Resources for Forestry

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Measuring Site Index
Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests. Site index is the average height of the dominant1 and codominant2 trees on the site, at a given age (base age). Typically, the base age for hardwoods and white pine in Virginia is 50 years, while the base age for loblolly pine is 25 years. For example, a SI of 75, base age 50, means that the average height of the dominant and codominant trees on a site will be 75 feet when they are 50 years old (SI50=75). The higher the SI, the higher the site productivity (trees will grow faster than on a site with a lower SI).
Dec 3, 2014 2812-1028 (ANR-125NP)
Pales Weevil
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
Dec 11, 2014 2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)
Emerald Ash Borer Mar 17, 2016 2904-1290 (ENTO-200NP)
Pine Bark Adelgid
The pine bark adelgid was introduced from Europe and is now widely distributed in North America, occurring principally throughout the native range of eastern white pine. This insect is also found on Scots and Austrian pine.
Mar 6, 2015 2907-1402 (ENTO-120NP)
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner
These beetles cause very conspicuous damage in late summer. The leaves on large numbers of twigs and branches will be observed to turn brown prematurely. These twigs and branches sometimes fall from trees in great numbers and accumulate. On close examination, the twigs have one of two kinds of damage. Twigs damaged by the twig girdler are cut as neatly as by a knife. The cut end has been gnawed almost straight across with a faint rounding and is slightly roughened by the chewing. The twig girdler is more commonly found on pecan and hickory. The twig pruner causes a slightly different type of cut. The twig will be observed to have a hollowed out space at the cut end filled with sawdust like frass. The twig when split open will have a long tunnel through most of its length. The twig pruner is more commonly found on oak.
Mar 16, 2015 2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)
Virginia Pine Sawfly
The Virginia pine sawfly has been recorded from New Jersey and Maryland to North Carolina and westward to Illinois. Its main hosts are Virginia and shortleaf pines, but it also feeds on pitch and loblolly pine.
Mar 16, 2015 2911-1424 (ENTO-125NP)
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Dec 16, 2016 3006-1451 (ENTO-228NP)
Balsam Woolly Adelgid
Native to central Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid is now distributed throughout eastern and western North America. It attacks all true firs, Abies spp., including balsam and Fraser fir.
Jun 24, 2015 3006-1452(ENTO-161NP)
Redheaded Pine Sawfly
The redheaded pine sawfly occurs from S.E. Canada throughout the eastern U.S. Feeding is primarily restricted to the two and three-needled pines, such as Jack, red, shortleaf, loblolly, slash, longleaf, and pitch pines. White pine and Norway spruce may also be defoliated.
Jun 24, 2015 3006-1453(ENTO-162NP)
Pine Tortoise Scale
Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years - most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.
Mar 24, 2016 3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)
Virginia Logger Safety Checklist Booklet Aug 5, 2011 3108-1592
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for nine to eleven year olds Nov 9, 2009 388-807
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for fourteen-to eighteen-year-olds Nov 9, 2009 388-809
Managing Wildlife Damage: Snakes Aug 26, 2010 420-021
Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia Oct 5, 2010 420-039
Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia
Each year many landowners in Virginia consider Christmas tree farming as an alternative enterprise for their unused open land. The number of growers in the Commonwealth is increasing steadily, and currently Virginia ranks eighth in the nation in Christmas tree production, with about 1.8 million trees harvested in 1990.
Apr 24, 2015 420-080 (AREC-122P)
Economics of Producing an Acre of White Pine Christmas Trees
Growing Christmas trees is an enterprise that has wide appeal as a land management alternative for many landowners in Virginia. Growing Christmas trees, however, is a moderately long-term investment that is time-consuming and laborintensive. A successful plantation requires a full commitment by the landowner and constant attention to culturing the trees. It also is fairly risky, with unpredictable potential for damage from insects, disease, weather, animals, weeds, and mancaused accidents.
May 1, 2009 420-081
Species for Christmas Tree Planting in Virginia
Christmas tree production in Virginia has steadily increased over the last several years. Favorable climate, soils, and proximity to markets place Virginia growers in a highly desirable marketing situation.
