Resources for Home Water Quality

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Albemarle and Fluvanna Counties, Virginia, March-May 2009 Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1502
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Amherst County, Virginia, June - July 2009, Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1503
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Appomattox and Campbell Counties, Virginia May - June 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1504
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Augusta County, Virginia, September - November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1505
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia, October-November 2009, Virginia Household water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1506
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Bedford County, Virginia, June-July 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1507
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Caroline County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1508
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Culpeper County, Virginia, November-December 2008, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1509
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, February-March 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1510
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Greene County, Virginia, April-May 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 23, 2010 3010-1511
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in King George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 23, 2010 3010-1512
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Prince George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 24, 2010 3010-1513
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockbridge County, Virginia, September-November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 29, 2010 3010-1514
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockingham County, Virginia, August-September 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 29, 2010 3010-1515
Questions to Ask When Purchasing Water Treatment Equipment May 1, 2009 356-480
Household Water Quality: Water Quality Problems - Causes and Treatments May 1, 2009 356-482
Household Water Quality: Household Water Testing May 1, 2009 356-485
Interpreting Your Water Test Report May 1, 2009 356-489
Living Well Newsletter, Volume 6, Issue 1 Apr 24, 2013 370-105
Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration
Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment — an important part of the natural water cycle (VADEQ 2010).
Jun 18, 2015 426-046(HORT-160P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 10: Dry Swale
A dry swale (DS) is a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad, vegetated, side slopes. Water flow is slowed by a series of check dams (see figure 1). A DS provides temporary storage, filtration, and infiltration of stormwater runoff. Dry swales function similarly to bioretention, and are comparable to wet swales; however, unlike a wet swale, a DS should remain dry during periods of no rainfall. A DS is an engineered best management practice (BMP) that is designed to reduce pollution through runoff reduction and pollutant removal and is part of a site’s stormwater treatment practice (see figure 2).
Sep 6, 2013 426-129 (BSE-86P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 11: Wet Swale
A wet swale (WS) is an engineered, best management practice (BMP) arranged in a straight line that is designed to reduce stormwater pollution. A WS consists of a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad, vegetated, side slopes and slow flows (see figure 1). Wet swales typically stay wet because the bottom of the swale is below the water table. This is done to encourage the growth of wetland vegetation, providing water quality treatment similar to a natural wetland. This stormwater treatment practice also functions as part of the stormwater conveyance system. Wet swales have a relatively low capital cost; however, maintenance can be is intensive and expensive when compared to other BMPs.
Sep 9, 2013 426-130 (BSE-89P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 12: Filtering Practices
A stormwater filtering practice (FP) treats stormwater runoff by passing it through an engineered filter media consisting of either sand, gravel, organic matter, and/ or a proprietary manufactured product, collecting it in an underdrain, and then discharging the effluent to a stormwater conveyance system. FPs are stormwater treatment practices that are often obtained from the marketplace due to unique proprietary technologies (see figure 1).
Sep 9, 2013 426-131 (BSE-87P)
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Suffolk, Virginia
The Household Water-Quality Education Program was offered through the VCE Suffolk Office during the fall of 2007. Any household resident of the city who used a private water supply was eligible to participate.
May 1, 2009 442-202
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Iron and Manganese in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-656
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Heavy Metals in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-657
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Sulfate and Hydrogen Sulfide in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-658
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Nitrate in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-659
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Fluoride in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-660
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Sodium and Chloride in Household Drinking Water Dec 2, 2011 442-661
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Bacteria and Other Microorganisms in Household Water May 17, 2011 442-662
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Shock Chlorination: Disinfecting Private Household Water Supply Systems May 17, 2011 442-663
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Hardness in Household Water May 17, 2011 442-664
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Corrosive Household Water May 17, 2011 442-665
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in Household Water May 17, 2011 442-666
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Household Water Treatment Aug 22, 2013 442-670 (BSE-75P)
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Fluvanna and Louisa Counties, Virginia. October 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-10
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Montgomery County, Virginia. March 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-11
Greywater Reuse
Greywater is any household wastewater other than that used for toilet flushing. This water could be reused around the home (for purposes other than drinking water). An example of greywater use is landscape irrigation. Wastewater that comes in contact with human waste is referred to as blackwater. However, the definition of greywater varies according to state regulations.
