Resources for Entomology

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs
Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings
Jun 30, 2011 2802-7027
Bagworm
Plants Attacked: Juniper, arborvitae, other cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, Chinese elm, honeylocust, primarily. Also on crabapple, maple, sycamore, box elder, willow, linden, poplar, and many others.
Nov 3, 2014 2808-1008 (ENTO-83NP)
Cucumber Beetles May 1, 2009 2808-1009
Dogwood Borer
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
Nov 18, 2014 2808-1010 (ENTO-90NP)
Cottony Maple Scale
Heavily infested plants will have large numbers of scales on the branches and twigs. Large numbers of feeding scales will reduce the amount of nutrients reaching the leaves and will cause them to turn yellow and fall prematurely. Scale insects feed on plant sap with their long thread-like mouthparts (stylets), which are six to eight times longer than the insect itself. Feeding by scales slowly reduces plant vigor. Heavily infested plants grow poorly and may suffer dieback of twigs and branches. Occasionally, an infested host will be so weakened that it will die.
Nov 14, 2014 2808-1011 (ENTO-89NP)
Scale Insects
Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.
Feb 26, 2015 2808-1012 (ENTO-106NP)
Fall Webworm
Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.
Nov 21, 2014 2808-1013 (ENTO-94NP)
Gypsy Moth Management for Homeowners on Small Properties May 1, 2009 2811-1021
Cabbage Webworm May 1, 2009 2811-1022
Wireworm Pest Management in Potatoes May 1, 2009 2812-1026
Potato Aphid on Tomatoes May 1, 2009 2901-1031
Green Peach Aphid on Vegetables May 1, 2009 2902-1081
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug May 21, 2009 2902-1100
Japanese Beetle
The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United States. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.
Dec 11, 2014 2902-1101 (ENTO-97NP)
Pales Weevil
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
Dec 11, 2014 2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)
Emerald Ash Borer Mar 17, 2016 2904-1290 (ENTO-200NP)
Asparagus Beetles on Asparagus Jul 29, 2009 2906-1352
Common Ticks of Virginia
The four most common ticks in Virginia that are encountered by humans are the lone star tick, the American dog tick, the brown tick, and the deer tick. The lone star tick is found predominately east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The American dog tick is found predominately west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The brown dog tick can be found throughout Virginia but tends to be uncommon. The deer tick is uncommon also and is found primarily in the northern and eastern sections of Virginia. Recently the deer tick has spread into many suburban areas of Virginia.
Mar 3, 2015 2906-1396 (ENTO-116NP)
Pine Sawyers
Pine Sawyers are secondary infesters whose main damage is disfiguring wood by larval boring and tunneling in felled trees and usable trees which are weakened or dying from other causes. Plant parts attacked trunk. Damaging stage - larvae.
Mar 5, 2015 2907-1399 (ENTO-119NP)
Pine Needle Scale
Damage is not apparent until large populations have been present for more than 1 or 2 seasons. Trees are stunted, grow slowly, have short needles and shoots. Occasionally the feeding of scales produces chlorotic, yellowish flecks no the needles, but normally this is not apparent. Heavily infested plants are seriously weakened and may be in a state of decline.
Mar 3, 2015 2907-1400 (ENTO-118NP)
Balsam Twig Aphid
Twisted and curled needles are the most apparent damage from feeding by the balsam twig aphid. Feeding can also cause roughened bark on the twigs. Extensive feeding can cause a general decline and reduced vigor of the tree, yet in many cases is cosmetic and not particularly damaging. The major problem is that curled needles reduce the marketability and value of Christmas trees. Balsam twig aphids also produce honeydew, a sticky material that drops to needles and twigs below. At times the honeydew can become a growth medium for sooty mold, which turns the needles and twigs black.
Mar 3, 2015 2907-1401 (ENTO-117NP)
Pine Bark Adelgid
The pine bark adelgid was introduced from Europe and is now widely distributed in North America, occurring principally throughout the native range of eastern white pine. This insect is also found on Scots and Austrian pine.
Mar 6, 2015 2907-1402 (ENTO-120NP)
Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries Sep 15, 2009 2909-1411
Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show
Ornamental plants enrich our lives every day and improve our environment. Flowers, shrubs, and trees beautify our yards and parks, while houseplants add a pleasant living touch to our indoor environment. Perhaps you are one of the many people who find satisfaction in planting and caring for ornamental plants. If so, sooner or later you will be confronted with insects which threaten to ruin your plants and undo your hard work. Learning to identify pest insects is the first step toward an effective pest management strategy. Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants is a five part program which will introduce you to the common pests of shade trees, shrubs, flowers, and houseplants in Virginia.
Mar 6, 2015 2909-1414 (ENTO-121NP)
Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show Mar 6, 2015 2909-1415 (ENTO-122NP)
Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar
Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa, their only host. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the activity of parasites.
Nov 14, 2014 2911-1421 (ENTO-88NP)
European Hornet
The European hornet is a stout hornet approximately 1-inch long. The color of the head and thorax is dark reddish brown with deep yellow and brown black markings on the abdomen. The markings on the abdomen are similar to the markings found on yellow jackets. The European hornet resembles the cicada killer wasp but is more robust and has more hair on the thorax and abdomen (but is not as hairy as a bee).
Mar 12, 2015 2911-1422 (ENTO-123NP)
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner
These beetles cause very conspicuous damage in late summer. The leaves on large numbers of twigs and branches will be observed to turn brown prematurely. These twigs and branches sometimes fall from trees in great numbers and accumulate. On close examination, the twigs have one of two kinds of damage. Twigs damaged by the twig girdler are cut as neatly as by a knife. The cut end has been gnawed almost straight across with a faint rounding and is slightly roughened by the chewing. The twig girdler is more commonly found on pecan and hickory. The twig pruner causes a slightly different type of cut. The twig will be observed to have a hollowed out space at the cut end filled with sawdust like frass. The twig when split open will have a long tunnel through most of its length. The twig pruner is more commonly found on oak.
Mar 16, 2015 2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)
Virginia Pine Sawfly
The Virginia pine sawfly has been recorded from New Jersey and Maryland to North Carolina and westward to Illinois. Its main hosts are Virginia and shortleaf pines, but it also feeds on pitch and loblolly pine.
