide habitat for beneficial insects, suppress weeds, and grow in close proximity to the cash crop without competing for light, water and nutrients. Research has shown that maintaining high levels of species diversity is a key characteristic of a proper functioning agroecosystem. Unfortunately, intensive farming operations including growing large monocultures, regular cultivation, and excessive use of insecticides often leads to a dramatic reduction in arthropod diversity, especially natural enemies that often keep many pest insects below damaging levels. Farmscaping is a technique designed to add diversity back to the system and minimize disturbance leading to increases in natural enemy populations by providing insectary plants as food and shelter resources.
Dec 6, 2013 ENTO-52NP(ENTO-55NP)
Leatherwing (Soldier) Beetles
Beetles in the family Cantharidae are referred to as soldier beetles or leatherwings. The name soldier beetle originates from the elytra (front wings) of one of the earliest described species being reminiscent of early uniforms of British soldiers. The latter name was coined for the soft nature of the elytra. Two species in the genus Chauliognathus are commonly found in Virginia. Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Fig 1) is often referred to as the Pennsylvania leatherwing, or the goldenrod soldier beetle referring to its favorite flowering plant in the fall. A similar species Chauliognathus marginatus, the margined leatherwing, is found in the spring on various flowers.
Dec 10, 2013 ENTO-53NP
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2013
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in Virginia in 2013. Research was conducted at several locations including: 1) the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) near Painter, VA; 2) the Hampton Roads AREC in Virginia Beach, VA; 3) the Virginia Tech Kentland Research Farm near Blacksburg, VA; and 4) the Southwest Virginia 4-H Educational Center in Abingdon, VA.
Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-60NP
Striped Cucumber Beetle
In Virginia, cucurbits are attacked by two native species of cucumber beetles, the striped cucumber beetle, A. vittatum, which is featured in this document, and the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica decimpunctata howardi (Mannerheim), which is discussed in a separate fact sheet.
Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-61NP
History, Distribution and Pest Status of the Mexican bean beetle
Mexican Bean Beetle (MBB), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, (Fig 1) is an herbivorous ladybeetle (Coccinellidae) that feeds on legumes in North America. It is closely related to the squash ladybeetle, Epilachna borealis, which feeds primarily on cucurbits. MBB can cause significant defoliation damage to bean crops, particularly those in the genus Phaseolus (snap beans, lima beans, pole beans, etc.). For more information on general biology and pest management of MBB, see VCE Fact Sheet No. ENTO-51.
Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-62NP
Pepper Weevil
The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii (Cano), is a sporadic pest of pepper in Virginia. The insect is predominately a pest in the southern U.S., where it can inflict significant damage to that crop. Though adult weevils may feed on numerous plant species within the family Solanaceae, oviposition and subsequent larval development is specific to plants within the genera Capsicum (peppers) and Solanum (nightshades). Individuals may live 3-4 months and there are multiple generations (often 5-8) per year. The pepper weevil is an uncommon pest in Virginia, but if it occurs, infestations can result in the loss of entire pepper crops.
Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-63NP
Squash Bug
Squash bugs are one of the primary pests of cucurbits in the United States. Adults are typically 10 to 30 mm long, dark gray, brown or black in color with orange or brown markings on the sides of the abdomen (Fig. 1). Overwintering adults emerge from the soil, ground litter, wood piles or buildings in the spring. After feeding and mating, females deposit egg masses on the underside of leaves. Newly laid eggs are typically light pale in color, become coppery, then darker as they develop. Egg masses are commonly laid in diamond or V-shaped patterns along leaf veins (Fig 2).
Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-64NP
Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia
Several species of spiders found in Virginia have fearsome reputations for giving painful bites resulting in life-threating complications.
Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-73NP
Food Safety For School and Community Gardens
Creating and maintaining community and school gardens has been identified as an effective strategy to increase healthy food awareness and consumption. Unfortunately, fresh fruits and vegetables have been linked to more than 450 outbreaks of foodborne illness in the U.S. since 1990. In commercial food production, employing a set of risk-reduction steps — known as good agricultural practices (GAPs) — has been pointed to by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as the best prevention against foodborne, illness-causing pathogens.
May 29, 2013 FST-60P
For the Birds, Butterflies & Hummingbirds: Creating Inviting Habitats Aug 1, 2014 HORT-59NP (HORT-74NP)
Deer: A Garden Pest Sep 5, 2013 HORT-62NP
Emerald Ash Borer
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a wood-boring beetle native to eastern Asia and is now considered the most destructive forest pest ever seen in North America. Since its discovery in Michigan in 2002, it has killed tens of millions of native ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and Canada. This destruction has already cost municipalities, property owners, and businesses tens of millions of dollars in damages.
Feb 7, 2014 HORT-69NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module I: Integrated Pest Management Apr 22, 2015 PPWS-14NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module II: The Plant Disease Triangle Apr 22, 2015 PPWS-15NP
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2