May 1, 2009 420-082
Forest Landowner’s Guide To The Measurement Of Timber And Logs
As a forest landowner interested in selling timber, you are naturally interested in the price you will receive for your product and how that price is determined. The measurement of standing timber and logs may seem strange and complicated to you, and it is possible that you may be quoted dramatically different prices based upon differing estimates of the amount of timber you have and the units of measurement used. Methods of measuring timber and the units of measurement often differ between buyers, and, as a seller, you should have an understanding of these methods, the units of measurement, and an idea as to a reasonable price for your timber.
Dec 15, 2014 420-085 (ANR-120P)
A Logger's Guide to Harvest Planning
Timber harvesting is an extremely complex operation. It involves several interrelated processes carried out over a large and sometimes highly variable area, often taking several weeks or months to complete. Since pay is based on production, operational efficiency is critical. In addition, today's logging contractor must comply with numerous laws and regulations affecting every facet of his business.
May 1, 2009 420-088
Farm Tractor Logging for Woodlot Owners
Farmers performing their own timber harvest on their woodlots is common in the Scandinavian countries. Using specialized logging attachments on modified farm tractors, they often log during the winter when their normal farming operations are suspended.
May 1, 2009 420-090
A Checklist for Efficient Log Trucking
Trucking is often the most expensive phase of a timber harvesting operation, accounting for as much as 40-60 percent of the total logging cost. Numerous state and federal highway laws also make trucking the most regulated part of a logging business.
May 1, 2009 420-094
Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide May 26, 2009 420-122
Dealing with Timber Theft
Forestland can provide countless hours of recreational benefits as well as an important source of income. Many landowners take careful steps to ensure that their property is managed to maximize the benefits they receive. However, all of this work can be easily eradicated by one of Virginia’s most dreaded forest pests: timber thieves.
Jan 21, 2015 420-136(AREC-107P)
A Landowner's Guide to Wildlife Abundance through Forestry
Your woodlands offer the promise of immediate and long-term benefits. Managed forests produce yields of timber and wildlife.
May 1, 2009 420-138
Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners
As a private woodland owner, you are a vital link in the sustainability of Virginia’s forest resources. Your land provides many benefits to all Virginians, including wood products, wildlife habitat, clean air and water, and recreational opportunities.
Feb 3, 2016 420-139 (ANR-157P)
Moving Toward Sustainable Forestry: Strategies for Forest Landowners
The forests of the United States have undergone substantial changes since European settlement in the 1600’s. In colonial America, trees were viewed as weeds, and land was cleared to plant agricultural crops. Timber was used to make cabins, fences, and other structures important to frontier life. Forests continued to be cleared as the United States became an important member of the world’s economy. Our forests were one of our most important resources and provided us with wood for housing, paper, and export goods. Forests were cut and the land cleared with little further thought. Deforestation then began to slow, but we still viewed the forest as an unlimited supply of timber, wildlife, homesites, and recreation opportunities. The increasing interest in the environment has now caused us to stand back and think about the sustainability of our forest practices.
Dec 15, 2014 420-144 (AREC-108NP)
The ABCs of Cost Allocation in the Wood Products Industry: Applications in the Furniture Industry Sep 17, 2010 420-147
Lean Inventory Management in the Wood Products Industry: Examples and Applications Sep 28, 2010 420-148
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: An Overview May 1, 2009 420-150
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Water Quality
Over a third of our nation’s streams, lakes, and estuaries are impaired by some form of water pollution (U.S. E.P.A. 1998). Pollutants can enter surface waters from point sources, such as single source industrial discharges and waste-water treatment plants; however, most pollutants result from nonpoint source pollution activities, including runoff from agricultural lands, urban areas, construction and industrial sites, and failed septic tanks.
May 1, 2009 420-151
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities
The riparian area is that area of land located immediately adjacent to streams, lakes, or other surface waters. Some would describe it as the floodplain. The boundary of the riparian area and the adjoining uplands is gradual and not always well defined. However, riparian areas differ from the uplands because of their high levels of soil moisture, frequent flooding, and unique assemblage of plant and animal communities. Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests maintain many important physical, biological, and ecological functions and important social benefits.
