Resources for Horticulture

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
American Beautyberry May 1, 2009 2901-1033
American Yellowood May 1, 2009 2901-1034
Evergreen Azalea May 1, 2009 2901-1035
Beautybush May 1, 2009 2901-1036
Cherrylaurel May 1, 2009 2901-1038
Cotoneaster May 1, 2009 2901-1039
Crapemyrtle May 1, 2009 2901-1040
Doublefile Viburnum May 1, 2009 2901-1041
Drooping Leucothoe May 1, 2009 2901-1042
European White Birch May 1, 2009 2901-1043
Flowering Quince May 1, 2009 2901-1044
Fraser Photinia, Red Tip May 1, 2009 2901-1045
Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree May 1, 2009 2901-1046
Goldenraintree May 1, 2009 2901-1047
Green Ash May 1, 2009 2901-1048
Japanese Maple May 1, 2009 2901-1049
Japanese Barberry May 1, 2009 2901-1050
Japanese Camillia May 1, 2009 2901-1051
Japanese Holly May 1, 2009 2901-1052
Japanese Pagodatree, Sophora May 1, 2009 2901-1053
Leatherleaf Viburnum May 1, 2009 2901-1054
Littleleaf Linden May 1, 2009 2901-1055
Live Oak May 1, 2009 2901-1056
London Planetree May 1, 2009 2901-1057
Nandina, Heavenly Bamboo May 1, 2009 2901-1058
Norway Maple May 1, 2009 2901-1059
Old Fashioned Weigela May 1, 2009 2901-1060
Oregon Grape Holly (Manhonia) May 1, 2009 2901-1061
Pin Oak May 1, 2009 2901-1062
Privet May 1, 2009 2901-1063
Red Maple May 1, 2009 2901-1064
Evergreen Rhododendron May 1, 2009 2901-1065
Rose of Sharon, Shrub Althea May 1, 2009 2901-1066
Scarlet Firethron, Pyracantha May 1, 2009 2901-1067
Smokebush, Smoketree May 1, 2009 2901-1068
Southern Magnolia May 1, 2009 2901-1069
Southern Waxmyrtle May 1, 2009 2901-1070
Sugar Maple May 1, 2009 2901-1071
Sweetgum May 1, 2009 2901-1072
Thornless Common Honeylocust May 1, 2009 2901-1073
Tuliptree May 1, 2009 2901-1074
Vanhoutte Spirea May 1, 2009 2901-1075
White Oak May 1, 2009 2901-1076
Winterberry May 1, 2009 2901-1077
Wintercreeper Euonymus May 1, 2009 2901-1078
Yaupon Holly Cultivars May 1, 2009 2901-1079
Community Supported Agriculture Jul 17, 2009 2906-1301
Do Fall Crucifers Have A Place In Virginia? Jul 21, 2009 2906-1304
Taking Another Look At Globe Artichokes At Virginia Tech Jul 21, 2009 2906-1306
Tips for Handling Gourds this Fall Season Jul 21, 2009 2906-1307
Notes on Harvesting and Handling Melons Jul 21, 2009 2906-1308
Keeping Produce Safe During the Harvest Season Jul 22, 2009 2906-1311
Organic Production - Some Thoughts and Considerations Jul 22, 2009 2906-1317
Specialty Crop Profile: Pawpaw (part 1) Jul 22, 2009 2906-1318
Specialty Crop Profile: Pawpaw (part 2) Jul 22, 2009 2906-1319
Consider Rhubarb as an Addition to Your Spring Roadside Market Mix Jul 23, 2009 2906-1322
Considering Specialty Crops? Jul 24, 2009 2906-1325
Weed Management in Small Fruit Crops Jul 24, 2009 2906-1327
Displaying in a Farm Market Jul 24, 2009 2906-1333
Natural Plant Hormones Are Biostimulants Helping Plants Develop Higher Plant Antioxidant Activity For Multiple Benefits Jul 27, 2009 2906-1339
New Pumpkin Guide Released By NRAES Jul 27, 2009 2906-1341
Specialty Crop Profile: Ginseng Jul 28, 2009 2906-1345
Time to Plant Garlic Jul 28, 2009
GAPs: Common Sense for Fresh Produce Growers Jul 31, 2009 2906-1359
Specialty Crop Profile: Popcorn Aug 4, 2009 2906-1364
Potential for Vegetables During the Strawberry Season Aug 4, 2009 2906-1365
Specialty Crop Profile: Blueberries for the Upper Piedmont and Mountain Regions - Part 2 Aug 11, 2009 2906-1380
No-till Organic Culture of Garlic Utilizing Different Cover Crop Residues and Straw Mulch for Over-wintering Protection, Under Two Seasonal Levels of Organic Nitrogen Aug 17, 2009 2906-1389
Off-season Management Tasks and Considerations for Selected Small Fruit Crops Aug 17, 2009 2906-1390
Introduction to Cold-Hardy Tropicals for Virginia Landscapes May 11, 2010 3005-1446
Austrian Pine, Pinus nigra Nov 3, 2010 3010-1462
Bigleaf Hydrangea, Hydrangea macrophylla Nov 3, 2010 3010-1463
Bradford Callery Pear (and other cultivars) Pyrus calleryana ‘Bradford’ Nov 3, 2010 3010-1464
Canadian Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1465
Carolina Silverbell, Halesia carolina (formerly H. tetraptera) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1466