Apr 30, 2014 BSE-114NP
Using Reclaimed Water
Reclaimed water, sometimes referred to as “water reuse” or “recycled water,” is water recovered from domestic, municipal, or industrial wastewater treatment plants that has been treated to standards that allow it to be safely used for designated purposes. Reclaimed water should not be confused with “wastewater,” untreated liquid industrial waste or domestic sewage. However, “gray water,” untreated water from bathing or washing, is considered one form of wastewater (Water Reuse, VCE Publication 452-014).
Apr 30, 2014 BSE-115NP
Rainwater Harvesting Systems
Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting, storing, and later reusing rainwater from surfaces such as roofs. Rainwater harvesting has long been used for agricultural irrigation and as a source of drinking water, and allowed ancient civilizations to flourish in semi-arid and arid regions. Rainwater harvesting systems are in use today in many water-limited locations, especially in several western US regions. As population growth increases pressure on water resources in the more humid eastern US, rainwater harvesting is being considered to reduce the demand for potable water.
May 9, 2014 BSE-116NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Nelson County, Virginia. November 2010. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-12
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Madison and Orange Counties, Virginia. November 2010. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-13
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia. June 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-14
Household Water Quality in Albemarle County, Virginia
In April 2013, residents from Albemarle County participated in a drinking water clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program. Clinic participants received a confidential water sample analysis and attended educational meetings where they learned how to interpret their water test results and address potential issues. According to survey data collected, 67 samples were tested, serving 156 individuals. The most common household water quality issues identified were lead and sodium, as well as the presence of acidic water and total coliform bacteria. The figure found at the end of this report shows these common water quality issues along with basic information on standards, causes, and treatment options.
Aug 14, 2014 BSE-151NP
Household Water Quality in Caroline County, Virginia
In October 2013, residents from Caroline County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program. Clinic participants received a confidential water sample analysis and attended educational meetings where they learned how to interpret their water test results and how to address potential issues. According to survey data, 41 samples were tested, serving 94 individuals. The most common household water quality issues identified were high levels of lead and sodium, as well as the presence of acidic water and total coliform bacteria.
Aug 19, 2014 BSE-152NP
Household Water Quality in Floyd County, Virginia
In March 2013, residents from Floyd County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Aug 29, 2014 BSE-153NP
Household Water Quality in Franklin County, Virginia
In October 2013, residents from Franklin County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 2, 2014 BSE-154NP
Household Water Quality in Goochland and Powhatan Counties, Virginia
In February 2013, residents from Goochland and Powhatan Counties participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 3, 2014 BSE-155NP
Household Water Quality in Halifax County, Virginia
In August 2013, residents from Halifax County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 3, 2014 BSE-156NP
Household Water Quality in Hanover County, Virginia
In April 2013, residents from Hanover County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program
Sep 3, 2014 BSE-157NP
Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia
In October 2013, residents from Loudoun County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 5, 2014 BSE-158NP
Household Water Quality in Montgomery County, Virginia
In March 2013, residents from Montgomery County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 5, 2014 BSE-159NP
Household Water Quality in New Kent and Charles City Counties, Virginia
In July 2013, residents from New Kent and Charles City Counties participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 5, 2014 BSE-160NP
Household Water Quality in Nottoway County, Virginia
In September 2013, residents from Nottoway County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 5, 2014 BSE-161NP
Household Water Quality in Pittsylvania County, Virginia
In October 2013, residents from Pittsylvania County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension(VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 5, 2014 BSE-162NP
Household Water Quality in Pulaski and Wythe Counties Virginia
In May 2013, residents from Pulaski and Wythe Counties participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 8, 2014 BSE-163NP
Household Water Quality in Roanoke County, Virginia
In May 2013, residents from Roanoke County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 8, 2014 BSE-164NP
Household Water Quality in Clarke County, Virginia
In June 2013, residents from Clarke County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 8, 2014 BSE-166NP
Household Water Quality in Shenandoah County, Virginia
In June 2013, residents from Shenandoah County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the localVirginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 8, 2014 BSE-167NP
Household Water Quality in Warren County, Virginia
In June 2013, residents from Warren County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 8, 2014 BSE-168NP
Household Water Quality in Page County, Virginia
In June 2013, residents from Page County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program. Erin Ling, Water Quality Extension Associate, and Brian Benham, Extension Specialist and Professor, Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Tech
Sep 8, 2014 BSE-169NP
Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia
In June 2013, residents from Frederick County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension(VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program.