May 1, 2009 420-152
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners
The riparian area is that area of land located immediately adjacent to streams, lakes, or other surface waters. Some would describe it as the floodplain. The boundary of the riparian area and the adjoining uplands is gradual and not always well defined.
May 1, 2009 420-153
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors Influencing Adoption
The riparian area is that area of land located immediately adjacent to streams, lakes, or other surface waters. Some would describe it as the floodplain. The boundary of the riparian area and the adjoining uplands is gradual and not always well defined. However, riparian areas differ from the uplands because of their high levels of soil moisture, frequent flooding, and unique assemblage of plant and animal communities. Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests maintain many important physical, biological, and ecological functions and important social benefits.
May 1, 2009 420-154
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance May 1, 2009 420-155
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Resources for Virginia Landowners
Riparian forest buffers can provide many benefits to society through improved water quality, reduced flooding, reduced sedimentation of streams and reservoirs, and enhanced recreational opportunities. However, the cost of establishing and maintaining these buffers on private lands can be significant to the individual landowner. To help Virginia's landowners in their restoration efforts, the agencies of the commonwealth have agreed to work with individuals and communities in their efforts to restore streamside lands by providing education, technical assistance, and funding. They are joined in this effort by federal agencies and many non-profit conservation organizations.
May 1, 2009 420-156
Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners May 1, 2009 420-165
Urban Forestry Issues
The U.S. population has grown increasingly urban each decade, from 28 percent in 1910 to 80 percent in 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002). In the Chesapeake watershed alone, residential development is predicted to consume 800,000 acres between 2003 and 2030, nearly 90 percent of it replacing farmland (Boesch and Greer, 2003). As urban communities grow larger and faster than ever before, natural resource management in these areas becomes crucial for achieving sustainable development and maintaining and enhancing the quality of life and the environment.
May 1, 2009 420-180
Value, Benefits, and Costs of Urban Trees May 1, 2009 420-181
Investing in Sustainable Forestry; A Guide for Virginia’s Forest Landowners May 18, 2011 420-186
Safe and Efficient Practices for Trucking Unmanufactured Forest Products
The transportation of unmanufactured forest products is an important component of any timber harvesting system. In the southeastern United States, approximately 90 percent of the wood delivered to mills is transported by truck.
May 8, 2009 420-310
Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management
Invasive exotic species are plants that are not native to a given area and have the ability to out-compete indigenous plant species. Invasive exotics are often brought into their non-native surroundings by humans with good intentions.
Mar 18, 2015 420-320(AREC-106P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)
Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.
Dec 3, 2014 420-321 (ANR-123P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)
Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise- tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.
May 4, 2015 420-322(ANR-122P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)
Several species of Asian honeysuckle have been introduced in the United States for their ornamental and wildlife values. Honeysuckle is perhaps the most widespread exotic invasive in the U.S., now found in at least 38 states. The Asian honeysuckle produces abundant seeds which are dispersed by birds and other wildlife. It also spreads by sprouting from its roots. Because it tolerates shade from other plants, it grows in forest understories.
Jan 20, 2015 420-323(ANR-124P)
Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees
Forest management is a complex process. Silviculture—a system in which healthy communities of trees and other vegetation are established and maintained for the benefit of people—uses forest ecology to guide complex management prescriptions that mimic forest disturbances and processes. Silvics—the natural characteristics of trees—play an important role in prescribing effective silviculture.
Dec 15, 2014 420-351 (ANR-118NP)
Principles of Regeneration Silviculture in Virginia
The processes used to grow forest trees are similar to those required to grow agricultural and horticultural crops. It takes less than a year, however, to grow agricultural and most horticultural crops, while it takes many years to grow a crop of trees. Forest crops consequently require careful planning and proper management to be successful and profitable. Understanding the principles of silviculture aids landowners in managing their lands to obtain a wide variety of forest products and benefits that satisfy their individ-ual objectives. The principles of silviculture are presented in this bulletin.
