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Virginia Cooperative Extension Unit Office

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2007 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots May 1, 2009 424-038-07
2008 Organic Agriculture Survey – Exploring the Results for Virginia’s Producers & Consumers Apr 13, 2010
2008 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots May 1, 2009 2812-1025
2009 Virginia Cotton Production Guide Oct 7, 2009 424-300
2009 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots

The research and demonstration plots discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by thirteen Virginia Cooperative Extension Agents and Specialists, numerous producers, local soil and water conservation districts, and many members of the agribusiness community. The fieldwork and printing of this publication is mainly supported by the Virginia Corn Check-Off Fund through the Virginia Corn Board. Anyone who would like a copy should contact their local extension agent, who can request a copy from the Northumberland County Extension office.

Jan 27, 2010 3001-1434
2010 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Dec 21, 2010 3012-1521
2010 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 24, 2011 3101-1524
2010 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Dec 1, 2009 2810-1017
2011 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots (formerly VCE pub #3012-1521)

Corn hybrid selection is becoming increasingly challenging.  With more seed companies and more GMO options and seed treatment packages than ever before, it can be very difficult to decide which hybrids to plant.  We evaluated early season hybrids (107 day RM or less) and mid season hybrids (108-112 day RM) at 5 locations and full season hybrids (113 day RM or more) at 3 locations.  In a year where rainfall patterns in general favored later hybrids, across all locations the mid season and full season hybrids averaged 20 bushels per acre or more than the early season hybrids.  Corn producers should continue to plant hybrids across all maturity ranges as a method for spreading out risk to adverse weather.

Dec 9, 2011 ANR-2
2011 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots

The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by six Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture.  We are proud to present this year’s on-farm small grain plot work to you.  The 2010-11 small grain season resulted in some excellent yields as timely planting, timely rainfall, and a cool, relatively dry grain fill period were all very positive for the wheat and barley crops.  With July 2012 wheat futures prices currently trading over $7.00 per bushel, the outlook for the 2012 crop is good.  We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop.

Aug 12, 2011 3108-1593
2011 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 17, 2012 ANR-8
2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 12, 2011 2810-1017
2012 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Nov 29, 2012 ANR-31NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots

The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by four Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s on-farm small grain plot work to you. The 2011-12 small grain season was challenging. Wet conditions in the fall hampered planting and caused stand losses in some fields. Precipitation was well below normal and temperatures were well above normal for January through mid April. Dry conditions decreased tillering and overall growth of the crop. Widespread rainfall on April 22nd basically saved the crop. Some late season diseases developed in some fields. With July 2013 wheat futures prices currently trading over $8.00 per bushel, the outlook for the 2013 crop is very good. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop.

Jul 20, 2012 ANR-19NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 11, 2013 ANR-37NP
2013 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Feb 19, 2014 AREC-73NP
2013 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Dec 4, 2013 ANR-96NP
2013 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots Jul 31, 2013 ANR-78NP
2013 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Feb 12, 2013 AREC-31NP
4-H Forestry Projects May 1, 2009 420-025
4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book I - The Buzz About Bees:Honey Bee Biology and Behavior Feb 27, 2014 380-071(4H-255NP)
4-H Presentations

Haven’t you found that it is easier to learn something if someone shows you how instead of just telling you how? A 4-H presentation is:  
• Doing
• Showing
• Talking
• Telling how through visuals
You are the teacher and the expert. A first-time 4-H presentation will be easier for you if you actually do something with yours hands that gives you a finished product.

Jun 28, 2013 388-056 (4H-161NP)
A Community-Based Food System: Building Health, Wealth, Connection, and Capacity as the Foundation of Our Economic Future

Interest in and demand for local foods continues to grow in Virginia and across the United States. The unprecedented demand for local and regionally identified foods has created a myriad of economic and social opportunities for agricultural producers and communities.

Aug 2, 2011 3306-9029
A Decision Tool to Compare the Profitability of Utilizing Poultry Litter or Commercial Fertilizer to Meet Soil Test Recommendations Mar 17, 2010 3003-1439
A Mid-Year Financial Check-up Aug 3, 2011
A Twelve-Month Calving Interval Could Capture Efficiencies on Dairy Farms Feb 7, 2011
Act Soon to Hold Down Fertilizer Costs Feb 7, 2011
Aerating Your Lawn

Lawn aeration involves the removal of small soil plugs or cores out of the lawn. Although hand aerators are available, most aeration is done mechanically with a machine having hollow tines or spoons mounted on a disk or drum. Known as a core aerator, it extracts 1/2 to 3/4 inch diameter cores of soil and deposits them on your lawn. Aeration holes are typically 1-6 inches deep and 2-6 inches apart.

Dec 1, 2012 430-002
Agritourism: Ideas and Resources Jul 14, 2009 310-004
America's Anniversary Garden: A Statewide Corridor and Entrance Enhancement Program

In 2007, Virginia will mark the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, the first English settlement in the Americas. The 18-month-long commemoration begins in May 2006 and will feature educational programs, cultural events, fairs, and various live and broadcast entertainments sponsored by Virginia and cities and towns across the commonwealth. See the America's 400th Anniversary website at www.americasanniversary.com for information about this salute to America's birthplace.

May 1, 2009 426-211
America's Anniversary Garden: Bulbs for a Red, White, and Blue Spring Garden

In 2007, Virginia will mark the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, the first English settlement in the Americas. The 18-month-long commemoration began in May 2006 and features educational programs, cultural events, fairs, and various live and broadcast entertainments sponsored by the Commonwealth of Virginia and many of its cities and towns. See the America's 400th Anniversary website at www.americasanniversary.com for information about this salute to America's birthplace. Communities and citizens also will be improving their streets, parks, schools, businesses, and gardens to celebrate this event.