Mar 16, 2015 2911-1424 (ENTO-125NP)
The Minute Pirate Bug (Orius) Mar 8, 2010 3002-1437
Baldfaced Hornet
The baldfaced hornet is a large, black and white hornet up to 1 inch (25.4mm) in length. It is black and white in color with a mostly white head or face. It is widely distributed in Virginia. The nests are constructed of the same paper-like material as that of other wasps (yellowjackets). They differ a great deal from other wasp nests in being enclosed in a thick "paper" envelope. There is a single opening at the lower end of the nest and a few hornets always guard this. Nests are always abandoned at the end of the season. Hymenoptera, Vespidae: Dolichovespula maculata (L.)
Nov 3, 2014 3006-1449 (ENTO-84NP)
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Dec 16, 2016 3006-1451 (ENTO-228NP)
Balsam Woolly Adelgid
Native to central Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid is now distributed throughout eastern and western North America. It attacks all true firs, Abies spp., including balsam and Fraser fir.
Jun 24, 2015 3006-1452(ENTO-161NP)
Redheaded Pine Sawfly
The redheaded pine sawfly occurs from S.E. Canada throughout the eastern U.S. Feeding is primarily restricted to the two and three-needled pines, such as Jack, red, shortleaf, loblolly, slash, longleaf, and pitch pines. White pine and Norway spruce may also be defoliated.
Jun 24, 2015 3006-1453(ENTO-162NP)
Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans Sep 9, 2010 3009-1461
Leaf‐ Footed Bugs Dec 21, 2010 3012-1522
Drugstore and Cigarette Beetles Mar 8, 2016 3101-1526 (ENTO-193NP)
Earwigs in Virginia Mar 11, 2016 3101-1527 (ENTO-194NP)
Locust Leafminer Mar 17, 2016 3101-1528 (ENTO-205NP)
Pine Tortoise Scale
Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years - most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.
Mar 24, 2016 3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010.
Feb 22, 2011 3102-1532
Corn Earworm on Vegetables Mar 22, 2011 3103-1537
Monitoring and Management of Beet Armyworm and Other Rind-feeding Larvae in Watermelon Apr 21, 2011 3104-1540
Beet Webworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1542
Blister Beetles Feb 19, 2016 3104-1543 (ENTO-187NP)
Cabbage Looper Apr 25, 2011 3104-1544
Celery Leaftier Apr 25, 2011 3104-1545
Sap Beetles
Adults are usually black or brown beetles with an oval to oblong shape. They have clubbed or knobbed antennae and the economically important species typically measure 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 inch) long. Some sap beetles have short wing covers that do not cover the entire abdomen. Some species have flattened bodies while others are more convex. Many sap beetles are a dull color, sometimes with mottling or spots. One common sap beetle, the picnic beetle [Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say)], is an attractive shiny black beetle with four yellow-orange bands or spots on the wing covers.
May 13, 2015 3104-1546(ENTO-157NP)
Cutworms Apr 25, 2011 3104-1547
Eggplant Lace Bug
Adult eggplant lace bugs are a mottled grayish to dark brown in color and measure 4 mm (0.16 inch) long. Their bodies are flattened but sculptured, with broad lateral projections behind the head and lace-like wings. The antennae are darker at the tips. Nymphs are wingless and yellow in coloration. They develop black markings and black antennae as they mature. Older nymphs have many spiny projections over the body. Mature nymphs measure about 2 mm (0.08 inch) long.
May 13, 2015 3104-1548(ENTO-153NP)
Flea Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1549
Grasshoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1550
Hornworms on Tomato Apr 25, 2011 3104-1551
Imported Cabbageworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1552
Leafhoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1553
Leafminers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1554
Mexican Bean Beetle Apr 25, 2011 3104-1555
Onion Thrips Apr 25, 2011 3104-1556
Parsleyworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1557
Pepper Weevil Apr 25, 2011 3104-1558
Pickleworm May 13, 2015 3104-1559(ENTO-154NP)
Potato Tuberworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1560
Raspberry Crown Borer Mar 24, 2016 3104-1561 (ENTO-208NP)
Rednecked Cane Borer Apr 15, 2016 3104-1562 (ENTO-210NP)
Rhubarb Curculio
Adult rhubarb curculios are elongated, somewhat cylindrical beetles measuring about 13-19 mm (0.5-0.75 inch) in total body length. They have an obvious long snout that curves downwards from the head. Young adults have a dusty coating of yellow or orange powder that rubs off easily. Older beetles that have lost this dusty coating appear brownish-black in color. Mature larvae are legless white grubs with a brown head capsule. Rhubarb curculio larvae are only found in weedy hosts and not in rhubarb itself. There are a number of related, similar-looking weevils that occur on various weeds in the Asteraceae and Polygonaceae families.
May 13, 2015 3104-1563(ENTO-155NP)
Rose Chafer Mar 24, 2016 3104-1564 (ENTO-209NP)
Rose Scale Apr 25, 2011 3104-1565
Squash Vine Borer
Adult squash vine borers are robust, attractive moths with dark wings and conspicuous orange abdomens dotted with black spots. The legs are marked with orange, black, and white, and the hind legs are noticeably feathery. Adults measure about 13 mm (0.5 inch) long with a wingspan of about 32 mm (1.25 inches). The dark wings are held folded at rest; there is a short fringe of hairs on the trailing edge. Squash vine borer is a member of the clearwing moth family; translucent windows are visible in the hind wings when they are fully extended. The antennae are dark, somewhat flattened, and hooked at the tips. Overall, adult squash vine borers resemble paper wasps in appearance. They are active day fliers with a zig-zag flight and easily travel from field to field.
May 13, 2015 3104-1566(ENTO-158NP)
Stalk Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1567
Tarnished Plant Bug Apr 25, 2011 3104-1568
Vegetable Weevil
Adult weevils are a dull, gray-brown color, and about 6–8 mm (0.25–0.32 inch) long. Adults are somewhat bristly in appearance due to t stout hairs and dense scales on the body. Usually there is a set of dark diagonal markings framing a lighter colored V-shape on the wings, but these may wear off with age. Antennae are elbowed and there is a short, stout snout at the front of the head.
May 13, 2015 3104-1569(ENTO-156NP)
White Grubs in Vegetable Gardens Apr 25, 2011 3104-1570
Whitefringed Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1571
Carpenter Ants
Carpenter ants can be found outside on trees and sidewalks and indoor. Where they are found determines how best to control them. Inside they can be active indoors during many months of the year, usually during the spring and summer. When ants are active in the house during late winter/early spring (February/March), the infestation (nest) is probably within the household. In late spring large numbers of foraging ants may come in from outside looking for food and may not indicate and infestation. Outside carpenter ants become active in late spring and early summer and will be seen on tree trunks and sidewalks.