Aug 25, 2009 420-405
Measuring Standing Trees and Logs Jul 14, 2009 420-560
Coloring Christmas Trees Before Harvest
As the Christmas tree industry develops in Virginia, the production of larger quantities of trees places growers in a more competitive environment. Under conditions of competition, it becomes necessary for growers to produce the highest quality trees possible in order to enjoy marketing success. There are many characteristics of Christmas trees which are widely considered to be quality factors, but the most important are shape, needle retention, straightness, and color.
Mar 19, 2015 420-638(AREC-116P)
Selection and Care of Christmas Trees
For many families, selection and purchase of a Christmas tree is an annual tradition. Indeed, bringing home the tree often signals the official start of the holiday season.
May 1, 2009 420-641
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be! May 1, 2009 426-109
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
Apr 8, 2015 430-027 (HORT-115P)
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas May 1, 2009 430-028
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
Apr 8, 2015 430-031 (HORT-111P)
24 Ways to Kill a Tree
Few residential trees die of “old age.” Mechanical damage and improper tree care kill more trees than any insects or diseases. Avoid making the tree-damaging mistakes shown in the diagram below. Few of these items alone would kill a tree, but multiple problems will certainly stress, and could eventually kill, a tree.
Apr 8, 2015 430-210 (HORT-112P)
Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland: Loblolly Pine
The Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland Project seeks to provide farmers with basic information about grow¬ing and marketing tree crops. Tree crops have many advantages for farmers with marginal or unused land. The cost of inputs is relatively low, economic returns may be quite competitive with alternatives, and there are important environmental benefits.
Jun 23, 2009 446-609
Tree Crops For Marginal Farmland -- Christmas Trees May 1, 2009 446-605
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-016 (ENTO-221P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-017 (ENTO-222P)
Calibrating Hand-held and Backpack Sprayers for Applying Pesticides
Hand-held and backpack sprayers are inexpensive tools used to apply pesticides on small acreages. Home gardens, yards, small orchards, and Christmas tree plantations are examples of areas that often require pesticide applications to protect them from weeds, insects, and diseases. Effective pest control depends on applying the proper amount of pesticide. This can only be done if the spray equipment is calibrated accurately.
Sep 9, 2014 456-502 (ANR-93P)
Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land Sep 2, 2009 460-116
Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land Mar 30, 2011 460-123
Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses Feb 19, 2010 460-124
Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land Dec 4, 2009 460-138
Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining Feb 25, 2010 460-140
Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses Sep 29, 2009 460-141
Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests Feb 26, 2010 460-143
Forests of Virginia: Importance, Composition, Ecology, Threats, and Management Mar 4, 2016 465-315 (ANR-163P)
To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question
The economic and ecological considerations of clear cutting wooded acreage.
May 1, 2009 465-340
Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses May 1, 2009 465-341
Consider Logging Residue Needs for BMP Implementation When Harvesting Biomass for Energy
Utilization of woody biomass for energy has increased substantially in Virginia. While there are a number of definitions for biomass, woody biomass from forest harvesting operations typically refers to logging residues such as limbs, tops, and other unmerchantable material that would otherwise be left behind on-site after the logging operation is complete. Logging residues are typically chipped and then transported to facilities where they are used for fuel. Biomass harvesting in Virginia most commonly occurs on integrated harvesting operations where roundwood and biomass are harvested and utilized at the same time in a single operation.
Aug 7, 2014 ANR-108NP
Effectiveness of Skid Trail Closure Techniques. Forest Operations Research Highlights Aug 7, 2014 ANR-109NP
Effectiveness of Temporary Stream Crossing Closure Techniques Forest Operations Research Highlights
Protection of water quality is a critical component of forest harvesting operations. Virginia’s silvicultural water quality law (§10.1-1181.1 through 10.1-1181.7) prohibits excessive sedimentation of streams as a result of silvicultural operations. Virginia’s logging businesses invest substantial resources implementing BMPs to protect water quality. The Virginia Department of Forestry (VDOF) is responsible for enforcing this law and inspects all logging operations to ensure protection of water quality.
Aug 8, 2014 ANR-110NP
All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot
Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.
Feb 23, 2015 ANR-132NP
Thinning Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot
Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.
