Resources for Forestry

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
The Virginia GIS County Data Series May 1, 2009 303-104
Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- Navigator: A User Guide for Natural Resource Professionals May 1, 2009 303-201
Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- GPS Utility: A User Guide for Natural Resource Professionals and Educators May 1, 2009 303-202
Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- USA PhotoMaps: a User Guide for Natural Resource Professionals and Educators Nov 5, 2009 303-203
Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- The Garmin eTrex Legend: An Introductory Handbook for Natural Resource Professionals and Educators May 1, 2009 303-204
Virginia Logger Safety Checklist Booklet Aug 5, 2011 3108-1592
Growing American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Forestlands Jan 13, 2011 354-313
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for nine to eleven year olds Nov 9, 2009 388-807
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for fourteen-to eighteen-year-olds Nov 9, 2009 388-809
Lean Thinking: Examples and Applications in the Wood Products Industry Nov 17, 2011 420-002
Pensamiento Lean: Ejemplos y Aplicaciones en la Industria de Productos de Madera May 9, 2013 420-002S (ANR-17S)
4-H Forestry Projects
Trees and the products that come from them provide more jobs than any other industry in Virginia. People who work in the forest industry include foresters, loggers, sawmill operators, furniture makers, paper mill workers, nurserymen, and arborists.
May 1, 2009 420-025
Design and Operation of a Solar-Heated Dry Kiln
Lumber is usually dried to a specific moisture content prior to further manufacturing or use. The amount of water in wood is usually expressed as moisture content and can be directly measured or calculated. The moisture content of wood is defined as the ratio of the weight of water in wood to the dry weight of the wood material. While lumber can be air-dried, the humidity in most localities prevents the lumber from reaching the moisture content required for the stability needed for interior use. A dry kiln is required to dry lumber to the necessary final moisture content and does so fairly rapidly. This publication discusses the design and operation of a solar-heated lumber dry kiln that is designed to be inexpensive to construct and simple to operate.
Dec 2, 2014 420-030 (ANR-121P)
Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia Oct 5, 2010 420-039
Tree Identification Contest #1 May 1, 2009 420-066
Grading Key - Tree Identification Contest #1 May 1, 2009 420-067
Trees In Your Backyard May 1, 2009 420-070
Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia
Each year many landowners in Virginia consider Christmas tree farming as an alternative enterprise for their unused open land. The number of growers in the Commonwealth is increasing steadily, and currently Virginia ranks eighth in the nation in Christmas tree production, with about 1.8 million trees harvested in 1990.
Apr 24, 2015 420-080 (AREC-122P)
Economics of Producing an Acre of White Pine Christmas Trees
Growing Christmas trees is an enterprise that has wide appeal as a land management alternative for many landowners in Virginia. Growing Christmas trees, however, is a moderately long-term investment that is time-consuming and laborintensive. A successful plantation requires a full commitment by the landowner and constant attention to culturing the trees. It also is fairly risky, with unpredictable potential for damage from insects, disease, weather, animals, weeds, and mancaused accidents.
May 1, 2009 420-081
Species for Christmas Tree Planting in Virginia
Christmas tree production in Virginia has steadily increased over the last several years. Favorable climate, soils, and proximity to markets place Virginia growers in a highly desirable marketing situation.
May 1, 2009 420-082
Forest Landowner’s Guide To The Measurement Of Timber And Logs
As a forest landowner interested in selling timber, you are naturally interested in the price you will receive for your product and how that price is determined. The measurement of standing timber and logs may seem strange and complicated to you, and it is possible that you may be quoted dramatically different prices based upon differing estimates of the amount of timber you have and the units of measurement used. Methods of measuring timber and the units of measurement often differ between buyers, and, as a seller, you should have an understanding of these methods, the units of measurement, and an idea as to a reasonable price for your timber.
Dec 15, 2014 420-085 (ANR-120P)
A Logger's Guide to Harvest Planning
Timber harvesting is an extremely complex operation. It involves several interrelated processes carried out over a large and sometimes highly variable area, often taking several weeks or months to complete. Since pay is based on production, operational efficiency is critical. In addition, today's logging contractor must comply with numerous laws and regulations affecting every facet of his business.
May 1, 2009 420-088
Farm Tractor Logging for Woodlot Owners
Farmers performing their own timber harvest on their woodlots is common in the Scandinavian countries. Using specialized logging attachments on modified farm tractors, they often log during the winter when their normal farming operations are suspended.
May 1, 2009 420-090
A Checklist for Efficient Log Trucking
Trucking is often the most expensive phase of a timber harvesting operation, accounting for as much as 40-60 percent of the total logging cost. Numerous state and federal highway laws also make trucking the most regulated part of a logging business.