Cedars, Cedrus spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1467
Chastetree, Monk’s Pepper Tree, Vitex agnus-castus Nov 3, 2010 3010-1468
Chinese Juniper, Juniperus chinensis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1469
Colorado Spruce, Picea pungens var. glauca Nov 3, 2010 3010-1470
Common Periwinkle, Lesser Periwinkle, Vinca minor Nov 3, 2010 3010-1471
Cornelian Cherry Dogwood, Cornus mas Nov 3, 2010 3010-1472
Creeping Juniper, Juniperus horizontalis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1473
Dawn Redwood, Metasequoia glyptostroboides Nov 3, 2010 3010-1474
Dwarf Alberta Spruce, Picea glauca ‘Conica’ Nov 3, 2010 3010-1475
Eastern Arborvitae, American Arborvitae, White Cedar, Thuja occidentalis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1476
Eastern Redcedar, Juniperus virginiana Nov 3, 2010 3010-1477
English Ivy, Hedera helix Nov 3, 2010 3010-1478
European Cranberrybush Viburnum (Guelder Rose), Viburnum opulus Nov 3, 2010 3010-1479
European Hornbeam, Carpinus betulus Nov 3, 2010 3010-1480
European Larch, Larix decidua Nov 3, 2010 3010-1481
Evergreen Hollies, (Ilex spp.) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1482
Flowering Crabapple, Malus spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1483
Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida Nov 3, 2010 3010-1484
Franklinia, Franklinia alatamaha Nov 3, 2010 3010-1485
Garden Sumacs, Rhus spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1486
Giant Arborviatae, Western Arborvitae, Thuja plicata Nov 3, 2010 3010-1487
Glossy Abelia, Abelia ×grandiflora Nov 3, 2010 3010-1488
Heaths (several species of Erica) and Heathers (Calluna vulgaris) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1489
Japanese Garden Juniper, Juniperus procumbens ‘Nana’ Nov 3, 2010 3010-1490
Japanese Pachysandra, Japanese Spurge, Pachysandra terminalis Nov 3, 2010 3010-1491
Japanese Pieris, Pieris japonica Nov 3, 2010 3010-1492
Lilacs, Syringa spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1493
Mountain-Laurel, Kalmia latifolia Nov 3, 2010 3010-1494
Mugo Pine, Pinus mugo Nov 3, 2010 3010-1495
Oriental Arborvitae, Thuja orientalis (also known as Platycladus orientalis) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1496
Red Twig Dogwoods, Tatarian Dogwood (Cornus alba) and Redosier Dogwood (Cornus sericea) Nov 3, 2010 3010-1497
Shore Juniper, Juniperus conferta Nov 3, 2010 3010-1498
White Fringetree, Old-man’s-beard, Chionanthus virginicus Nov 3, 2010 3010-1499
Yews, Taxus spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1500
Yuccas, Yucca spp. Nov 3, 2010 3010-1501
Growing Pears in Virginia
Pears are the second most important deciduous tree fruit after apple, and it has been grown in Europe since prehistoric times. Pears belong to the genus Pyrus and probably originated near the Black and Caspian Seas. French and English colonists brought pears to America and the first record of pears in the North America was in Massachusetts in 1630. Although pear is a popular fruit, it is not grown as widely as apple. Pears can be grown throughout much of North America because they tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions.
Feb 19, 2015 422-017 (HORT-97P)
Growing Cherries in Virginia
Cherries are grown in many parts of the world, but they have never gained the popularity in North America that they have in Europe and the Middle East. Cherries probably originated in the region between the Caspian and Black Seas, where trees still grow in the wild.
Feb 26, 2015 422-018 (HORT-166P)
Growing Peaches & Nectarines in Virginia
An orchard is a long-term investment and careful planning is essential to ensure economic success. Establishing and maintaining a peach planting to bearing age (three years) costs about $3,500 per acre. Mistakes made at planting often cannot be corrected; other mistakes that can be corrected could seriously jeopardize the economic success of the orchard. Because profit margins for commercial fruit plantings are small, orchards should be established only under the most favorable conditions for success.