Apr 24, 2015 ANR-133NP (ANR-149NP)
Welcome to the Woods! A Guide for New Virginia Woodland Owners
We all depend on and benefit from the woods every day, whether we know it or not. The trees, shrubs, plants, animals, and soil that make up your woods provide you, your neighbors, and your region with a host of environmental, social, and economic benefits.
May 13, 2015 ANR-136P
Statistical Process Control: Applications and Examples for Forest Products Industries
Creating value requires managers to master quantitative and qualitative techniques to document and analyze information used in the decision making process. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a tool that allows administrators both in service and manufacturing industries to monitor process capability to ensure customer requirements are met efficiently and effectively.
Apr 7, 2015 ANR-140NP
So You Want To Sell Timber
Research into the attitudes and actions of private forest landowners shows that although very few own their forestland for the purpose of producing timber, most will sell timber at least once in their lifetimes. Private forest landowners sell timber for a variety of reasons that range from purely financial to solely for management purposes. Often landowners do not consider selling timber until they have an immediate need for cash. Other times the landowner has planned an immediate commercial thinning with a full timber harvest scheduled in 10 years. Whatever the reason(s) for a timber sale, careful consideration of objectives is paramount.
Sep 23, 2015 ANR-154P
Timber Selling Tips: Forestry Fact Sheet for Landowners
Timber harvesting is a valuable tool to help forest landowners realize certain financial and land management goals. Following are some suggestions to consider before selling timber.
Sep 23, 2015 ANR-155P
Business Management Practices for Small to Medium Sized Forest Products Firms Nov 4, 2015 ANR-160P
Trees and Water Jul 30, 2012 ANR-18NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service December 2015 Housing Commentary: A Feb 24, 2016 ANR-182NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service December 2015 Housing Commentary: Part B
“If current laws governing federal taxes and spending generally remained in place, by CBO’s projections, real GDP would grow by 2.7 percent this calendar year and by 2.5 percent in 2017, as measured by the change from the fourth quarter of the previous year. From 2018 through 2020, the economy would grow at an average annual rate of 2.0 percent, CBO projects.
Feb 25, 2016 ANR-183NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service February 2016 Housing Commentary: Section I
In February, housing was mixed. Total and single-family starts improved modestly month-over-month. Once again, aggregate housing permits were disappointing – total permits decreased month-over-month; single-family permits eked out a gain, and multifamily permits were decidedly negative. Housing under construction data indicated minimal increases and housing completions were negative. Total private and new single-family construction spending increased somewhat. New house sales exhibited some growth and existing sales were disappointingly negative.
Apr 29, 2016 ANR-189NP (ANR-196NP)
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service February 2016 Housing Commentary: Section II
The baseline scenario for the United States is a moderate economic expansion through the projection period. Real GDP grows at an average rate of 2! percent per year. The unemployment rate declines to 4! percent in the middle of 2017 and remains near that level through the end of the scenario period. CPI inflation rises to 2! percent at an annual rate by the middle of 2017 before dropping back to about 2 percent in the first quarter of 2018 and remaining near that level thereafter.
May 4, 2016 ANR-190NP (ANR-197NP)
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service October 2015 Housing Commentary: Section I Mar 24, 2016 ANR-191NP
The Woods In Your Backyard: Learning to Create and Enhance Natural Areas Around Your Home May 17, 2016 ANR-199NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service March 2016 Housing Commentary: Section I May 17, 2016 ANR-202NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service March 2016 Housing Commentary: Section II May 17, 2016 ANR-203NP
What is a Virginia Master Naturalist? Jan 20, 2017 ANR-242
The Virginia Tech –U.S. Forest ServiceJanuary 2017 Housing Commentary: Section I Apr 3, 2017 ANR-258NP
The Virginia Tech –U.S. Forest Service January 2017 Housing Commentary: Section II Apr 3, 2017 ANR-259NP
Rare Forested Natural Communities in Virginia Apr 3, 2017 ANR-260NP
One-Year Health, Mortality, and Growth in Southeast Virginia of Shortleaf Pine From Three Sources
Restoration of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) in Virginia has become a priority of various state and federal agencies. For shortleaf pine restoration to be successful in Virginia, private lands must be considered because 89 percent of forestland in Virginia is privately owned, and most private landowners are likely to use commercially available seedling sources. Shortleaf seedlings from commercially available sources in Virginia, Arkansas, and Missouri were planted in two sites in Southeast Virginia to test growth and yield. After one year, height and ground-line diameter were measured and observations were made on health and mortality of the plants. The Virginia seed source was significantly taller than the Arkansas source. At the first site, mortality and disease were low, but at the second site, mortality and poor health were very high, possibly due to soils combined with weather conditions. No significant seed source effects on disease and mortality were found at either site.