May 1, 2009 426-220
America's Anniversary Garden: Native Plants
In 2007, Virginia marks the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. The 18-month-long commemoration began in May 2006 and features educational programs, cultural events, fairs, and various live and broadcast entertainments sponsored by the Commonwealth of Virginia and many of its counties, cities, and towns. See the America's 400th Anniversary website at www.americasanniversary.com for information about this salute to America's birthplace. Communities and citizens will be improving their streets, parks, schools, businesses, and gardens as part of the commemoration.
May 1, 2009 426-223
America's Anniversary Garden: Red, White, and Blue in Fall and Winter Gardens

In 2007, Virginia will mark the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. The 18-monthlong commemoration began in May 2006 and features educational programs, cultural events, fairs, and various live and broadcast entertainment sponsored by the Commonwealth of Virginia and many of its cities and towns. See the America’s 400th Anniversary website at www.americasanniversary.com for information about this salute to America’s birthplace.

May 1, 2009 426-228
Analyzing the Cost of a Bull May 8, 2009
Another Look at Current Ratio: A Measure of Your Effective Cash Reserves Apr 13, 2010
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control

Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.

May 1, 2009 444-018
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2010 Oct 18, 2011 3110-4009
April 13--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Apr 13, 2010
April 20--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Apr 20, 2010
April 27--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Apr 27, 2010
Arlington and Alexandria Virginia Cooperative Extension Jul 11, 2013 FCS-47NP
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2011 Feb 1, 2012 ENTO-1
Artificial Insemination Vs Natural Bull Service – Where are the Economic Benefits? Apr 8, 2011
August 10--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Aug 10, 2010
August 3--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Aug 4, 2010
August 31--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Aug 31, 2010
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2009-2011 Mar 22, 2012 AREC-17NP
BCAP Biomass Crop Assistance Program

The Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) is part of the latest Farm Bill to assist forestland owners and operators with matching payments for eligible material by a qualified Biomass Conversion Facility. The objective of this program is to stimulate the production of biomass based energy throughout the United States.

Jan 8, 2010 3001-1431
BMR Dwarf Forage Sorghum: What's the Buzz? Feb 28, 2013
Beef Profits Oct 12, 2011
Biomethane Technology

This publication provides a general overview of anaerobic digestion and the current status of biomethane technology on livestock farms in the United States. It is part of the Bioenergy Engineering Education Program (BEEP) of the Biological Systems Engineering Department at Virginia Tech. Most of the discussion uses dairy manure as an example of feedstock for an anaerobic digester. Resources which provide more detailed information on anaerobic digesters are listed.

May 1, 2009 442-881
Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass

The bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus, is a weevil native to Virginia. Weevils belong to the family Curculionidae, which is contained within the order for beetles, Coleoptera. Like most weevils, the bluegrass billbug has a relatively narrow range of host plants, feeding on a handful of cool-season grass species.

Jul 1, 2010 444-040
Breaks for Virginia Farmers Relating to Sales Taxes

When a farmer considers federal income taxes, state income taxes, self-employment taxes, sales taxes, and property taxes, over half of a dollar that the farmer earns could easily go towards taxes. Therefore, any tax break comes as welcome news.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1353
Building Soil Organic Matter with Cover Crops

When growing vegetables and specialty crops, a soil high in organic matter is very desirable. When examining soils in Virginia, we struggle to find soils that are naturally high in organic matter.

Aug 11, 2009 2906-1381
Can I Make Money Farming? Aug 12, 2009
Can Virginia Communities and Counties Seize an Economic and Social Opportunity with Farm-Based Local and Regional Economic Development? Oct 7, 2009
Catastrophic Livestock and Poultry Carcass Disposal Nov 19, 2013 ANR-76NP (ANR-90NP)
Cattle Identification: Freeze Branding

Individual animal identification is essential if beef producers are to properly manage animals and their production records. Yet at present, less than 50 percent of the cattle in the United States have any form of individual identification (USDA-APHIS, 1997).

May 1, 2009 400-301
Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees May 19, 2009 420-351
Characteristics of Good Quality Transplants

If you're planning to use transplants this spring make sure the 2005 season gets off to a productive start by planting good quality transplants. While terms like "good quality" leave room for some subjective interpretation, there are characteristics that can be defined to aid in determining if the transplants are of good quality.

Aug 11, 2009 2906-1383
Consider Pumpkins and Gourds for Fall Harvest Crop Options

Pumpkins and gourds can be grown in areas all across Virginia. As fall-harvest crops, they offer growers the opportunity to further diversify.

Aug 4, 2009 2906-1368
Consider the Tax Effects before Selling the Dairy Cows Jun 5, 2009
Constructing High-tensile Wire Fences

High-tensile wire fence is an effective barrier for controlling and protecting livestock. Some advantages of this type of fence include ease of handling, minimal maintenance, and high strength. High-tensile wire fence can be easily electrified and will outlast most other fences. Building a high-tensile wire fence that will provide years of service requires proper construction techniques. Unfortunately, many farmers consider fence building a low priority. The result is a poorly built fence that is a waste of time and money. Every fencing job presents slightly different problems. However, the application of a few basic principles of fence construction can result in well-built fence. This publication discusses the basic components of high-tensile wire fence construction.

May 1, 2009 442-132
Consumer Campaign Targets Ethnic Produce at Arlington Markets

The immigration boom of the 1990's has changed the landscape of Washington DC and its surrounding suburbs. According to 2000 census figures, more than one in four Arlington residents is originally from another country. In Arlington County, roughly half of the immigrants are from Latin America, but newcomers have arrived from far and wide with other large groups coming from India, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Mexico, Philippines, and Pakistan. The growing diversity in Arlington has brought with it many new influences, including food from other cultures.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1335
Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia

Annual and perennial weed control in pastures and hayfields is an important aspect of successful forage management. This publication will discuss control measures for many of the common weeds found in Virginia and West Virginia permanent fescue and mixed fescue / bluegrass / orchardgrass pastures and hayfields.