Mar 11, 2016 3104-1573 (ENTO-188NP)
Centipede - Chilopoda May 13, 2011 3104-1574
Click Beetle - Coleoptera: Elateridae May 13, 2011 3104-1575
Clothes Moths Mar 11, 2016 3104-1576 (ENTO-191NP)
Firebrat - Thysanura: Lepismatidae May 13, 2011 3104-1578
Fungus Gnats Mar 16, 2016 3104-1579 (ENTO-201NP)
House Fly Maggot - Diptera: Muscidae May 13, 2011 3104-1580
Lace Bugs - Hemiptera: Tingidae Mar 17, 2016 3104-1581 (ENTO-204NP)
Indian Meal Moth Mar 17, 2016 3104-1582 (ENTO-203NP)
Obscure Scale
Heavily infested trees will have large numbers of scales on twigs and branches. Scales may also be found on exposed roots and on the trunk of young trees. Scale insects feed on plant sap with their long thread-like mouthparts (stylets), which are several times longer than the insect itself.
Mar 24, 2016 3104-1583 (ENTO-206NP)
Wheel Bug Apr 15, 2016 3104-1585 (ENTO-211NP)
Wolf Spiders and Fishing Spiders Mar 29, 2016 3104-1586 (ENTO-212NP)
Yellow Ants Apr 15, 2016 3104-1587 (ENTO-213NP)
Carpet Beetles Mar 4, 2016 3104-1588 (ENTO-189P)
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596
4-H Honey Bee Youth Project Book I -- The Buzz about Bees: Honey Bee Biology and Behavior
Royalty fighting to the death, troves of golden treasure, thousands of slaves building massive edifices under the direction of a queen, and daring quests for the “food of the gods”; such mesmerizing tales of valor and adventure originate not from medieval Europe, ancient Greece, or the pyramids of Egypt but instead derive from a seemingly inconspicuous yet important insect: the honey bee. Honey bees are complex, fascinating insects.
Mar 18, 2014 380-070 (4H-253NP)
4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book I - The Buzz About Bees:Honey Bee Biology and Behavior
To the 4-H Leader: The honey bee project (Books 1 - 4) is intended to teach young people the basic biology and behavior of honey bees in addition to hands-on beekeeping management skills. The honey bee project books begin with basic honey bee and insect information (junior level) and advance to instruction on how to rear honey bee colonies and extract honey (senior level). These project books are intended to provide in-depth information related to honey bee management, yet they are written for the amateur beekeeper, who may or may not have previous experience in rearing honey bees.
Feb 27, 2014 380-071(4H-255NP)
4-H Honey Bee Youth Project Book II -- Veils, Smokers, and Supers: Equipment of Beekeepers
One lazy afternoon you find yourself looking across a field of flowers. The sun is warm and the breeze rustles through the grasses beneath your feet. Suddenly, at the edge of the field you see a lone figure hunched over a white box. The person is dressed from head to toe in a white, spaceman-looking jumpsuit. You begin to get nervous as you peer closer and notice a helmet covering his head. His gloved hands hold a strange-looking instrument spewing smoke from some internal, smoldering fire. You do not know it, but you are about to witness a robbery by this alien creature. Should you call the police? Should you take matters into your own hands? No! Instead, grab a container and prepare to get some honey! There’s a beekeeper hard at work!
Mar 18, 2014 380-074 (4H-252NP)
4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book II -- Veils, Smokers, and Supers: Equipment of Beekeepers
With our understanding of honey bee biology and colony structure, we can begin to investigate the process of rearing bees for ourselves. To begin, we need a good understanding of the equipment we will need and how to use it. We will need to know the parts of the beehive and how to assemble them properly to facilitate bee rearing and honey production. Finally, we will need to handle bees within the hive. The Honey bee Project Book 2 provides the 4-H member with specific information about beekeeping, bee handling, and hive inspection.
Mar 19, 2014 380-075 (4H-254NP)
Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems
Fisheries and aquatic resources (ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, and oceans) are exceptionally valuable natural assets enjoyed by millions of Americans. They provide citizens with generous long-term benefits in return for minimal care and protection.
May 1, 2009 420-013
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation
The diversity of insects can only be described as amazing. More than half of all known species of living things (microbes, plants, and animals) are insects.
May 1, 2009 420-531
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners May 1, 2009 426-059
Gardening and Your Health: Ticks May 1, 2009 426-066
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Droplet Chart / Selection Guide
When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.
Sep 25, 2014 442-031 (BSE-149P)
Nozzles: Selection and Sizing
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
Jan 31, 2014 442-032 (BSE-103P)
Plumbing Systems of Agricultural Sprayers
The plumbing systems of agricultural sprayers are usually considered foolproof. Sprayer problems may occur if plumbing and/or modifications are improperly done or maintenance is ignored. Retrofitting, addition of electrical control systems, and replacement of pumps or nozzles require proper knowledge of the plumbing system and the implications of these changes to sprayer performance. Routine maintenance of the plumbing system is essential.
Oct 1, 2014 442-452 (BSE-171P)
Fine Tuning a Sprayer with “Ounce” Calibration Method
This extension publication discusses guidelines to quickly evaluate the performance of a sprayer. Sprayer calibration, nozzle discharge, spray pattern uniformity, speed checks, pump performance, and plumbing arrangements are evaluated with minimal calculations.
Dec 3, 2014 442-453 (BSE-178P)
Pepper Maggot in Sweet (Bell) Pepper May 1, 2009 444-005
European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper May 1, 2009 444-006
Diamondback Moth in Virginia May 1, 2009 444-007
Bean Leaf Beetle Biology and Management in Snap Beans May 1, 2009 444-009
Colorado Potato Beetle May 1, 2009 444-012
Fall Armyworm in Vegetable Crops May 1, 2009 444-015
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control
Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia — greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.