May 1, 2009 420-094
Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide May 26, 2009 420-122
Virginia 4-H Forestry Judging Project Book May 1, 2009 420-125
Dealing with Timber Theft
Forestland can provide countless hours of recreational benefits as well as an important source of income. Many landowners take careful steps to ensure that their property is managed to maximize the benefits they receive. However, all of this work can be easily eradicated by one of Virginia’s most dreaded forest pests: timber thieves.
Jan 21, 2015 420-136(AREC-107P)
Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners
As a private woodland owner, you are a vital link in the sustainability of Virginia’s forest resources. Your land provides many benefits to all Virginians, including wood products, wildlife habitat, clean air and water, and recreational opportunities.
Feb 3, 2016 420-139 (ANR-157P)
Moving Toward Sustainable Forestry: Strategies for Forest Landowners
The forests of the United States have undergone substantial changes since European settlement in the 1600’s. In colonial America, trees were viewed as weeds, and land was cleared to plant agricultural crops. Timber was used to make cabins, fences, and other structures important to frontier life. Forests continued to be cleared as the United States became an important member of the world’s economy. Our forests were one of our most important resources and provided us with wood for housing, paper, and export goods. Forests were cut and the land cleared with little further thought. Deforestation then began to slow, but we still viewed the forest as an unlimited supply of timber, wildlife, homesites, and recreation opportunities. The increasing interest in the environment has now caused us to stand back and think about the sustainability of our forest practices.
Dec 15, 2014 420-144 (AREC-108NP)
Marketing for Wood Products Companies
The structure of forest products companies has changed dramatically in recent years. The 1990s have seen escalating importance attached to customer satisfaction, quality, market niches, value-added products, and strategic alliances.
May 1, 2009 420-145
Personal Selling for the Forest Products Industry
The structure of forest products companies has changed dramatically in recent years. The 1990s have seen escalating importance attached to customer satisfaction, quality, market niches, value-added products, and strategic alliances.
May 1, 2009 420-146
The ABCs of Cost Allocation in the Wood Products Industry: Applications in the Furniture Industry Sep 17, 2010 420-147
Lean Inventory Management in the Wood Products Industry: Examples and Applications Sep 28, 2010 420-148
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: An Overview May 1, 2009 420-150
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Water Quality
Over a third of our nation’s streams, lakes, and estuaries are impaired by some form of water pollution (U.S. E.P.A. 1998). Pollutants can enter surface waters from point sources, such as single source industrial discharges and waste-water treatment plants; however, most pollutants result from nonpoint source pollution activities, including runoff from agricultural lands, urban areas, construction and industrial sites, and failed septic tanks.
May 1, 2009 420-151
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities
The riparian area is that area of land located immediately adjacent to streams, lakes, or other surface waters. Some would describe it as the floodplain. The boundary of the riparian area and the adjoining uplands is gradual and not always well defined. However, riparian areas differ from the uplands because of their high levels of soil moisture, frequent flooding, and unique assemblage of plant and animal communities. Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests maintain many important physical, biological, and ecological functions and important social benefits.
May 1, 2009 420-152
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners
The riparian area is that area of land located immediately adjacent to streams, lakes, or other surface waters. Some would describe it as the floodplain. The boundary of the riparian area and the adjoining uplands is gradual and not always well defined.
May 1, 2009 420-153
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors Influencing Adoption
The riparian area is that area of land located immediately adjacent to streams, lakes, or other surface waters. Some would describe it as the floodplain. The boundary of the riparian area and the adjoining uplands is gradual and not always well defined. However, riparian areas differ from the uplands because of their high levels of soil moisture, frequent flooding, and unique assemblage of plant and animal communities. Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests maintain many important physical, biological, and ecological functions and important social benefits.
May 1, 2009 420-154
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance May 1, 2009 420-155
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Resources for Virginia Landowners
Riparian forest buffers can provide many benefits to society through improved water quality, reduced flooding, reduced sedimentation of streams and reservoirs, and enhanced recreational opportunities. However, the cost of establishing and maintaining these buffers on private lands can be significant to the individual landowner. To help Virginia's landowners in their restoration efforts, the agencies of the commonwealth have agreed to work with individuals and communities in their efforts to restore streamside lands by providing education, technical assistance, and funding. They are joined in this effort by federal agencies and many non-profit conservation organizations.
May 1, 2009 420-156
Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners May 1, 2009 420-165
Urban Forestry Issues
The U.S. population has grown increasingly urban each decade, from 28 percent in 1910 to 80 percent in 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002). In the Chesapeake watershed alone, residential development is predicted to consume 800,000 acres between 2003 and 2030, nearly 90 percent of it replacing farmland (Boesch and Greer, 2003). As urban communities grow larger and faster than ever before, natural resource management in these areas becomes crucial for achieving sustainable development and maintaining and enhancing the quality of life and the environment.
