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Virginia Water Resources Center

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Help Save America's Pearly Mussels May 1, 2009 420-014
Landowner's Guide to Managing Streams in the Eastern United States May 1, 2009 420-141
Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems May 1, 2009 420-013
TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) for Benthic Impairments
"Benthic" refers to the aquatic organisms living in or on the bottom of a body of water. Benthic organisms include crayfish, aquatic snails, clams, leeches, aquatic worms, certain insect larvae and nymphs (e.g., mayflies, dragonflies), and adult aquatic insects (e.g., riffle beetles). Changes in water quality generally result in changes in the types, numbers, or diversity of the benthic community.

In general, a water quality "impairment" exists if a body of water does not support its designated uses. Italicized terms are defined in the boxes at the bottom of each page.

May 1, 2009 442-556
Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Site Evaluation: Groundwater, Soils, & Geology

In Virginia, groundwater is an important source of private and public water supplies. In fact, in 60 of Virginia's 95 counties, the majority of households obtain water from private wells and springs (see Figure 1). For 38 counties, groundwater is the sole source for public water supplies, and another 16 counties depend on groundwater to obtain more than 50 percent of their water for public supplies. Overall, more than one-third of Virginia's almost 6.4 million residents depend on groundwater. Agriculture, an important part of Virginia's economy, maintains its high productivity, partially by using groundwater. According to U.S. Geological Survey estimates for the year 1990, almost 22 percent of the 36 million gallons of fresh water source used per day for crop irrigation in Virginia was derived from groundwater.

May 1, 2009 442-901
Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia's Waters May 1, 2009 420-900