Nov 13, 2014 444-018
Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-040
Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-041
Sampling Methods for Varroa Mites on the Domesticated Honeybee May 1, 2009 444-103
Japanese Beetle in Field Corn May 1, 2009 444-106
Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn May 1, 2009 444-107
Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn May 1, 2009 444-108
Slugs in Field Corn May 1, 2009 444-109
Insect Identification and Diagnosis Request May 19, 2016 444-113 (ENTO-196NP)
Giant Resin Bee
Size: about 0.75 inch (1.9 cm) Color: Black and yellow-brown Giant resin bees are large with a cylindrical body and large jaws. They have a dark head and abdomen with yellow-brown hair on the face, thorax, and the first segment of the abdomen behind the "waist." The wings are a transparent brown color that darkens toward the tips. Male giant resin bees have a truncated, squared abdomen while the females have a more tapered, pointed abdomen. Giant resin bees can be distinguished from bumblebees and carpenter bees by their cylindrical bodies and the appearance of their abdomens. Giant resin bees do not have hairy abdomens like bumblebees, nor are their abdomens shiny like carpenter bees. Hymenoptera: Megachilidae Megachile sculpturalis Smith.
Dec 10, 2014 444-206 (ENTO-96NP)
Black Vine Weevil
The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.
Nov 14, 2014 444-210 (ENTO-86NP)
Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers
Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more. Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Adults are called longhorned beetles because of their long and distinctive 11-segmented antennae, often longer than the beetle's body. The thorax and wing covers on some species bear small, stout spines. Roundheaded borers (larvae) are elongate, cylindrical, and have large gnawing mandibles. The name roundheaded borer refers to the enlarged thorax directly behind the head. Order: Coleoptera, Family: Cerambycidae.
Dec 11, 2014 444-215 (ENTO-100NP)
Bark Beetles
Species identification is difficult because the adult beetles of the various species are very similar, cylindrical and hard-shelled. Over 600 species in the sub-family. Adult beetles are between 1/8 and 1/3 inch long. Nearly all bark beetles are black or brown. Bark beetles are in the Order: Coleoptera, Family: Curculionidae, Sub Family: Scolytinae.
Nov 10, 2014 444-216 (ENTO-85NP)
Aphids
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see. Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands. Order: Homoptera, Family: Aphididae
Nov 3, 2014 444-220 (ENTO-82NP)
Spider Mites
Spider mites (Family Tetranychidae, Order Acari) are not insects; they are closely related to spiders, harvestmen (daddy longlegs), and ticks. Unlike insects, which have six legs and three body parts, spider mites have eight legs and a one-part body. They also lack wings, antennae, and compound eyes. Individual spider mites are almost microscopic, yet when they occur in large numbers, they can cause serious damage. Dozens of species attack shade trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
Feb 26, 2015 444-221 (ENTO-107NP)
Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot May 1, 2009 444-231
European Corn Borer May 1, 2009 444-232
Spruce Spider Mite
The spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae, Oligonychus unuguis (Jacobi)) lives in all areas of Virginia and is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the United States and Canada. It attacks spruce, arborvitae, juniper, hemlock, pine, Douglas fir, Fraser fir, and larch, among others.
Mar 2, 2015 444-235 (ENTO-108NP)
White Pine Weevil
The white pine weevil (WPW) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Pissodes strobi (Peck)) is found throughout Virginia. Its preferred hosts are eastern white pine and Norway spruce, but it can attack Scotch and other pines as well.
Mar 3, 2015 444-270 (ENTO-113NP)
Eastern Tent Caterpillar
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
Nov 18, 2014 444-274 (ENTO-92NP)
Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia
Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk. Once inside, insecticides are not recommended except for severe cases. Sweep up with a broom and dustpan all beetles that collect in windowsills and on walls. Beetles can also be picked up with a vacuum cleaner but bags will need to be discarded so that beetles do not escape.
Dec 11, 2014 444-275 (ENTO-102NP)
Periodical Cicada
In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.
Feb 25, 2015 444-276 (ENTO-105NP)
Euonymus Scale
Eggs are laid early in the spring and hatch in late May or early June. The crawlers settle quickly and produce a second brood by mid-July. A third brood is produced in October. There is continuous overlapping of broods, so that all stages may be found during favorable conditions. Two to three-plus generations per year may occur in Virginia. The overwintering stage is the adult female.
Nov 21, 2014 444-277 (ENTO-93NP)
Lilac Borer/Ash Borer
The adult has clear wings and is wasp-like in appearance. Size: The moth is about 1 inch long with a wingspan of 1 1/2 inches. Color: The fore wings are brown or chocolate color and the hind wings are clear with a dark border. The larvae are pure white worms with brown heads. Order: Lepidoptera Family: Sesiidae Species: Podosesia syringae (Harris).
Dec 11, 2014 444-278 (ENTO-99NP)
Whiteflies
Whiteflies are white insects with pale yellow bodies that are approximately 2 mm long. They belong to the order Homoptera and are close relatives of aphids, scales, mealybugs, hoppers and cicadas.
Mar 3, 2015 444-280 (ENTO-114NP)
Thrips
Adult thrips are small, pale-yellow insects (occasionally black) with elongated bodies, and fringed wings. Their life cycle consists of an egg, nymph, pre-pupa, pupa and an adult. The exact time required for thrips to complete their life cycle varies with species, temperature and the host plant. Western flower thrips complete their life cycle, from egg to adult, in approximately 10 days at 80° F. Adults insert eggs in leaf tissue which hatch in approximately three days. Nymphs feed for four to five days and then drop from the plant to pupate in the soil. Adults emerge after two days of pupation and begin feeding.
Mar 3, 2015 444-281 (ENTO-110NP)
Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA) Mar 5, 2010 444-284
American Cockroach Mar 4, 2010 444-288
Pine Shoot Beetle
Pine shoot beetles are in the same family as bark beetles and resemble bark beetles in appearance with their cylindrical shape. The adults are 1/8 to 1/4 inches long. The larvae are legless and can be up to 1/4 inch long. Pine shoot beetles are dark brown. The larvae have a dark brown head and creamy white body.
Apr 27, 2015 444-291 (ENTO-149NP)
Field Guide to Stink Bugs
Field Guide to Stink Bugs of Agricultural Importance in the United States
Nov 17, 2014 444-356 (ENTO-68)
Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains Oct 4, 2012 444-360
Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region Sep 23, 2009 444-390
Adventures with Insects, 4-H Entomology Project Book
Welcome to the 4-H Entomology Project. It will introduce you to many new and exciting experiences. The Entomology Project is fun; it may help you prepare for the study of insects as your life’s work, or help you learn how important insects are in the lives of everyone.