May 1, 2009 427-002
Cooking with Local Foods Apr 16, 2010 3001-9027
Corn Fertility Update – Spring 2010 Jun 11, 2010 3006-1448
Cow/Calf Operations Cost Per Pound of Beef Sold May 8, 2009
Cultivating Virginia Farm-to-School: Growing from Grassroots Mar 18, 2010 3003-9028
Dairy Overview Of The 2014 Farm Bill Feb 27, 2014
December 15, 2009--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Dec 15, 2009
December 21, 2009--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Dec 21, 2009
December 28, 2009--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Dec 28, 2009
December 8, 2009--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Dec 8, 2009
Decisions Determine Your Farm's Direction Oct 24, 2013
Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations May 1, 2009 424-053
Determining the Cause of Plant Problems Aug 11, 2009 2906-1382
Did I Make Money Farming in 2009? Dec 9, 2009
Direct Marketers and the Virginia Sales Tax May 26, 2009 448-073
Don't Overlook Equipment Maintenance Apr 30, 2013
Drought Tax Laws May Benefit Livestock Producers in 2010* Aug 11, 2010
Easy Keepers: Managing Horses Prone to Obesity

“Easy Keepers” are horses that will maintain or even gain weight under conditions where other horses will lose weight. They are often considered a pleasure to own because they need less feed to maintain an appropriate body condition; however, these horses can easily become obese, which leads to other potentially life-threatening conditions. The challenge becomes meeting their nutritional needs in protein, vitamins, and minerals, without over-feeding calories.

May 1, 2009 2805-1002
Economics Support Increased Barley Production in Eastern Virginia Oct 7, 2009
Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley Mar 18, 2010 3003-1440
Energy Series: What about the Heating System?

What is Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency?

The efficiency of a gas (natural or propane) or oil furnace is measured by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE), which describes the heat produced from the energy used. This rating takes into consideration losses from pilot lights, start-up, and stopping. For example, a furnace with an AFUE rating of 80 converts 80% of the fuel it burns into usable heat. New furnaces usually rate in the mid 70s to low 80s, whereas older furnaces will be in the 50s or 60s. ENERGY STAR® qualified oil and gas furnaces have annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) ratings of 83% and 90%, or higher, making them up to 15% more efficient than standard models. Unlike the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) and Heating Season Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings, the AFUE does not consider the unit’s electricity use for fans and blowers.

May 1, 2009 2901-9005
Energy Series: Estimating Home Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use

If you're trying to decide whether to invest in a more energy-efficient appliance or you'd like to determine your electricity loads, you may want to estimate appliance energy consumption.

Estimating Energy Consumption

Use this formula to estimate an appliance's energy:

(Wattage X Hours Used per Day ÷ 1000 = Daily Kilowatt-hour (kWh) consumption (1 kilowatt (kW) = 1,000 Watts)

May 1, 2009 2901-9014
Energy Series: Federal Energy Tax Credit or Virginia Energy Rebate Dec 1, 2009 2911-9026
Energy Series: What About Refrigerators and Freezers? Aug 27, 2009 2908-9022
Energy Series: What About the Air Conditioning System?

As you begin the process of selecting the most efficient air conditioning system for your home, investigate the critical issues of system size, placement, installation, and contractor experience. Your goal is to obtain an efficient system by: sizing the system for the specific cooling load of your home; selecting and properly installing the thermostats or controls; designing a ductwork system to deliver the correct amount of conditioned air to each space; and sealing and insulating all ductwork.

May 1, 2009 2901-9001
Energy Series: What Can Builders Do to Help Prevent Moisture Problems in New Construction?

Buildings should be designed and built to provide comfortable and healthy levels of relative humidity. They should also prevent both liquid water from migrating through building components and water vapor from being trapped in building assemblies, like walls.

Moisture prevention includes quality construction to shed water away from the building and its foundation; vapor (region dependent) and air barrier systems that hinder the flow of air infiltration and water vapor; quality building products and installation that can help reduce the chance of leaks; and cooling and heating systems designed to provide comfort throughout the year. The following checklist provides a list of actions that you and your builder can do or install in your home to make it less prone to moisture problems.

May 1, 2009 2901-9012
Energy Series: What Does the Shape of the House Have to do with Energy Efficiency?

In a home, heat energy is transferred among all materials and substances that are of different temperatures—within the building materials, inside the building itself, and outside the building envelope. The term “building envelope” refers to all of the external building materials, windows, and walls that enclose the internal space. Heat moves only when there is a difference in temperature, and it always moves from the warm side to the cool side. Heat will continue to “flow” until any touching materials reach the same temperature. However, we usually want the inside of a home to have a different temperature from the outside.

May 1, 2009 2901-9013
Energy Series: What about Appliances? Aug 24, 2009 2908-9015
Energy Series: What about Caulking and Weather-Stripping? Aug 25, 2009 2908-9017
Energy Series: What about Dishwashers? Aug 26, 2009 2908-9018
Energy Series: What about Fluorescent Lighting?

How Much Can I Save by Switching to Compact Fluorescent Lamps?

While compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) are initially more expensive, you should see a quick return on your investment when you replace your most frequently used incandescent light bulbs with CFLS. A 26- or 28-watt compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) can replace a 100-watt incandescent bulb, and it will last about 8,000 hours (compared an incandescent bulb, which usually lasts about 1,000 hours). Purchasing the 26- or 28-watt fluorescent bulb saves over 70 watts worth of energy. On average, each bulb can save more than $30 in electricity costs over its lifetime and prevent more than 450 pounds of greenhouse-gas emissions.

May 1, 2009 2901-9004
Energy Series: What about House Design and Room Location? Aug 26, 2009 2908-9019
Energy Series: What about Insulation?

Insulation is rated in terms of thermal resistance, called R-value, which indicates the resistance to heat flow. Although insulation can slow heat flow—conduction, convection and radiation—its greatest impact is on conduction.

Higher R-values corresponds to greater insulation effectiveness. The R-value of thermal insulation depends on the type of material, the thickness and density. When calculating the R-value of a multilayered installation, the R-values of the individual layers are added.

May 1, 2009 2901-9006
Energy Series: What about Moisture? Aug 27, 2009 2908-9020
Energy Series: What about Mold?