Feb 17, 2015 422-019 (HORT-96P)
Pruning Peach Trees
Annual pruning is a critical management practice for producing easily harvested, heavy crops of high quality peaches. However, pruning is not a substitute for other orchard practices such as fertilization, irrigation, and pest control. Pruning practices vary slightly in different regions of the United States, but have changed little in the East during the past 70 years. Although pruning may vary slightly for different varieties and localities, certain general practices should be followed. The successful pruner must understand the principles of plant growth, the natural growth habit of the tree, and how the tree will respond to certain types of pruning cuts. Improper pruning will reduce yield and fruit quality.
Jan 28, 2015 422-020 (HORT-93P)
Training and Pruning Apple Trees
Proper training and pruning of trees is a major component of a profitable apple orchard operation. Successful pruning is an art based upon scientific principles of tree growth and physiology and an experienced understanding of tree response to various pruning cuts and practices. Each tree is an individual and should be treated accordingly. Varieties differ in growth characteristics and response to pruning cuts, rootstocks, soil, and growing conditions. It is important that orchard designs, objectives, and goals be clearly defined and that pruning principles are developed accordingly. Mediumto high-density plantings require greater commitment to detailed training and pruning than low-density orchards and should not be attempted unless such a commitment is made.
Jan 30, 2015 422-021(HORT-94P)
Growing Apples in Virginia
Growing apples in the home garden can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience, but consistent production of high quality fruit requires knowledge of tree and fruit growth and a willingness to perform certain practices at the appropriate time. Virginia is on the southern fringe of the U. S. apple producing region. Most apple varieties produce the highest quality fruit when night-time temperatures are cool (less than 60°F) at harvest time. Apples grown under warmer conditions tend to be large, soft, poorly colored, and less flavorful than when grown under cooler conditions. Our warm humid summers are also conducive for infection of many diseases. For these reasons, the best Virginia apples are grown at elevations higher than 800 feet above sea level in the western part of the state. However, even apples grown in eastern Virginia usually have quality superior to apples purchased in the supermarkets.
Feb 16, 2015 422-023 (HORT-95P)
Training and Pruning Apple Trees in Intensive Orchards
Since the mid 1970s in the U. S., the number of apple trees per acre in new orchards has gradually been increasing. Orchard intensification is motivated by the desire to produce fruit early in the life of the orchard to rapidly recover establishment costs. Intensification is possible by using dwarfing rootstocks that control tree size, induce early cropping, and produce large quantities of fruit relative to the amount of wood produced.
Feb 24, 2015 422-024 (HORT-99P)
Physiology of Pruning Fruit Trees
Woody plants are pruned to maintain a desired size and shape and to promote a certain type of growth. Ornamental plants are pruned to improve the aesthetic quality of the plant, but fruit trees are pruned to improve fruit quality by encouraging an appropriate balance between vegetative (wood) and reproductive (fruiting) growth.
Feb 26, 2015 422-025 (HORT-98P)
1995 Apple Variety Evaluations
There are more than 2,000 apple varieties and new varieties are becoming available each year. Some apple varieties perform optimally under specific climatic conditions. Therefore, varieties must be evaluated in many geographical locations to determine adaptation to local conditions. Results from one such evaluation trial are presented in this bulletin. Fifty apple varieties on the dwarfing rootstocks M.9, MARK, or M.26 were planted in 1986 or 1988 near Blacksburg, Virginia. Blacksburg is located in the Allegheny mountains at 2,200 feet above sea level. All varieties were evaluated for at least three years.
Feb 24, 2015 422-760 (AREC-130P)
1988-1995 Apricot Variety Evaluations in Virginia
Many apricot varieties are available to tree fruit producers. Therefore, growers should become acquainted with characteristics of various varieties grown under Virginia climatic conditions. Currently, apricots are not produced commercially in the mid-Atlantic area because trees bloom early and are susceptible to spring frost. Flower buds are quite resistant to low winter temperatures and there are active apricot breeding programs in Ontario, New York, West Virginia, New Jersey, and Arkansas, as well as in California. If late-blooming productive varieties are planted on the most frost-free sites, and bloom delaying techniques are employed, Virginia fruit growers may be able to profitably produce limited acreages of high-quality apricots.
Feb 24, 2015 422-761 (HORT-100P)
Peach and Nectarine Varieties for Virginia
Peach and nectarine are both members of the genus and species Prunus persica, and probably differ by only a single gene for skin pubescence (hairs on the fruit surface). One probably originated as a mutation of the other, but we do not know which came first. The species originated in China and was taken by traders from there into Persia, Greece, Italy, and other temperate areas of Europe. Peach and nectarine varieties may have yellow or white flesh. In Virginia different varieties ripen over a wide range of dates, from early June until mid-September. Varieties also differ in fruit size, susceptibility to some diseases and susceptibility to low winter temperatures, chilling requirements, and fruit disorders such as fruit cracking and split-pit. Descriptions of some of these characteristics are included in the next section of this publication.