Mar 18, 2014 444-408 (4H-251NP)
Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity May 1, 2009 444-416
Widow Spiders Dec 18, 2012 444-422
Subterranean Termite Treatment Options Mar 5, 2010 444-500
Signs of Subterranean Termite Infestation Mar 1, 2010 444-501
Subterranean Termite Biology and Behavior Mar 5, 2010 444-502
Asparagus Beetles May 1, 2009 444-620
Stink Bugs May 1, 2009 444-621
Wax Scale
Plants Attacked: Wax scale has well over 50 hosts, especially Japanese and Chinese hollies, pyracantha, spirea, ivy, hemlock, euonymus, and boxwood; Description of Damage: Infestations seldom kill plants directly, but seriously weaken them, reduce growth, and cause decline. Deposits of honeydew give rise to rampant growth of the black sooty mold fungus, particularly on burford and Chinese holly.
Mar 3, 2015 444-622 (ENTO-112NP)
Magnolia Soft Scale
Heavy magnolia soft scale infestations cause stunting of twigs and undersize leaves, visibly weakening the trees. Small trees may be killed. Large trees lose branches and tree shape may become irregular.
Dec 11, 2014 444-623 (ENTO-101NP)
Japanese Weevil
The Japanese weevil has a long list of hosts, but is especially found on cherry laurel, broad-leaved evergreens, pyracantha, privet, barberry, euonymus, and many others. This weevil has also damaged vegetable and field crops in Virginia.
Dec 11, 2014 444-624 (ENTO-98NP)
Dogwood Twig Borer
The larvae tunnel in live twigs and feed down the center of the branch, making a long series of closely placed round holes for the exudation of frass. Periodically, the larvae cut off portions of the twig from within and continue to feed inside the twig on the green wood working their way down.
Nov 18, 2014 444-625 (ENTO-91NP)
Gypsy Moth in Virginia: An Update May 1, 2009 444-750
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.
Nov 13, 2014 444-770
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity Mar 9, 2011 445-004
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: On-Farm Assessment and Security Practices Mar 9, 2011 445-005
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
Jun 27, 2016 450-236 (PPWS-69P)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
Oct 19, 2016 450-237 (PPWS-70P)
Rose Rosette Disease
Rose rosette disease (RRD), a disease believed to be caused by the recently identified Rose rosette virus, has been spreading through much of the wild rose population of the Midwestern, Southern, and Eastern United States for years.
Sep 17, 2012 450-620 (PPWS-10P)
Nematode Diagnostic Assay Report Apr 29, 2016 450-901 (ENTO-197NP)
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-016 (ENTO-221P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-017 (ENTO-222P)
Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2017
This 2017 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for controlling diseases, insects, and weeds for home grounds and animals. The chemical controls in this guide are based on the latest pesticide label information at the time of writing. Because pesticide labels change, read the label directions carefully before buying and using any pesticide. Regardless of the information provided here, always follow the latest product label instructions when using any pesticide.
Mar 15, 2017 456-018 (ENTO-220P)
2017 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations
New varieties and strains of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world and it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only those that are available and are adapted to the mid-Atlantic region are listed in this publication.
Mar 6, 2017 456-420 (AREC-203P)
IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact
Potatoes are a major food crop on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, with average annual cash receipts of $14 million (2011-13).
Nov 13, 2014 ANR-105P
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Feb 27, 2013 ANR-48NP
IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact
Tree fruits are important to the agricultural economy in Virginia. The commonwealth ranks sixth in the nation in apple production, with a crop valued at more than $68 million, and 20th in peach production, with a crop valued at $4.5 million. Although smaller in acreage, cherries, pears, and plums also play an important role in some areas of Virginia. These fruit crops are susceptible to an everchanging array of insects, plant diseases, and weeds, and pest management programs are complex and knowledge-intensive.
May 13, 2015 AREC-135NP
2016 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Jan 20, 2017 AREC-200NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014
Proper soil fertility management ensures sufficient nutrients for maximum cotton production. Obtaining and maintaining appropriate soil nutrient concentrations is imperative, as fertilizer inputs are the largest component of production budgets for Virginia cotton farmers. At the same time, excessive nutrient application wastes money, wastes natural resources, and can negatively impact yields and environmental quality.
Feb 7, 2014 AREC-62NP
Southeastern U.S. 2016 Vegetable Crop Handbook
New varieties and strains of particular varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. Since it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only some of the better performing commercial types are listed in the specific crop section, either alphabetically or in order of relative maturity from early to late. These varieties are believed to be suitable for commercial production under most conditions.
Feb 22, 2017 AREC-66NP (AREC-169NP)
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2011
This booklet summarizes more than 50 experiments of arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in Virginia in 2011. Experiments were primarily conducted at three Virginia Tech research stations: the Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (ESAREC) near Painter, VA, the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center (HRAREC) in Virginia Beach, VA and the Kentland Research Farm near Blacksburg, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices.
Feb 1, 2012 ENTO-1
2014 Arthropod Pest Management Research On Vegetable in Virginia
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2014. Research was conducted at several
Apr 22, 2015 ENTO-127NP
Bed Bug Action Plan for Apartments
Bed bug infestations have been a nightmare for apartment managers. Apartment communities have seen their pest management expenses go from $30,000 to over $100,000 in a single year. Many apartment managers have admitted to hiring and firing 3 or 4 pest management companies because none were able to get the bed bug problem under control. Some complexes have even closed or sold because they could no longer afford to treat communities that were 50-90% infested.
Jun 2, 2015 ENTO-128NP
Bed Bug Action Plan for Schools
Bed bug infestations are continuing to spread through single-family and multi-unit homes. This means that more people are living with bed bugs than ever before. When more people live with bed bugs the possibility of people transporting bed bugs to other locations increases. Children living with bed bugs at home will bring bed bugs to school. We need to accept the fact that bed bugs have the potential to be transported to school every day that school is in session. Thus, there is a great probability any particular school will experience multiple bed bug introductions every year.
Apr 24, 2015 ENTO-129NP
Sugarcane beetle in corn Jun 28, 2012 ENTO-13NP
Non-Chemical Bed Bug Management
Bed bugs have proven to be a very challenging pest. While most people would like to have a pest management professional come to their home and spray a magic potion that eliminates bed bugs forever, no such potion exists. Bed bugs are highly resistant to a number of insecticides and their eggs are impervious to most insecticide formulations.