Mold has received a lot of attention of late because of high profile lawsuits and television news broadcasts that have highlighted the potential hazards and liabilities associated with indoor mold. What is mold? Molds, along with mildews, yeasts, and mushrooms, all belong to the kingdom fungi. Fungi are unicellular or multicellular organisms that primarily use absorption as a means to obtain energy from their environment, unlike green plants, which use chlorophyll to obtain energy from sunlight. The term “mold” describes unwanted visible fungal growth. “Mildew” is fungi that grows on fabrics or that causes plant disease. The term “yeast” is fungi that are unicellular when cultured.

May 1, 2009 2901-9008
Energy Series: What about Radiant Barriers? Aug 27, 2009 2908-9021
Energy Series: What about Using Ceiling Fans?

Can Ceiling Fans Lower My Utility Bill?

Ceiling fans create a breeze, so room occupants feel cooler and more comfortable. With a ceiling fan running, you can raise the thermostat setting by 2 to 4 degrees during the cooling season with no reduction in comfort. Increasing the room temperature by even two degrees can cut your cooling costs 4 to 6%.

May 1, 2009 2901-9002
Energy Series: What about Ventilation? Aug 27, 2009 2908-9024
Energy Series: What about Windows?

How Can I Determine the Energy Performance of a Window?

The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) offers a voluntary testing and certification program for thermal performance for windows and residential door products with glass. The NFRC does not conduct structural characteristics, such as impact-resistance, but rather serves as a complementary program that can test the whole window (including frame) for the following characteristics: U-Factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), Visible Transmittance, Air Leakage, and Condensation Resistance (see sample NFRC label).

May 1, 2009 2901-9010
Energy Series: What about the Bathroom? Aug 25, 2009 2908-9016
Energy Series: What about the Ductwork?

Air distribution or duct systems are designed to supply rooms with air that is “conditioned”—that is, heated or cooled by the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment—and to recirculate or return the same volume of air back to the HVAC equipment. Your duct system has two main air transfer systems: 1) supply, and 2) return. The supply side delivers the conditioned air to the home through individual room registers. The return side picks up inside air and delivers it to the air handler of your central system where heat and moisture are either removed or added and then delivered to the supply side. All of the air drawn into the return duct(s) is conditioned and should be delivered back through the supply registers.

May 1, 2009 2901-9003
Energy Series: What about the Laundry Area?

Why Should I Worry About Energy Use in the Laundry Room?

The laundry room can be a big consumer of energy—more than 1,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) a year—and water—and a big producer of unwanted heat and humidity in summer. It makes good sense to think about both the location and the appliances in it if you want to run an energy efficient laundry. And there are new washers and dryers on the market now that make it easier than ever to do so.

May 1, 2009 2901-9007
Energy Series: What about the Roof? Aug 27, 2009 2908-9023
Energy Series: What about the Water Heater?

Heating water is the third largest energy expense in your home, after heating and cooling the entire space; and, it can account for 15-25% of your utility bill. It’s not hard to see why a family of four, each taking a 5-minute shower a day under inefficient showerheads, can use 700 gallons of water in a week representing a 3-year supply of drinking water for one person! There are several ways to cut down the amount you spend on heating water: a) insulate your water heater and pipes; b) reduce the amount of hot water you use; and c) turn down the thermostat on your water heater.

May 1, 2009 2901-9009
Energy Series: What are the Differences Between Mobile and Modular Homes?

Mobile and modular homes are factory-built and generally differ in how much of the construction occurs at the factory. The greater the work at the factory, the less labor is needed where the home will be located.

Mobile Homes

A mobile home (also called “manufactured home” or “HUD code home”) is one that is built entirely at a factory and usually requires hook-up of utilities and certain appliances on delivery. A two-story mobile home generally requires more assembly on site. Today’s mobile home may be installed on a temporary or a permanent foundation and could be considered real property by the local property appraiser. The mobile home owner should consult with his or her insurance company to determine if the mobile home qualifies for real property insurance. On installation, a mobile home’s wheels and axles may be removed, but the chassis must stay in place. A mobile home must be built in accordance with U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) code that supersedes state or local building codes.

May 1, 2009 2901-9011
Energy Series: What is the Whole-House Systems Approach to Energy Efficiency? Aug 27, 2009 2908-9025
Environmental Streptococcal and Coliform Mastitis

Well managed dairy herds with low somatic cell counts (SCC below 200-300,000) often may experience problems with onsets of clinical mastitis. Approximately 40-45% of the mastitis cases in low SCC herds are caused by environmental pathogens which can be difficult to detect because of their short duration. Cows in low SCC herds are most susceptible to environmental streptococci and coliform infections after drying off and just prior to calving but which appear in early lactation.

May 1, 2009 404-234
Equine Boarding Operations in Northern Virginia, 2008 Survey Results

As of 2005, the horse industry contributed approximately $39 billion in direct economic impacts to the U.S. economy on an annual basis. When considering indirect and induced spending, that number increased to $102 billion. There are an estimated 9.2 million horses in the United States owned by nearly 2 million people (American Horse Council, 2005). These numbers represent a strong growth in the horse industry across the country from 1996 (American Horse Council, 1996) to 2005 and in Virginia the trend is no different. Evaluation of surveys of horses in Virginia estimated that 215,000 horses are located on 41,000 operations throughout the Commonwealth. This reflects a 26% growth in the number of horses and a 41% growth in the number of equine operations between 2001 and 2006. Virginia equine operations spent $783 million caring for equines in 2006, as compared to $505 million in 2001. Boarding fees accounted for 5.4% of equine expenditures, actually reflecting a decrease from 6.3% in 2001. Loudoun, Fauquier, and Albemarle ranked as the top three counties for number of horses and total value of the animals, respectively (NASS, 2006).