Sep 9, 2014 BSE-170NP
IMPACT: Virginia Household Water Quality Program
One in five Virginians, or nearly 1.7 million people, rely on private water supplies such as wells, springs, and cisterns for their household water. In the U.S., municipal systems are regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act, which requires routine water testing and treatment.
Jul 23, 2015 BSE-187NP
Hydrology Basics and the Hydrologic Cycle
This fact sheet presents and explains some common concepts in hydrology and the hydrologic cycle. The science or study of hydrology focuses on the distribution, occurrence, circulation, and properties of water in the environment.
Nov 9, 2015 BSE-191P
Household Water Quality: Emergency Supplies of Water for Drinking and Food Preparation Nov 17, 2016 BSE-209NP
Indicators Of Lead In Well Water Dec 13, 2016 BSE-210NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Buckingham County, Virginia. September 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-28
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia. March 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-29
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Isle of Wight County, Virginia, June 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-30
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Lee and Scott Counties March 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-31
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia. May 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-32
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Russell and Tazewell Counties 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-33
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Lunenburg and Nottoway Counties 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-34
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Smyth County, Virginia February 2011. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-35
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties, Virginia. October 2011. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-36
Denitrifying Bioreaders: An Emerging Best Management Practice to Improve Water Quality Apr 12, 2013 BSE-55P
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in the Northern Neck, Virginia (Northumberland, Lancaster, Richmond, Westmoreland, and Essex Counties), March and September 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-61NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Albemarle County, Virginia, April 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-62NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties, Virginia, August 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-63NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Southwest Virginia (Buchanan, Dickenson, Lee, Russell, Scott, Tazewell, and Wise Counties), Spring and Fall 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 21, 2013 BSE-64NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Prince William County, Virginia, November 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-65NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia, May 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-66NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia, May 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-67NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Warren County, Virginia, June 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-68NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Southside, Virginia (Halifax, Mecklenburg, Charlotte, Lunenburg, and Brunswick Counties), September 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-69NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Botetourt County, Virginia. July 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-7
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Page and Shenandoah Counties, Virginia, June 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-70NP
Innovative Best Management Fact Sheet No. 1: Floating Treatment Wetlands Aug 28, 2013 BSE-76P
Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems
Wastewater is a significant source of carbon, sediment, nutrients, pathogens, and other potential pollutants. Reducing the quantity of these contaminants before they are discharged to either groundwater or surface water is essential to preserve or enhance water quality in receiving waters. This is accomplished through the installation of wastewater treatment and collection systems. The form of these systems can vary substantially. In Virginia, they range in size from 5,000 to 50,000 gallons per day; 49 percent are public systems and the remainder are private (Parten 2008).
Jul 10, 2014 BSE-77P
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia. May 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-8
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Floyd County, Virginia. April 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-9
Common Ground: Why Should University Faculty Partner with Virginia Cooperative Extension?
The Virginia Household Water Quality Program (VAHWQP) works to improve the health and safety of the 1.7 million Virginians who rely on private water systems (wells, springs, and cisterns) for their household water. In the U.S., public water supplies are regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act, which mandates regular testing and treatment for many contaminants. Homeowners who rely on private water supplies are completely responsible for routine testing of their water quality, maintaining their systems, and making decisions about water treatment.
Feb 21, 2014 BSE-94NP
Virginia Household Water Quality Program, Water Sample Sep 16, 2013 BSE-95NP
Living Well Newsletter, Volume 8, Issue 1 Apr 17, 2013 FCS-15P