Apr 29, 2015 ENTO-130NP
Florida Predatory Stink Bug
The Florida predatory stink bug (FPSB) is a native stink bug species in the southeastern United States. It predominately occurs in neotropical regions, but can be found as far north as Pennsylvania. This species is a natural enemy that feeds on a variety of insects including many agricultural pests (Figs. 1 & 2).
Jun 5, 2015 ENTO-131NP
Banded Ash Borer
Adult banded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 8–18 mm (0.3–0.7 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. Adults are grayish-black in color with lighter colored hairs all over the body. There is a yellow band on the leading edge of the thorax directly behind the head and several yellow bands across the wing covers.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-133NP
Blow Flies
Adult blow flies are generally medium to large, robust flies. They vary in length, with the largest species measuring about 16 mm (0.6 inches) long.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-134NP
Brown Recluse Spider
Brown recluse spiders belong to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. Their name refers to a characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern on their head region directly behind their eyes (never on the abdomen). Brown recluse spiders range in color from tan to dark brown, but often they are a golden brown.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-135NP
Cluster Fly
Adult cluster flies are medium-sized, robust, somewhat bristly flies about 7 mm (0.3 inches) long.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-136NP
House fly
Adult house flies are medium-sized flies about 6 mm (0.25 inch) long. They are grayish-black in color, with 4 dark bands running the length of the thorax and conspicuous bristles on the body.
May 19, 2015 ENTO-137NP
Lice Found on Humans
Human head and body lice are wingless, flattened insects with mouthparts for sucking blood. The head is somewhat narrower than the rest of the elongated body. Adults are small, about the size of a sesame seed (2.5–3.5 mm; 0.1 inch).
May 19, 2015 ENTO-138NP
Imported Willow Leaf Beetle
Imported willow leaf beetle was identified in the United States in 1915. It likely arrived on landscape plants shipped from Europe, where it is native.
May 20, 2015 ENTO-139NP
Iris Borer
Adult iris borers are stout, medium sized moths with a wingspan of 3.8–5 cm (1.5–2 inches). The head and forewings are covered with purplish brown scales and the hind wings are yellowish. The forewings have thin dark zigzag lines, a more conspicuous dark kidney-shaped spot, and variable sooty shading around the margins
May 20, 2015 ENTO-140NP
Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Forst.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
The locust borer is a native insect that attacks black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and its ornamental cultivars. Adult locust borers are conspicuous black and yellow beetles with long black antennae and reddish legs. There is a yellow W-shaped band across the wing covers with other yellow stripes.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-141NP
Redheaded Ash Borer
Adult redheaded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 4–13 mm (0.16–0.5 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. The head, thorax and legs are reddish brown and there are four yellow dorsal bands on the darker wing covers.
May 7, 2015 ENTO-142NP
Psocids: Barklice and Booklice
Psocids are small, oval insects with soft bodies that usually measure only several millimeters long. A psocid measuring 6 mm (0.25 inches) long is rather large for this group of insects. Psocids generally occur in shades of brown, black, or pale colors; some have distinctive mottled or striped markings.
May 7, 2015 ENTO-143NP
Crab Lice, Pthirus pubis (L.) Psocodea: Phthiraptera; Pthiridae
Crab lice are very small (1.5–2 mm; 0.06–0.08 inch), wingless, flattened insects with mouthparts for sucking blood. The body is about as wide as it is long, broadest at the “shoulders”, with a small head.
May 7, 2015 ENTO-144NP
Galls made by Wasps
Gall wasps attack primarily oak trees, and are found on roots, flowers, and acorns, but especially the leaves and twigs. Roses and brambles (blackberries and raspberries) also are attacked by gall wasps. These insects have complicated life cycles, and the galls they produce occur in an endless variety of shapes and colors. In some species, alternate generations produce distinctly different galls.
May 14, 2015 ENTO-145NP
Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges
Galls made by made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges occur on many different plants. Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Most are harmless to trees, but a few are pests.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-146NP
Galls and Rust made by Mites
Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-147NP
Large and unusual Insects Found in Virginia
Several different insects are found in Virginia that cause concern due to their large size and coloration. They are for the most part harmless and just curiosities of nature.
May 5, 2015 ENTO-148NP
Native and Solitary Bees In Virginia
Although honey bees are well known for pollination and honey production, other bees at times impact humans in various ways. These native bees range from beneficial to annoying, sometimes at the same time. Native bees are important pollinators for fruit and vegetables.
May 8, 2015 ENTO-151NP
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Biology And Management In Mid-Atlantic Soybeans
The mission of the Delaware Soybean Board (DSB), Maryland Soybean Board (MSB), and Virginia Soybean Board (VSB) is to maximize the profitability of soybean producers in their respective states by investing soybean checkoff funds in targeted domestic and international research, promotion and communication initiatives. The volunteer farmer- leaders who serve on the DSB, MSB and VSB boards of directors invest your checkoff dollars in research to improve soybean production practices to make your farm more profitable and ensure the sustainability of Mid-Atlantic soybean production.
Nov 5, 2015 ENTO-168NP
Pediobius foveolatus – A parasitoid of the Mexican bean beetle
Pediobius foveolatus, is a tiny exotic parasitoid wasp that is used as a biological control agent for Mexican bean beetle, an important defoliating pest of beans in Virginia.
Sep 24, 2015 ENTO-170NP
Cerceris fumipennis “The Smokey Winged Beetle Bandit”
Cerceris fumipennis is a solitary digger wasp (crabronid) native to eastern North America. It is a predator almost exclusively of adult beetles of the family Buprestidae. This wasp gathers many species of native metallic wood-boring beetles, as well as the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (EAB).
Sep 24, 2015 ENTO-171NP
Yellow Poplar Weevil
Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.
Nov 6, 2015 ENTO-172NP
Diagnosing stink bug injury to vegetables
In the mid-Atlantic U.S. vegetable crops are attacked by several different stink bug species (1). The primary pest species include: the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, which has become the dominant species in most landscapes (2), brown stink bug, Euschistus servus Say, which is the most common species attacking tomatoes; green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris Say (3); and harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, which is primarilly a pest of brassica vegetables only (4). All stink bugs are piercing sucking feeders that insert their stylets into the fruit, pods, buds, leaves, and stems of plants.