May 1, 2009 2808-1014
Estimating Fence Construction Costs for Grazing Livestock Dec 9, 2009
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Fluvanna and Louisa Counties, Virginia. October 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-10
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Suffolk, Virginia May 1, 2009 442-202
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Albemarle County, Virginia, April 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-62NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Albemarle and Fluvanna Counties, Virginia, March-May 2009 Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1502
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Amherst County, Virginia, June - July 2009, Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1503
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Appomattox and Campbell Counties, Virginia May - June 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1504
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Augusta County, Virginia, September - November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1505
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Botetourt County, Virginia. July 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-7
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Buckingham County, Virginia. September 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-28
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Caroline County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1508
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia. March 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-29
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Culpeper County, Virginia, November-December 2008, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1509
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, February-March 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1510
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Floyd County, Virginia. April 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-9
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia, May 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-67NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia. May 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-8
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Greene County, Virginia, April-May 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 23, 2010 3010-1511
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Isle of Wight County, Virginia, June 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-30
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in King George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 23, 2010 3010-1512
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Lee and Scott Counties March 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-31
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia, May 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-66NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia. June 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-14
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia. May 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-32
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Lunenburg and Nottoway Counties 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-34
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Madison and Orange Counties, Virginia. November 2010. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-13
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Montgomery County, Virginia. March 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-11
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Nelson County, Virginia. November 2010. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-12
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Page and Shenandoah Counties, Virginia, June 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-70NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Prince George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 24, 2010 3010-1513
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Prince William County, Virginia, November 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-65NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockbridge County, Virginia, September-November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 29, 2010 3010-1514
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockingham County, Virginia, August-September 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 29, 2010 3010-1515
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Russell and Tazewell Counties 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-33
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Smyth County, Virginia February 2011. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-35
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Southside, Virginia (Halifax, Mecklenburg, Charlotte, Lunenburg, and Brunswick Counties), September 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-69NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Southwest Virginia (Buchanan, Dickenson, Lee, Russell, Scott, Tazewell, and Wise Counties), Spring and Fall 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 21, 2013 BSE-64NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties, Virginia, August 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-63NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties, Virginia. October 2011. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-36
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Warren County, Virginia, June 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-68NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in the Northern Neck, Virginia (Northumberland, Lancaster, Richmond, Westmoreland, and Essex Counties), March and September 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-61NP
Exploring Options with Teff Grass Aug 11, 2010
Express Yourself! Public Speaking and Presentations Jun 27, 2013 388-028 (4H-160NP)
Farming in the Mid-Atlantic Jul 27, 2009 2906-1336
February 15, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Feb 15, 2010
February 2, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Feb 2, 2010
February 23, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Feb 23, 2010
February 9, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Feb 9, 2010
Feed Hay to Grow Grass Aug 11, 2010
Feeding and Management of Weanling Horses for Healthy Skeletal Development

Weaning is a critical period for the foal. It is growing rapidly and its skeletal system, which includes bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, is still developing. For the weanling to reach its full potential as an adult, you must manage its total nutritional environment. This publication answers some questions related to the nutritional management of weanlings that you, as a horse
producer, should consider.

May 1, 2009 406-007
Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates Aug 4, 2009 424-035
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer

The Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and some other regions produce more manure nutrients than local crops need. This manure has traditionally been applied to row crops and overapplication has led to soil-test phosphorus (P) being well above agronomic optimum in many cases. In 2008, it was estimated that nutrient-management regulations now require that approximately 85 percent of poultry litter be applied off poultry farms, as they do not have sufficient land to beneficially recycle their manure nutrients. There is a substantial area of nutrient-deficient forage production in the Shenandoah Valley that could benefit from this poultry litter. This publication summarizes two years of field research on fertilizing nutrient-deficient forages with poultry or commercial fertilizer. It also evaluates split versus single annual applications of nutrients and addresses a common misconception that poultry litter contains weed seeds.

Sep 16, 2009 418-142
Financial Profile of the Valley Dairy Industry Jun 5, 2009
Food Deserts in Virginia Jan 22, 2014 VCE-294NP
Freezing Fruits and Vegetables

Freezing extends the shelf life of food. Blanching food before freezing prevents the enzymes in foods from affecting the quality of the foods during storage.

May 1, 2009 348-596
Fuel Ethanol

As energy prices reach historic highs, there is a broad interest across the state in utilizing and producing renewable bioenergy from domestic agricultural products. Nationwide, it is expected that a 20 percent replacement of petroleum usage will happen over the next ten years. This is equivalent to 35 billion gallons of alternative fuel use by 2017, with fuel ethanol playing an important role in this transition. Fuel ethanol can be blended with gasoline (from 10 percent to 85 percent), and thus reduce the amount of gasoline used. In the United States, corn kernels are commonly used for producing fuel ethanol, and thus reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oils. The purpose of this publication is to introduce the basics of fuel ethanol and answer questions regarding fuel ethanol.

May 1, 2009 442-884
Going To Market Feb 7, 2014 ANR-46NP (ANR-99NP)
Hay Fire Prevention and Control

Fires that damage or destroy hay and barns cost farmers thousands of dollars in building and feed replacement costs and in lost revenues. Many of these fires are caused by the spontaneous combustion of hay that usually occurs within six weeks after baling. This publication discusses the cause and prevention of hay fires and provides guidelines to follow when a hay fire is detected.

May 1, 2009 442-105
Hay Preferences for Horse Owners in Northern and Central Virginia

With over 215,000 horses on over 41,000 operations in Virginia (USDA/NASS 2007), the horse industry is an important segment that should be considered when it comes to making, buying, and selling hay. An understanding of what horse owners want may help hay producers create a product that will sell more quickly at a premium price and aid in the retention of customers.

May 1, 2009 2807-1004
High Profit Beef Producers Aug 3, 2011
Home Lawn Fertilization in Virginia: Frequently asked Questions

The best way to determine if your lawn requires certain plant nutrients is to get the soil tested. This test is available through your local Extension Agent. It is easy to do and inexpensive. The results returned to you will include recommendations on the amounts of plant nutrients and lime that would be beneficial to your lawn. Soil tests are not used to determine nitrogen needs. Nitrogen is applied based upon established requirements by grass species, seasons of growth and intended use.