Apr 22, 2013 ANR-28P
Forest Harvesting in Virginia, Characteristics of Virginia’s Logging Operations Feb 10, 2012 ANR-5
To Certify or Not? An Important Question for Virginia’s Family Forest Owners
Family forest owners ask themselves many questions about their properties, such as if and when to cut timber, what types of wildlife to manage for, how to control exotic invasive species, and how to protect water quality. An increasingly common question that forest owners ask is whether they should certify their forests. This publication can help forest owners determine if certification is an appropriate option. It defines certification, as well as its benefits and costs, and describes three common certification programs in Virginia. It also covers how family forest owners can begin the certification process, lists sources of additional information, and answers frequently asked questions.
Sep 9, 2013 ANR-50P
The Role of Logging Business Owners in Forest Certification May 22, 2013 ANR-51NP
Wood Identification for Species Native to Virginia
Virginia has many tree species that yield a rich variety of wood, each with its own unique structural, physical, and mechanical properties. These differences determine a species’ suitability for products. Because wood is a readily available and popular material, it is important that enthusiasts and professionals be able to distinguish between different species. For example, how would a barrel manufacturer tell the difference between red oak, which doesn’t hold liquids, and white oak, which does?
Sep 24, 2013 ANR-64P
Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes May 23, 2016 CSES-146P
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
Sep 30, 2016 CSES-155P
Banded Ash Borer
Adult banded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 8–18 mm (0.3–0.7 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. Adults are grayish-black in color with lighter colored hairs all over the body. There is a yellow band on the leading edge of the thorax directly behind the head and several yellow bands across the wing covers.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-133NP
Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Forst.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
The locust borer is a native insect that attacks black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and its ornamental cultivars. Adult locust borers are conspicuous black and yellow beetles with long black antennae and reddish legs. There is a yellow W-shaped band across the wing covers with other yellow stripes.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-141NP
Galls made by Wasps
Gall wasps attack primarily oak trees, and are found on roots, flowers, and acorns, but especially the leaves and twigs. Roses and brambles (blackberries and raspberries) also are attacked by gall wasps. These insects have complicated life cycles, and the galls they produce occur in an endless variety of shapes and colors. In some species, alternate generations produce distinctly different galls.
May 14, 2015 ENTO-145NP
Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges
Galls made by made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges occur on many different plants. Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Most are harmless to trees, but a few are pests.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-146NP
Galls and Rust made by Mites
Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-147NP
Yellow Poplar Weevil
Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.
Nov 6, 2015 ENTO-172NP
Boxelder Bug
This bug is about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 as wide. It is black with three red lines on the thorax, a red line along each side, and an oblique red line on each wing. The wings lie flat on the back when at rest. The young nymphs are red and gray. The population of bugs may number into the thousands. Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus
Feb 26, 2016 ENTO-186NP
Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners
Emerald ash borer (EAB) is found in all regions of Virginia. Some areas have established populations with a high level of ash tree mortality and other areas are seeing it for the first time. With a wider spread of infestation many homeowners are seeking methods to protect their ash trees.
Sep 4, 2014 ENTO-76NP
Emerald Ash Borer
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a wood-boring beetle native to eastern Asia and is now considered the most destructive forest pest ever seen in North America. Since its discovery in Michigan in 2002, it has killed tens of millions of native ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and Canada. This destruction has already cost municipalities, property owners, and businesses tens of millions of dollars in damages.
Feb 7, 2014 HORT-69NP
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2