Nov 13, 2015 ENTO-173NP
Benefits of an Insecticide Seed Treatment for Pumpkin Production in Virginia
In recent years cucurbit growers in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. could purchase their seeds pre-treated with the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam. The insecticide seed treatment is currently packaged as FarMore F1400, which also includes three proven and complementary fungicides that provide the first line of defense against several key seed and seedling diseases including Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium, general damping-off and seedling blight.
Dec 21, 2015 ENTO-174NP
Summary of insecticide efficacy for control of wireworms on potatoes – Virginia (2003-2015)
Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles. These insects can remain in the soil for several years attacking potato seed pieces or tubers or seeds and roots of other crops that are planted in the field.
Dec 23, 2015 ENTO-176NP
Control of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug with Insecticide-Treated Window Screens
In Virginia and other Mid-Atlantic states, the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) has become a serious nuisance pest (Rice et al. 2014). Each fall, these insects aggregate on buildings seeking shelters in which to spend the winter months.
Jan 26, 2016 ENTO-177NP
Evaluation of the Residual Efficacy of Commercial Slug Baits
Slugs are prevalent pests in no-till and reduced-till crop systems in Virginia. These slimy mollusks utilize plant residue to hide during the day, and at night, they feed on numerous crops causing irregular feeding holes and shredded leaves. Slugs cause the most damage during early plant growth.
Jan 29, 2016 ENTO-178NP
Buck Moth Oct 8, 2012 ENTO-18NP
Spotted Lanternfly
The spotted lanternfly (SLF) originates from China where its presence has been documented in detail dating as far back as the 12th century.
Feb 3, 2016 ENTO-180NP
Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2015 Mar 8, 2016 ENTO-184NP
Boxelder Bug
This bug is about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 as wide. It is black with three red lines on the thorax, a red line along each side, and an oblique red line on each wing. The wings lie flat on the back when at rest. The young nymphs are red and gray. The population of bugs may number into the thousands. Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus
Feb 26, 2016 ENTO-186NP
Hag Moth Caterpillar Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-19NP
The pest caterpillars of cole crops in Virginia
Caterpillars, or the larval stage of Lepidoptera, are probably the most damaging of insect groups that feed on cole crops, such as collard, kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, and Chinese cabbage.
Mar 2, 2012 ENTO-2
Hickory Horned Devil Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-20NP
Mosquitos and their Control
The key to controlling mosquitoes is removing the standing or stagnant water where they live.
Mar 11, 2016 ENTO-202NP
Virginia turfgrass insect management survey Jul 28, 2016 ENTO-219NP
Velvet Ants Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-22NP
Fall cankerworm: Alsophila pometaria
Cankerworms are also known as inchworms, loop worms, and spanworms - this is credited to their distinctive way of moving. In order to travel, a cankerworm must grab leaves or branches with its front legs and then pull the rest of its body forward. This causes the abdomen area to contract and gives the worm the appearance of arching its back.
Aug 5, 2016 ENTO-223NP
Insecticide and Acaricide Research on Vegetables in Virginia 2016
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2016. Research was conducted at several locations in Virginia including: 1) the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) near Painter, VA.
Dec 14, 2016 ENTO-229NP
Springtails Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-23NP
Insect Identification Laboratory Annual Report 2016 Mar 7, 2017 ENTO-233
Silverfish and Firebrats Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-24NP
Performance of Insecticides on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug on Vegetables Dec 14, 2012 ENTO-28NP
Asian Needle Ant Jan 7, 2013 ENTO-29NP
Bed Bugs: How to Protect Yourself and Your Home May 14, 2013 ENTO-31NP
Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood
Three pests, the boxwood leafminer, mite and psyllid commonly attack American and English boxwood in Virginia and cause spotting, yellowing, and puckering of leaves.
Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-42NP
Millipedes
Millipedes range from 1 to 4 inches (25.4-100mm) and are usually dark brown. Millipedes are slow crawling, round-bodied pests, which have two sets of legs on each, body segment. Millipedes develop best in damp and dark locations with abundant organic matter (food). They often curl up into a tight "C" shape, like a watch spring, and remain motionless when touched. The body is long and cylindrical.
Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-43NP
Gloomy Scale
Description of Damage: The bark becomes roughened and encrusted with scales. Branches and limbs die back and result in a rapid decline in tree vigor, occasionally resulting in the death of trees. Seriously weakened trees are common in Virginia as a result of scale populations, especially red and silver maples.
Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-44NP
Insect Identification Lab
Welcome to the Insect Identification Laboratory at Virginia Tech. The Insect Identification Lab covers all insects found in all situations and commodities in Virginia. This diagnostic lab started in 1967 and is a service for Extension Agents and Citizens of Virginia.
Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-45NP
Yellowjackets
DESCRIPTION: Yellowjackets are from 5/8 to 1 inch (14-25.4mm) long, have black and yellow markings in a bold pattern. Since they are a type of wasp, they have a definite waist. They fold their wings lengthwise when at rest. Like all wasps, yellowjackets prey on a wide variety of insects and other arthropods. Yellowjackets are unusual in that workers also forage on foods consumed by people, especially sweets and meats.
Sep 26, 2013 ENTO-49NP
How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation May 3, 2012 ENTO-4P
Mexican Bean Beetle
Mexican Bean Beetle (MBB), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Fig. 1), is an herbivorous lady beetle (Coccinellidae) that feeds on bean crops (legumes) in North America. It is similar to the squash lady beetle, Epilachna borealis, which feeds primarily on cucurbits. MBB can cause significant defoliation damage to various bean crops particularly in the genus Phaseolus (snap beans, lima beans, pole beans, etc.). It will also feed on soybean, alfalfa, beggarweed, kudzu, and other legumes.
Dec 13, 2013 ENTO-51NP
Improving Pest Management with Farmscaping
Farmscaping is a holistic ecologically-based approach to pest management that emphasizes the arrangement or configuration of plants that promote biological pest management by attracting and sustaining beneficial organisms. Ideal farmscape plantings provide habitat for beneficial insects, suppress weeds, and grow in close proximity to the cash crop without competing for light, water and nutrients. Research has shown that maintaining high levels of species diversity is a key characteristic of a proper functioning agroecosystem. Unfortunately, intensive farming operations including growing large monocultures, regular cultivation, and excessive use of insecticides often leads to a dramatic reduction in arthropod diversity, especially natural enemies that often keep many pest insects below damaging levels. Farmscaping is a technique designed to add diversity back to the system and minimize disturbance leading to increases in natural enemy populations by providing insectary plants as food and shelter resources.