May 1, 2009 430-003
Horse Manure Management

Manure management is a vital part of modern day horse ownership. Many horses spend a significant portion of their day in stalls, accumulating large amounts of manure and stall waste. Horse owners generally have a limited amount of time to spend caring for their equine charges; thus, efficient manure removal and disposal is crucial.

May 1, 2009 406-208
How Much Time Does it Take to Plant My Crops? Jun 8, 2010
Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-041
IMPACT: Family and Consumer Sciences, Fit Extension Working to Promote Healthy Habits Oct 24, 2013 VCE-55NP
Identification and Control of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in Virginia

Common reed is a tall perennial grass with creeping rhizomes that may make a dense vegetative mat. The leaves are rolled in the shoot, no auricles are present, and the ligule is a fringe of hairs. Leaf blades are 1 to 5 cm wide, 20 to 60 cm long, flat, and glaborous. The leaf margins are rough and the sheaths are overlapping.

May 1, 2009 427-101
Impact of Cotton Monoculture, Variety Selection, and Chemical Inputs on Disease Control, 2011 Jan 27, 2012 AREC-13
In Case of a Disaster: Home Inventory

Whether it is a house fire, a hurricane or tornado if the disaster will make it difficult to  get an accurate accounting of what you have. The recent victim of a house fire made  the following suggestions.

  • “Take the time NOW to inventory your home. The inventory needs to include the  item name, description, make, date purchased/age, model and/or serial number,  and purchase price. Take pictures and /or video and make comprehensive lists of  EVERYTHING you own. Nothing is insignificant. The more items a person can list  and refer to “see photo” the better. The lists need to include everything (down  to how many pairs of socks you own) and should include brand name, age of item, and purchase cost. Update this  annually. I don't know why insurance companies don't require this or offer this service, but they should do both.
May 1, 2009 2903-7023
Insurance for the Potential Drought of 2012 Aug 3, 2011
Insuring Farm Use Vehicles

In a previous article that I wrote entitled "Farm Use or F-Tags ," I explained the different requirements according to Virginia law for "farm use" vehicles and vehicles registered with "F-tags." After writing this article, I had several questions regarding the fact that farm use vehicles do not have to be insured. Make no mistake; farm use vehicles are NOT required to be insured by Virginia law. However, even though Virginia law does not require farm use vehicles to be insured, it does not mean that insuring farm use vehicles is not a good idea.

Aug 4, 2009 2906-1362
Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management May 1, 2009 420-320
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima) May 1, 2009 420-322
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) May 1, 2009 420-321
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) May 1, 2009 420-323
Is The Pasture Always Greener On The Other Side? Apr 3, 2013
January 12, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jan 12, 2010
January 19, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jan 19, 2010
January 26, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jan 26, 2010
January 4, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jan 4, 2010
July 13--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jul 13, 2010
July 20--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jul 20, 2010
July 27--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jul 27, 2010
June 15--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jun 15, 2010
June 22--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jun 22, 2010
June 29--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jun 29, 2010
June 8--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Jun 8, 2010
Late Blight of Tomato and Potato Jan 20, 2012 ANR-6
Lawn Moss: Friend or Foe?

There are thousands of species of moss worldwide. These very simple plants lack the typical leaf, shoot, root, and seed-forming systems of most higher plants; however, they are some of the hardiest living organisms on the planet (Figure 1). Lawn moss can reproduce sexually (spores, etc.) or asexually (breaking off into smaller pieces that divide and multiply), and their numbers can increase rapidly under the right conditions. They are tolerant of extremely low mowing, so regular clipping of the grass will not remove them. It would seem that these plants would not offer much resistance to our efforts to manage or control them, but as Mother Nature often shows, their simplicity in design and function correlates well with their ability to colonize and persist in some of the most inhospitable growing conditions around your property: sidewalks, driveways, and yes – the lawn.

May 1, 2009 430-536
Legal Considerations for Building a Line Fence in Virginia Dec 9, 2009
Making Hay on Shares: What is a Fair Division of the Crop? Jun 8, 2010
Making Replant Decisions for Slug Damaged Corn and Soybean Stands

Slugs cause significant economic injury to corn and soybean crops in Virginia every year. Symptoms of slug feeding will vary depending on the size or the growth stage of the crop, and the size of the slug. In corn, slug damage is typically limited to defoliation of emerging leaves.

May 14, 2009 2905-1293
Managing Shrub-Infested, Postmined Pasturelands With Goats and Cattle. Part I: Effect on Botanical Composition and Browse Species Jan 18, 2012 CSES-4
Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter

To maximize crop productivity and minimize adverse environmental effects, it is critical that land applications of manures meet, but not exceed, crop nutrient requirements. To assure that the actual manure application rate matches the desired application rate, manure-spreading equipment must be calibrated. The goal of manure spreader calibration is to determine the amount of manure, on a weight per unit area basis, that is being applied to a field. This publication describes three methods for manure spreader calibration for spreaders handling solid and semi-solid manures.

May 1, 2009 442-004
March 16--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report March 16, 2010 Mar 16, 2010
March 2, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Mar 2, 2010
March 23--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Mar 23, 2010
March 30--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Mar 30, 2010
March 9, 2010--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Mar 9, 2010
Marketing Cull Cows in Virginia

Cull cows and bulls represent a significant portion of the net income of Virginia beef farmers. According to the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) 2007 Market Cow and Bull Beef Quality Audit, the sale of cull beef and dairy cows and bulls accounts for as much as 20 percent of the income generated on these farms in the United States (NCBA 2007). Management and marketing strategies that enhance the value of these animals are worth considering. Research has also demonstrated that consumers are concerned about the well-being of the animals that produce the meat they consume (Bowling et al. 2008). Producers cannot ignore this trend.