Feb 23, 2015 422-762 (AREC-128P)
Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia May 1, 2009 424-006
Container and Raised-Bed Gardening May 1, 2009 426-020
Daylilies in Virginia May 1, 2009 426-030
Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration
Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment — an important part of the natural water cycle (VADEQ 2010).
Jun 18, 2015 426-046(HORT-160P)
Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners May 1, 2009 426-059
Gardening & Your Health, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Gardening with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can be very difficult, especially when a long day of shoveling, raking, or weed pulling leaves you with a painful or “tingling” hand or wrist. These aches and pains are often caused in part by improper techniques or tools used in gardening.
Jun 1, 2017 426-060(HORT-131P)
Gardening and Your Health: Protecting Your Hands and Feet
The skin on hands and feet is like most ornamental plants. Neither likes the extremes of being dried out or kept too wet. Treat skin as tenderly as the most sensitive plants and safeguard your horticultural health.
Apr 29, 2015 426-061 (HORT-135P)
Gardening and Your Health: Sunburn & Skin Cancer
Most people have suffered from at least one bad sunburn. The beginning of a sunburn is shown by hot, pink skin. Later comes swelling, burning pain, and possibly blistering. As the burn leaves, peeling inevitably appears. Peeling means that the skin is thickening up to protect itself from further sun damage. If burned skin continues to get exposed to sun, damage can’t be repaired. Even if damage is not visible, skin cells mutate with each sun exposure. Over a lifetime these mutations may add up to cancer, a problem seen on gardeners who work unprotected in the sun. A severe sunburn is one of the biggest risk factors in getting a melanoma skin cancer.
Mar 18, 2015 426-063 (HORT-133P)
Gardening and Your Health: Protecting Your Knees and Back
Many gardening tasks require knee strength and stability, whether kneeling, sitting, standing, or walking. The best way to protect knees from the stress and strain is to condition them with strengthening exercises and stretching.
May 22, 2015 426-065(HORT-128P)
Gardening and Your Health: Ticks May 1, 2009 426-066
Gardening and Your Health: Plant Allergies
Allergic reactions are caused by an overactive immune system response to a foreign substance such as pollen, dust, or molds. When this reaction affects the eyes or nose, it results in allergic rhinitis. Typical symptoms include sneezing, a runny nose, and itchy watery eyes. When an inflammation affects the bronchial tubes, it results in asthma. Typical symptoms include wheezing and shortness of breath.
Mar 18, 2015 426-067 (HORT-129P)
Backyard Wildlife Habitats Mar 6, 2015 426-070 (HORT-155P)
Invasive Plants -- A Horticultural Perspective Apr 28, 2009 426-080
Home Hydroponics May 1, 2009 426-084
The Effect of Landscape Plants on Perceived Home Value May 1, 2009 426-087
Indoor Plant Culture May 1, 2009 426-100
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be! May 1, 2009 426-109
Patriotic Gardens: How to Plant a Red, White and Blue Garden Jul 17, 2015 426-210 (HORT-185)
America's Anniversary Garden: A Statewide Corridor and Entrance Enhancement Program Jul 23, 2015 426-211 (HORT-186P)
Patriotic Gardens: Bulbs for a Red, White, and Blue Spring Garden
Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden™ to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden. This is the third in a series of VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for America’s Anniversary Garden™.
Apr 9, 2015 426-220(HORT-163P)
Patriotic Gardens: Red, White, and Blue Native Plants
In 2007, Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape, garden, or container planting. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden.
Jan 14, 2015 426-223 (HORT-86P)
America's Anniversary Garden: Red, White, and Blue in Fall and Winter Gardens
Virginia Cooperative Extension developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Other VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for patriotic gardens are listed in the Resources section.
Apr 10, 2015 426-228(HORT-164P)
Planning the Vegetable Garden
How much time will you be able to devote to your garden on a regular basis? The answer to this question will dictate the size of your garden. You must remember that, once planted, the garden will have to be weeded once a week, irrigated during droughts, and vegetables harvested when ripe. Depending on the type of vegetables, you may also need to undertake pest control measures.
Dec 11, 2015 426-312 (HORT-209P)
Soil Preparation
The ideal soil for a vegetable garden is deep, friable, and well-drained with a high organic matter content. Proper soil preparation provides the basis for good seed germination and the subsequent growth of garden crops. Careful use of various soil amendments can improve garden soil and provide the best possible starting ground for your crops.
Aug 12, 2015 426-313 (HORT-191P)
Intensive Gardening Methods May 1, 2009 426-335
Weeds in the Home Vegetable Garden Apr 22, 2015 426-364 (HORT-157P)
Season Extenders Apr 22, 2015 426-381 (HORT-159P)
Asparagus Mar 6, 2015 426-401(HORT-152P)
Beans Apr 16, 2015 426-402 (HORT-145P)
Cole Crops or Brassicas Apr 21, 2015 426-403 (HORT-156P)
Sweet Corn Mar 16, 2015 426-405 (HORT-151P)
Cucumbers, Melons and Squash
Varieties include both the slicer or fresh salad type and the pickle type (which can also be used fresh); vined, dwarfvined and bush varieties; all female or all-female seedless (no pollination required); burpless; and, various mixtures of these characteristics. Disease resistance is available in many varieties.