Dec 6, 2013 ENTO-52NP(ENTO-55NP)
Leatherwing (Soldier) Beetles
Beetles in the family Cantharidae are referred to as soldier beetles or leatherwings. The name soldier beetle originates from the elytra (front wings) of one of the earliest described species being reminiscent of early uniforms of British soldiers. The latter name was coined for the soft nature of the elytra. Two species in the genus Chauliognathus are commonly found in Virginia. Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Fig 1) is often referred to as the Pennsylvania leatherwing, or the goldenrod soldier beetle referring to its favorite flowering plant in the fall. A similar species Chauliognathus marginatus, the margined leatherwing, is found in the spring on various flowers.
Dec 10, 2013 ENTO-53NP
Como Identificar Infestaciones de Chinches May 3, 2012 ENTO-5S
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2013
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in Virginia in 2013. Research was conducted at several locations including: 1) the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) near Painter, VA; 2) the Hampton Roads AREC in Virginia Beach, VA; 3) the Virginia Tech Kentland Research Farm near Blacksburg, VA; and 4) the Southwest Virginia 4-H Educational Center in Abingdon, VA.
Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-60NP
Striped Cucumber Beetle
In Virginia, cucurbits are attacked by two native species of cucumber beetles, the striped cucumber beetle, A. vittatum, which is featured in this document, and the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica decimpunctata howardi (Mannerheim), which is discussed in a separate fact sheet.
Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-61NP
History, Distribution and Pest Status of the Mexican bean beetle
Mexican Bean Beetle (MBB), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, (Fig 1) is an herbivorous ladybeetle (Coccinellidae) that feeds on legumes in North America. It is closely related to the squash ladybeetle, Epilachna borealis, which feeds primarily on cucurbits. MBB can cause significant defoliation damage to bean crops, particularly those in the genus Phaseolus (snap beans, lima beans, pole beans, etc.). For more information on general biology and pest management of MBB, see VCE Fact Sheet No. ENTO-51.
Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-62NP
Pepper Weevil
The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii (Cano), is a sporadic pest of pepper in Virginia. The insect is predominately a pest in the southern U.S., where it can inflict significant damage to that crop. Though adult weevils may feed on numerous plant species within the family Solanaceae, oviposition and subsequent larval development is specific to plants within the genera Capsicum (peppers) and Solanum (nightshades). Individuals may live 3-4 months and there are multiple generations (often 5-8) per year. The pepper weevil is an uncommon pest in Virginia, but if it occurs, infestations can result in the loss of entire pepper crops.
Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-63NP
Squash Bug
Squash bugs are one of the primary pests of cucurbits in the United States. Adults are typically 10 to 30 mm long, dark gray, brown or black in color with orange or brown markings on the sides of the abdomen (Fig. 1). Overwintering adults emerge from the soil, ground litter, wood piles or buildings in the spring. After feeding and mating, females deposit egg masses on the underside of leaves. Newly laid eggs are typically light pale in color, become coppery, then darker as they develop. Egg masses are commonly laid in diamond or V-shaped patterns along leaf veins (Fig 2).
Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-64NP
Nosema and Honey Bee Colony Health
Members of the Nosema genus are microsporidians, which are now classified as a fungus. Nosema species (spp.) are obligate, intracellular parasites. This means that they require a host (in this case a honey bee) to complete their lifecycle. There are two species from the genus that infect our honey bees (Apis mellifera) – Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema apis is a well studied species that has been known to infect honey bees for over 100 years. A thorough review is given by Fries [1]. Nosema ceranae is a closely related species and was first found in Apis cerana, the Asian honey bee in 1996 [2] and then in the European honey bee in 2006 [3-4].
Mar 31, 2014 ENTO-66NP
Green Stink Bug
Green stink bug, Chinavia halaris (formerly Acrosternum hilare) (Say), is a highly polyphagous pest of many crops throughout Virginia including soybean, tomato, pepper, snapbean, okra, and tree fruit and nut crops. They are often confused with southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) because of their similar green coloring and habitat during the growing season, but can be properly separated by identifying the elongated scent canal on the ventral side of the metathorax. They can also be distinguished from the shape of their abdominal spine with the green stink bug having a more pointed spine at the base of the hind legs instead of the rounded spine on the southern green stink bug. Also, southern green stink bug is rarely found in Virginia.
Apr 11, 2014 ENTO-67NP
Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia
Several species of spiders found in Virginia have fearsome reputations for giving painful bites resulting in life-threating complications.
Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-73NP
Parasitic Wasps
Parasitic wasps, also called parasitoids, are found in multiple families within the insect order Hymenoptera, which also contains the sawflies, bees, and wasps.
Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-74NP
Stinging Caterpillars: Slug Caterpillars and Flannel Moths
Slug caterpillars in the family Limacodidae move with a slow gliding motion rather than walking, much like a slug. Some slug caterpillars are brightly colored with bumps, protuberances, or appendages.
Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-75NP
Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners
Emerald ash borer (EAB) is found in all regions of Virginia. Some areas have established populations with a high level of ash tree mortality and other areas are seeing it for the first time. With a wider spread of infestation many homeowners are seeking methods to protect their ash trees.
Sep 4, 2014 ENTO-76NP
Beet Webworms
Both Hawaiian beet webworm (HBW) and beet webworm (BW) have multiple generations per year, and the total number is based on temperature. In tropical and subtropical climates, HBW is active year round, and can complete a generation in about 30 days. The species cannot overwinter in Virginia, but can migrate northward during the season to become a pest in late summer and early fall. BW is found throughout the U.S., but is more common in the western states. This species has fewer generations per year and can overwinter in the soil as a mature larva.
Sep 1, 2014 ENTO-77NP
Bed Bugs Biology and Behavior Jun 25, 2013 ENTO-8P
Chinche de cama: Protéjase y proteja su hogar
La chinche de cama es una plaga que ha afectado a humanos a través de la historia; a comienzos del siglo pasado, era una plaga común en los Estados Unidos. La chinche fue prácticamente erradicada de los Estados Unidos en la década de los 40 y 50 debido, en gran parte, al uso del insecticida DDT, el cual estaba disponible para los consumidores y se aplicaba extensamente con poca regulación.
Oct 26, 2015 ENTO-80SNP