Oct 20, 2009 400-761
Matching Farm Resources with Market Trends Apr 8, 2011
Maximizing Your Fertilizer Dollars Apr 13, 2010
May 04--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report May 4, 2010
May 11--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report May 11, 2010
May 18--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report May 18, 2010
May 25--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report May 25, 2010
Measuring Site Index

Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests. Site index is the average height of the dominant1 and codominant2 trees on the site, at a given age (base age). Typically, the base age for hardwoods and white pine in Virginia is 50 years, while the base age for loblolly pine is 25 years. For example, a SI of 75, base age 50, means that the average height of the dominant and codominant trees on a site will be 75 feet when they are 50 years old (SI50=75). The higher the SI, the higher the site productivity (trees will grow faster than on a site with a lower SI).

May 1, 2009 2812-1028
Mid-Atlantic 4-H Market Goat Project Guide

According to USDA statistics, the meat goat industry is growing at a rate of 10 percent to 15 percent a year. Yet, U.S. farmers do not produce enough goats to meet the domestic demand for goat meat.

May 1, 2009 380-310
My Money, Lesson 1: Where Do I Begin?

Money problems are common. When we manage it, we can make it last longer.

May 1, 2009 354-073
My Money, Lesson 2: Spending Leaks

Does your paycheck always run out before the next payday? Is it possible you could be wasting a few dollars each month?

May 1, 2009 354-074
My Money, Lesson 3: Where Does All the Money Go?

Do you know where your money goes each month?

May 1, 2009 354-075
My Money, Lesson 4: Credit Reports

Did you finish the credit account list last week? A credit report will list all accounts. Credit reports cost $9 for each. But after November 2005, you can receive all of your credit reports each year for free from one place. To receive a report, copy this form 3 times and fill it out.

May 1, 2009 354-076
My Money, Lesson 5: Spending Plans

This week, your task may take some guessing. First, fill out the income chart to figure your monthly income. Second, without looking at your spending logs, write down how much you spend on each item in a month.

May 1, 2009 354-077
My Money, Lesson 6: Putting It All Together

Congratulations! You have kept your spending log for a whole month. Now take all 4 logs and figure out what you spent last month.

May 1, 2009 354-078
My Project May 1, 2009 388-569
My Top 11 Pitfalls in Farming Jun 8, 2010
Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilization of Corn May 1, 2009 424-027
No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes

No-till seeding of forage grasses and legumes can be successful and has become an accepted practice for a number of reasons. One of the primary concerns in establishing new forage stands in a well-tilled seedbed is the threat of soil erosion during the establishment period. Not only is valuable topsoil lost, but resulting ruts and gullies damage equipment and are dangerous to equipment operators. In addition to reducing soil erosion, no-till seedings conserve moisture already present in the seedbed. Moisture conservation, along with a dramatic reduction in water run-off, improves the water supply for the new seedlings. No-till seeding methods also require less time and fuel than traditional methods because rocks remain below the soil surface.

May 1, 2009 418-007
November 17, 2009--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Nov 17, 2009
November 30, 2009--Roberts Agricultural Commodity Market Report Nov 19, 2009
On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers Jul 31, 2013 2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)
Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses

You have considered the ramifications of clearing your land (To Clear or Not To Clear – That Is the Question, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 465-340), and you have decided to go forward. Now this publication addresses a question many new landowners ask: How do I clear land?

May 1, 2009 465-341
PPE Glove’s Chemical Resistance Ratings

Information is from the EPA, university sources and a current equipment catalog (for the prices), compiled into one location. 

Oct 2, 2009 2910-1416
Plant America's Anniversary Garden

In 2007, Virginia will mark the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. The 18-month-long commemoration begins in May 2006 and will feature educational programs, cultural events, fairs, and various live and broadcast entertainments sponsored by Virginia and cities and towns across the commonwealth. See the America's 400th Anniversary website at www.americasanniversary.com for information about this salute to America's birthplace. Communities and citizens also will be improving their streets, parks, schools, businesses, and gardens as part of the commemoration.

May 1, 2009 426-210
Pocket Budget Guide

One way to help yourself stick to a budget is to keep your records in your wallet or purse. The example below shows how to set up a pocket budget guide. You can easily see at any time how much is left in your budget for the month in any flexible expense category. A pocket budget guide will help you adjust your spending plan to make your money go where you really want it to go.

May 1, 2009 2901-7018
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!

Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens), or poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.

May 1, 2009 426-109
Prepare Your Farm’s Future? Feb 9, 2010
Preparing for an Emergency: The Smart Thing to Do

Preparing for emergencies is not new.  Your grandparents probably have extra supplies, such as: soap and shampoo in the bathroom closets, onions and potatoes stored in the basement, and canned goods on pantry shelves in their home.  They understood the value of having a little extra on hand in case of emergencies.

May 26, 2011 3104-1590
Produce Auctions Expand Marketing Options

Amish, Mennonite, and other "plain folk" communities have developed nearly fifty produce auctions across the Middle Atlantic and Northeastern states, thus optimizing their wholesaling strategies. It may be a model well worth adopting if your production exceeds what you can dispose of through retail sales.

Aug 4, 2009 2906-1366
Pruning Crapemyrtles

One of Virginia’s most popular yet mistreated landscape plants is the beautiful crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica, L. fauriei, and L. indica with L. fauriei or L. speciosa hybrids ). Selected and prized for their long summer bloom period (often called the "plant of the 100 day bloom"), cultivars have a range of flower colors, with an interesting seed head following the flower. In addition, crapemrytles have lustrous green leaves that change to bright fall colors, subtle to stunning multicolored bark, and unique winter architecture that makes this plant exceed most landscape choices for four-season interest and appeal.

May 1, 2009 430-451
Pumpkin Post Harvest Handling

The most popular fall decoration is the pumpkin. And many growers are in the process of harvesting their pumpkin crop to satisfy the market demand. As we approach the prime market season, we must consider the duration of the buying season.