Mar 16, 2015 426-406 (HORT-147P)
Leafy Green Vegetables
Lettuce, a cool-season vegetable crop, is one of the easiest to grow. Lettuce withstands light frost; however, sunlight and high summer temperatures usually cause seedstalk formation (bolting) and bitter flavor. Slow-bolting or heat-resistant varieties are available and are recommended for extending the lettuce-growing season.
Mar 16, 2015 426-408 (HORT-148P)
Onions, Garlic, and Shallots
Onions are often grouped according to taste. The two main types of onions are strong flavored (American) and mild (often called European). Each has three distinct colors, yellow, white, and red. In general, the American onion produces bulbs of smaller size, denser texture, stronger flavor, and better keeping quality than European types. Globe varieties tend to keep longer in storage.
Mar 16, 2015 426-411(HORT-143P)
Potatoes, Peppers and Eggplant Apr 16, 2015 426-413 (HORT-146P)
Tomatoes
Tomatoes are valuable garden plants in that they require relatively little space for large production. Each standard tomato plant, properly cared for, yields 10 to 15 pounds or more of fruit.Diane Relf, Retired Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Alan McDaniel, Extension Specialist, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Ronald Morse, Former Associate Professor, Horticulture, Virginia Tech Reviewed by John Freeborn, Assistant Master Gardener Coordinator, Horticulture, Virginia Tech
Sep 29, 2016 426-418 (HORT-288P)
Root Crops Mar 5, 2015 426-422 (HORT-150P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Boxwoods Feb 5, 2013 426-603 (HORT-45P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Groundcovers Nov 29, 2012 426-609 (HORT-31P)
Planting on Your Septic Drain Field Oct 15, 2010 426-617
Getting Started in the Production of Field-Grown, Specialty Cut Flowers
Specialty cut flowers are one of the most profitable field crops you can grow. Lynn Byczynski, editor of Growing For Market newsletter (see Resources section), estimates a value of $25,000 to $35,000 per acre for field-grown cuts. The most basic requirements are at least half an acre of open, arable land, a rototiller, and, of course, time and effort. This publication is directed to those new to market gardening, but commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Even grain and livestock farmers have increased profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slower, relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.
May 2, 2014 426-618 (HORT-71P)
Field Production of Cut Flowers: Potential Crops May 1, 2009 426-619
Shrubs: Functions, Planting, and Maintenance May 1, 2009 426-701
Choosing Pesticides Wisely
Healthy plants are less susceptible to attack by pests, and good cultural practices can reduce pest outbreaks.
Jan 15, 2016 426-706 (HORT-202P)
Understanding Pesticide Labels Jan 14, 2016 426-707 (HORT-201P)
Applying Pesticides Safely Jan 19, 2016 426-710 (HORT-199P)
Conserving Energy with Landscaping
Well-placed plantings can significantly alter the microclimate around a home, resulting in a more comfortable environment and significant savings in heating and cooling costs over time.
Apr 6, 2015 426-712 (HORT-110P)
Creating a Water-Wise Landscape Feb 3, 2016 426-713 (HORT-200P)
Diagnosing Plant Problems May 1, 2009 426-714
Calibrating Your Lawn Spreader May 1, 2009 430-017
Fertilización de árboles y arbustos
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
Feb 18, 2016 430-018S (HORT-165P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- The Walnut Tree: Allelopathic Effects and Tolerant Plants Apr 10, 2015 430-021(HORT-113P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution Apr 8, 2015 430-022 (HORT-123P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Landscape Containers and Planters
Planting trees in aboveground containers and planters is becoming a common practice on sites that are not suited for inground planting. Containers differ from raised planters in that they are usually smaller in volume and moveable, whereas planters are generally larger, and often built as part of the permanent hardscape (paving, etc.). The greatest challenge in selecting trees for containers and planters is in choosing trees that can survive temperature extremes, and that can establish roots in a limited volume of substrate (potting soil). Consider several factors when selecting containers and trees including environmental influences, container and planter design, substrate type, and tree characteristics.
Apr 9, 2015 430-023 (HORT-119P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Hot Sites
Hot landscape sites require special consideration before trees are planted. Trees can survive, and even thrive, in hot sites if the site is prepared correctly, if heat-tolerant species are selected, and if the trees are properly maintained. A variety of different locations and situations qualify as hot landscape sites.