May 1, 2009 420-180
Value, Benefits, and Costs of Urban Trees May 1, 2009 420-181
Investing in Sustainable Forestry; A Guide for Virginia’s Forest Landowners May 18, 2011 420-186
Managing Wildlife Damage: Black Bears (Ursus americanus)
The black bear is a large mammal with powerful limbs, a relatively small head, small ears, and black fur, although several less common color phases (e.g., cinnamon) can occur in this species.
May 1, 2009 420-200
Managing Wildlife Damage: Beavers (Castor canadensis)
The beaver is North America’s largest rodent. Adult beavers normally weigh 40 to 50 pounds, but exceptionally large animals may weigh up to 80 pounds. They range in length from 35 to 50 inches, including the tail, which normally is about 10 inches long.
May 1, 2009 420-202
Managing Wildlife Damage: Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)
To most people, a Canada goose is a Canada goose. However, taxonomists recognize up to 11 subspecies (i.e., Giant, Lesser, Western, Atlantic, Interior, Richardson’s, Dusky, Vancouver, Taverner’s, Aleutian and Cackling Goose) that reside within the United States and Canada. Here in the mid-Atlantic region, the Giant Canada goose is most common.
May 1, 2009 420-203
Safe and Efficient Practices for Trucking Unmanufactured Forest Products
The transportation of unmanufactured forest products is an important component of any timber harvesting system. In the southeastern United States, approximately 90 percent of the wood delivered to mills is transported by truck.
May 8, 2009 420-310
Principles of Regeneration Silviculture in Virginia
The processes used to grow forest trees are similar to those required to grow agricultural and horticultural crops. It takes less than a year, however, to grow agricultural and most horticultural crops, while it takes many years to grow a crop of trees. Forest crops consequently require careful planning and proper management to be successful and profitable. Understanding the principles of silviculture aids landowners in managing their lands to obtain a wide variety of forest products and benefits that satisfy their individ-ual objectives. The principles of silviculture are presented in this bulletin.
Aug 25, 2009 420-405
Measuring Standing Trees and Logs Jul 14, 2009 420-560
Coloring Christmas Trees Before Harvest
As the Christmas tree industry develops in Virginia, the production of larger quantities of trees places growers in a more competitive environment. Under conditions of competition, it becomes necessary for growers to produce the highest quality trees possible in order to enjoy marketing success. There are many characteristics of Christmas trees which are widely considered to be quality factors, but the most important are shape, needle retention, straightness, and color.
Mar 19, 2015 420-638(AREC-116P)
Selection and Care of Christmas Trees
For many families, selection and purchase of a Christmas tree is an annual tradition. Indeed, bringing home the tree often signals the official start of the holiday season.
May 1, 2009 420-641
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
Apr 8, 2015 430-031 (HORT-111P)
Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland: Loblolly Pine
The Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland Project seeks to provide farmers with basic information about grow¬ing and marketing tree crops. Tree crops have many advantages for farmers with marginal or unused land. The cost of inputs is relatively low, economic returns may be quite competitive with alternatives, and there are important environmental benefits.
Jun 23, 2009 446-609
Tree Crops For Marginal Farmland -- Christmas Trees May 1, 2009 446-605
Calibrating Hand-held and Backpack Sprayers for Applying Pesticides
Hand-held and backpack sprayers are inexpensive tools used to apply pesticides on small acreages. Home gardens, yards, small orchards, and Christmas tree plantations are examples of areas that often require pesticide applications to protect them from weeds, insects, and diseases. Effective pest control depends on applying the proper amount of pesticide. This can only be done if the spray equipment is calibrated accurately.
Sep 9, 2014 456-502 (ANR-93P)
Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land Sep 2, 2009 460-116
Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land Mar 30, 2011 460-123
Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses Feb 19, 2010 460-124
Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land Dec 4, 2009 460-138
Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining Feb 25, 2010 460-140
Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses Sep 29, 2009 460-141
Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests Feb 26, 2010 460-143
Powell River Project - Reforestation Guidelines for Unused Surface Mined Lands in the Eastern United States Mar 24, 2011 460-144
Forests of Virginia: Importance, Composition, Ecology, Threats, and Management Mar 4, 2016 465-315 (ANR-163P)
Welcome to the Woods! A Guide for New Virginia Woodland Owners
We all depend on and benefit from the woods every day, whether we know it or not. The trees, shrubs, plants, animals, and soil that make up your woods provide you, your neighbors, and your region with a host of environmental, social, and economic benefits.
May 13, 2015 ANR-136P
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service March 2017 Housing Commentary: Section II May 23, 2017 ANR-270NP
Forest Harvesting in Virginia, Characteristics of Virginia’s Logging Operations Feb 10, 2012 ANR-5
The Role of Logging Business Owners in Forest Certification May 22, 2013 ANR-51NP
Lean at Hardwood Lumber Inc. Jun 9, 2017 ANR-226