Apr 9, 2015 430-024 (HORT-118P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Screening
Using trees as living screens can easily enhance living and working spaces. Before selecting trees for screening, first determine the screen’s purpose, whether functional or environmental. Screening can be used to define an area, modify or hide a view, create privacy, block wind, dust, salt and snow, control noise, filter light, and direct traffic flow.
Apr 9, 2015 430-025 (HORT-117P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Wet and Dry Sites
To grow, all trees require air, light, water and nutrients. Some trees can survive over a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, whereas others are very site specific. Both wet and dry sites present establishment and growth challenges, making selection of the right tree for the right site very important.
Apr 8, 2015 430-026 (HORT-114P)
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
Apr 8, 2015 430-027 (HORT-115P)
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas May 1, 2009 430-028
Getting Started in the Nursery Business: Nursery Production Options
The nursery industry in Virginia has enjoyed an extended period of growth and expansion. Consequently, there is considerable interest in and some potential for new business opportunities in the industry. Another consequence of this period of economic growth is an increase in competition within the industry to supply the growing demand for landscape plants. Those interested in getting into the nursery business are strongly encouraged to invest their time and energy into learning as much as they can about the modern nursery industry, and the many options now available in nursery production, before they invest any money in facilities and operations.
Apr 27, 2015 430-050 (HORT-89P)
Monitoring Nutrients in Large Nursery Containers May 1, 2009 430-070
The Basics of Fertilizer Calculations for Greenhouse Crops Sep 21, 2015 430-100 (HORT-187P)
Dealing with the High Cost of Energy for Greenhouse Operations Jun 30, 2009 430-101
Using Plant Growth Regulators on Containerized Herbaceous Perennials Jun 8, 2012 430-103 (HORT-4P)
Resources for Greenhouse and Nursery Operations and Operators May 6, 2016 430-104 (HORT-188P)
Virginia Firescapes: Firewise Landscaping for Woodland Homes
When the forest becomes a community, forest fires and homes are inseparable. A home in a woodland setting is surrounded by flammable vegetation. Firewise landscaping can help you create a defensible space or buffer zone around your home. This not only helps to keep fire from approaching your woodland home, but it also provides a safe space in which firefighters can work.
Jul 14, 2015 430-300(HORT-136P)
Pruning Crapemyrtles May 1, 2009 430-451
Specialty Crop Profile: Pumpkins May 1, 2009 438-100
Specialty Crop Profile: Ornamental Gourds May 1, 2009 438-101
Specialty Crop Profile: Asparagus
Asparagus, (Asparagus officinalis), is a hardy perennial vegetable belonging to the Lily Family. It is grown for its succulent early spring vegetative shoots that originate from an underground crown (Figure 1). Nutritionally, asparagus is almost 92 percent water, and it provides fairly high amounts of carbohydrates, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, thiamine, and phosphorus. A native of coastal Europe, asparagus has naturalized over much of the eastern United States. With the assistance of man and birds that have spread the seeds, asparagus can be found in gardens, old homesteads, fencerows, roadsides, and railroad right of ways across the state. It is well adapted to most of Virginia, preferring well-drained loam soils and easily tolerating winter cold and summer heat. Asparagus is long lived, and a well-managed planting can last 10 to 15 years. For those considering it as a potential crop, good planning and soil preparation are essential for long-term success.
Jan 28, 2015 438-102 (HORT-91P)
Specialty Crop Profile: Blueberries May 1, 2009 438-103
Specialty Crop Profile: Horseradish May 1, 2009 438-104
Specialty Crop Profile: Pawpaw May 1, 2009 438-105
Specialty Crop Profile: Ribes (Currants and Gooseberries) May 1, 2009 438-107
Specialty Crop Profile: Globe Artichoke
Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is an herbaceous perennial that is grown for its tender, edible, immature flower buds. The globe artichoke should not be confused with Jerusalem artichoke, another member of the composite family native to North America, which is grown for its fleshy tubers. Globe artichoke plants can become large: four to five feet tall and wide, with long, heavily serrated silvery green leaves (Figure 1a).
Jan 28, 2015 438-108 (HORT-92P)
Specialty Crop Profile: Rhubarb May 1, 2009 438-110
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity Mar 9, 2011 445-004
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
Jun 27, 2016 450-236 (PPWS-69P)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
Oct 19, 2016 450-237 (PPWS-70P)
Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report) May 1, 2009 452-719
Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2017
This 2017 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for controlling diseases, insects, and weeds for home grounds and animals. The chemical controls in this guide are based on the latest pesticide label information at the time of writing. Because pesticide labels change, read the label directions carefully before buying and using any pesticide. Regardless of the information provided here, always follow the latest product label instructions when using any pesticide.
Mar 15, 2017 456-018 (ENTO-220P)
2017 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations
New varieties and strains of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world and it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only those that are available and are adapted to the mid-Atlantic region are listed in this publication.
Mar 6, 2017 456-420 (AREC-203P)
VCE Model of Community, Local, Regional Food Systems Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-154NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems Nov 2, 2016 ALCE-155NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Report Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-156NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Executive Summary
Virginia’s food system directly impacts the survival and viability of farms and farmland; the economic development of rural and urban communities; the care, restoration, and resilience of ecological resources such as local waterways; and critical health issues. We use the language of community, local, and regional food systems to broadly define a complex and interconnected set of systems and pathways that comprise sustainable food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management to bring about social, economic, and ecological change that benefits all residents.
Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-157NP
Impact of Composting on Drug Residues in Large Animal Mortality
Mortalities are inevitable in animal agriculture. For most animal operations in the United States, the average annual mortality is estimated to be between 4.5 and 6 percent of the livestock population. Common methods of mortality disposal include burial, rendering, incineration, and use of a landfill. The availability of options for disposing of mortality, particularly rendering, have changed in recent years, and financially and environmentally sound alternatives are needed
Sep 25, 2014 APSC-59P
Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia
In the Commonwealth of Virginia, water resources are increasingly being scrutinized due to changing surface water or groundwater availability. Access to good quality water is a continuing concern, and in many communities, managing water use — particularly consumptive use — is a priority to conserve public water supplies to meet the needs of a growing population.
Sep 23, 2016 BSE-198P
Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule: Worker Health, Hygiene and Training Jun 5, 2017 FST-278NP
Goldenchain tree, Laburnum × watereri Feb 21, 2012 HORT-10
Hinoki Falsecypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa Feb 21, 2012 HORT-11
Japanese Cryptomeria, Cryptomeria japonica Feb 21, 2012 HORT-12
Japanese Stewartia, Stewartia pseudocamellia Feb 21, 2012 HORT-13
Japanese Zelkova, Zelkova serrata Feb 22, 2012 HORT-14
Katsuratree, Cercidiphyllum japonicum Feb 22, 2012 HORT-15
Kousa Dogwood, Cornus kousa Feb 22, 2012 HORT-16
Lacebark Pine, Pinus bungeana Feb 22, 2012 HORT-17
Leyland Cypress, Cupressocyparis leylandii Feb 22, 2012 HORT-18
Hops in Virginia: Need-to-Know Information about Extension Resources May 7, 2015 HORT-182NP (ANR-256NP)
Vertical Gardening Using Trellises, Stakes, and Cages
Vertical gardening is the practice of “gardening up,” in which a variety of structures are used to elevate plant growth to take advantage of vertical space. Vertical gardening is well-suited to urban areas where space is limited and gardeners are interested in using space most efficiently. Balconies, decks, patios, windowsills, fence lines, and backyard gardens are excellent places to practice vertical gardening. This publication will describe the use of vertical gardening techniques to get the most out of growing vegetables and other plants in these small spaces.
May 7, 2015 HORT-189NP
Mimosa (Silk-tree or Albizia), Albizia julibrissin Feb 22, 2012 HORT-19
Norway Spruce, Picea abies Feb 22, 2012 HORT-20
Paperbark Maple, Acer griseum Feb 27, 2012 HORT-21
Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Application Feb 9, 2016 HORT-211NP
Extension Master Gardener Volunteer Re-Enrollment Form
volunteer re-enrolment form
Feb 11, 2016 HORT-212NP
Wine Making for the Home Gardener
Wine making has increased in popularity as a hobby for home gardeners who have taken the science and craft beyond the grape vineyard to the bramble patch, vegetable garden, and flower garden. The American Homebrewers Association estimates that more than one million Americans brew beer or make wine at home at least once a year.
Feb 4, 2016 HORT-213NP
Red Buckeye, Aesculus pavia Feb 27, 2012 HORT-22
What in the World? International Produce Takes a Stand at Virginia Farmers Markets May 25, 2016 HORT-225NP
Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are of interest among strawberry and vegetable growers in Virginia looking to diversify their crops. Including blackberries in farm plans could allow these growers to keep their farms and pick-your-own activities open to customers for a longer duration, increasing agritourism and sales; however, Virginia growers lack information on blackberry varieties that perform well in the state.
Oct 7, 2016 HORT-226P
GroZone Tracker Sep 21, 2016 HORT-227P
River Birch, Betula nigra Feb 27, 2012 HORT-23
GAPs and FSMA – an Overview for Hop Growers in Virginia
Food safety is a hot topic for hop growers and brewers. With multiple acronyms for various practices, standards, and regulations: GAPs, FSMA, PSR, PCR, and more; the confusion is understandable. Let’s examine where the small-acreage hop grower fits in. This fact sheet serves as an orientation to these standards,regulations, and practices as they may apply to hops; it is in no way a complete set of guidelines or substitute for training.
Dec 20, 2016 HORT-237NP
Saucer Magnolia, Magnolia ×soulangeana Feb 27, 2012 HORT-24
Sawara Falsecypress (Japanese Falsecypress), Chamaecyparis pisifera Feb 27, 2012 HORT-25
A Guide to the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Certification Process Jul 5, 2017 HORT-252NP
Guide to Identifying Food Safety Hazards in Greenhouse Systems
According to the United States Department of Agriculture 2012 Census of Agriculture, sales from greenhouse-grown food crops equaled around $800 million in the U.S. Crops grown included tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, peppers, and berries, with hydroponic production operations making up about 64% of the total production (cwt) (USDA Census of Agriculture, 2012). Demand for greenhouse-grown produce continues to increase, providing growers with unique opportunities to tap into this expanding market. Although greenhouse systems provide a more protected environment than field-grown systems, it is important to understand the unique food safety risks and possible sources of contamination when growing produce in these systems. Identifying food safety hazards are necessary to implementing practices that reduce the risk of contamination during the pre-plant, production, harvest, and post-harvest handling stages. Use the checklist below to guide you in asking important questions targeting possible risks at each of the greenhouse system stages.
Jul 10, 2017 HORT-254NP
Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris Feb 27, 2012 HORT-26
Sourwood, Oxydendrum arboreum Feb 27, 2012 HORT-27
Star Magnolia, Magnolia stellata Feb 27, 2012 HORT-28
Umbrella-Pine (Japanese Umbrella-Pine), Sciadopitys verticillata Feb 27, 2012 HORT-29
Washington Hawthorn, Crataegus phaenopyrum Feb 27, 2012 HORT-30
Selecting and Using Plant Growth Regulators on Floricultural Crops
Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are chemicals that are designed to affect plant growth and/or development (figure 1). They are applied for specific purposes to elicit specific plant responses. Although there is much scientific information on using PGRs in the greenhouse, it is not an exact science. Achieving the best results with PGRs is a combination of art and science — science tempered with a lot of trial and error and a good understanding of plant growth and development. good understanding of plant growth and development.
Nov 18, 2013 430-102 (HORT-43P)
Backyard Composting Feb 27, 2013 HORT-49P
American Hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana Feb 21, 2012 HORT-5
For the Birds, Butterflies & Hummingbirds: Creating Inviting Habitats Aug 1, 2014 HORT-59NP (HORT-74NP)
American (Fagus grandifolia) and European (Fagus sylvatica) Beeches Feb 21, 2012 HORT-6
Care Sheet for Sabal minor or “Dwarf Palmetto” in Virginia Landscapes Sep 5, 2013 HORT-60NP
Deer: A Garden Pest Sep 5, 2013 HORT-62NP
Therapeutic Gardening
Gardening is a great activity to help maintain physical and emotional well-being. However, it is not without its challenges, even for the able bodied. With a little creativity, gardening can be an accessible activity and can have therapeutic value. As a therapy, gardening is unique in that a living medium, plants, are used. This allows the gardener to be anchored in reality. When gardeners realize that they have an effect on something else that is living there are often positive changes in their behavior and feelings. The term therapeutic gardening means that the activity of gardening is designed to assure positive health outcomes and minimize negative outcomes.
Jul 28, 2014 HORT-66NP (HORT-73NP)
Emerald Ash Borer
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a wood-boring beetle native to eastern Asia and is now considered the most destructive forest pest ever seen in North America. Since its discovery in Michigan in 2002, it has killed tens of millions of native ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and Canada. This destruction has already cost municipalities, property owners, and businesses tens of millions of dollars in damages.
Feb 7, 2014 HORT-69NP
Chinese Elm (Lacebark Elm), Ulmus parvifolia Feb 21, 2012 HORT-7
Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom
Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter? The answer is definitely yes! Many people are familiar with the hourglass-shaped vase filled with water and topped with a hyacinth bulb, or a low bowl filled with several Paper White narcissus, and the popular boxed amaryllis bulb as a welcome winter holiday gift. Most bulbs can be forced but additional planning is required in order to have a successful period of blooms.
Apr 8, 2014 HORT-76NP
Chinese Pistache, Pistacia chinensis Feb 21, 2012 HORT-8
Selecting Plants for Virginia Landscapes: Showy Flowering Shrubs
This publication features small, medium, and large flowering shrubs (five of each category) with photos. All photos are by the author. There are at least eight shrubs from each category noted in a table (without photos) at the end of this publication. All shrubs — featured or in the table — are landscape worthy and are especially suited to landscapes in Virginia and the Mid-Atlantic States.
Aug 19, 2015 HORT-84P
Douglasfir, Pseudotsuga menziesii Feb 21, 2012 HORT-9
Impatiens Downy Mildew May 21, 2013 PPWS-19NP
Common Ground: Why Should University Faculty Partner with Virginia Cooperative Extension? Jul 10, 2013 VCE-129NP