Aug 4, 2009 2906-1367
Resources for Rural Families Coping with Economic Stress and Anxiety Nov 16, 2009 2911-1418
Rotational Grazing Recycles Nutrients Apr 8, 2011
Safe Brown Bag Lunches*

Chart showing proper storage of foods for carried meals.

May 1, 2009 2806-7003
Say No To Purchasing Raw Milk Jan 7, 2014
Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide

This handbook is designed to accompany the Skidder Safety and Efficiency training DVD available from Virginia Cooperative Extension www.ext.vt.edu, Forest Resources Association www. forestresources.org, and the Virginia SHARP Logger Program www.sharplogger.vt.edu. The following pages contain a transcription of the video narrative, along with suggestions for discussion topics.

May 26, 2009 420-122
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2010. Aug 16, 2010
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2011 Sep 16, 2011 3109-1595
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2011 Sep 16, 2011
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2012 Aug 2, 2012 CSES-15NP
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2013 Jun 18, 2013 CSES-61NP
Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures Aug 19, 2009 452-705
Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005 May 1, 2009 450-561
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1420
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
Storage and Handling of Commercially Packaged Foods May 1, 2009 348-954
Strengthening Virginia’s Community Viability through a Statewide Food System Assessment

The University of Virginia and Virginia Tech convened the Virginia Food Security Summit in May of 2007 with several goals.  One of its goals was to explore the development of a stakeholder roundtable or state-level Food Policy Council to develop an integrated food system strategy for Virginia.

Jun 7, 2011
Stress and Depression on the Farm Feb 9, 2010
String Trellising of Tomatoes to Improve Quality and Profits

Tests to compare caging, ground culture, and trellising systems of tomatoes were conducted at the Virginia Tech Horticulture Research Farm in the early 1970's with earlier determinate or short growing tomato varieties. Varieties with fewer vines and "self-topping" types were grown in short cages on mulches as early season companions to later-maturing trellis varieties. Many growers adopted short cage culture, using black plastic mulch under the determinate vines.

May 1, 2009 438-017
Successful Farm Startup for Beginners: Virginia Beginning Farmer and Rancher Coalition Program Oct 14, 2013 AEE-67P
Suggested Soybean Seeding Rates for Virginia Jun 11, 2010 3006-1447
Survival Guide for 4-H Leaders May 1, 2009 406-130
Surviving the Beef Cattle Market Crisis May 8, 2009
Swine Welfare, Science and Legislation- An Overview 1 Feb 2, 2010
TREE Cookies Etc. Fall 2007 Mar 15, 2013 ANR-59
TREE Cookies Etc. Fall 2008 Mar 15, 2013 ANR-60
TREE Cookies Etc. February 2006 Mar 15, 2013 ANR-56
TREE Cookies Etc. July 2006 Mar 15, 2013 ANR-57
TREE Cookies Etc. May 2007 Mar 15, 2013 ANR-58
TREE Cookies Etc. November 2005 Mar 15, 2013 ANR-55
TREE Cookies Etc. Spring 2010 Mar 15, 2013 ANR-61
TREE Cookies Etc. Winter 2011/12 Mar 18, 2013 ANR-62
TREE Cookies Etc. Winter 2012/13 Jan 22, 2013 ANR-33
The Growing Attention to Food and Agriculture – Examining Virginia’s Direct Marketing Industry[1] Aug 12, 2009
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials

Selecting an appropriate, high-yielding variety is one of the most important management decisions that producers make. Yield potential is clearly important, but the decision is complicated by such factors as the cropping system, the need for disease resistance, end-use quality goals, year-to-year climatic variation, and the need to select multiple varieties in order to reduce risk by spreading out flowering and maturity dates.

Jul 29, 2011 424-040
To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question

There are several reasons why someone might want to clear woodland. Pasture for livestock, space for horseback riding, creating a vista, making space for a garden, increasing lawn size, or establishing a field for hay or other crops are but a few. Regardless of the reason, it is important to carefully evaluate all options and thoroughly understand the ramifications.

May 1, 2009 465-340
Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs Sep 2, 2009 2909-1410
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils

The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants.

May 1, 2009 430-027
Trees and Shrubs for Overhead Utility Easements

Trees are valuable assets in commercial, private, and public landscapes. Trees add aesthetic beauty, modify and enhance the environment, serve architectural and engineering functions, and increase property and community economic values. These same trees that enhance landscapes, however, are a major challenge for utility companies. Most people have grown accustomed to reliable, uninterrupted electric, telephone and cable service in their homes and offices. Unfortunately, trees are one of the major causes of power outages in areas of overhead utility lines due to direct tree contact with lines, or to trees or tree limbs falling on the lines.

May 1, 2009 430-029
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift

Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.

May 1, 2009 430-031
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas

Parking lots and paved areas are essential urban features that tend to be unsightly in their basic form. Municipal ordinances often mandate specific amounts of parking for different types of commercial or residential land use, as well as landscaping for these parking areas. Landscaping in and around parking lots and pavement improves appearance, prevents soil erosion, and reduces carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Planted areas also reduce storm water drainage problems, reduce the detrimental effects of wind and noise, and enhance human comfort by providing heat-reducing shade.

May 1, 2009 430-028
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution

Conditions in urban environments place trees under numerous stresses including compacted soil, soil moisture extremes, and reduced soil fertility. Polluted air is another stress that contributes to the decline of urban trees. Air pollution may cause short-term (acute) damage, which is immediately visible, and long-term (chronic) damage, which can lead to gradual tree decline. Long-term damage may predispose trees to other disorders, making diagnosis difficult.

May 1, 2009 430-022
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Screening

Using trees as living screens can easily enhance living and working spaces. Before selecting trees for screening, first determine the screen's purpose, whether functional or environmental. Screening can be used to define an area, modify or hide a view, create privacy, block wind, dust, salt and snow, control noise, filter light, and direct traffic flow.

May 1, 2009 430-025
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- The Walnut Tree: Allelopathic Effects and Tolerant Plants

Walnut is the common name given to twenty species of deciduous trees in the genus Juglans, of which six species are native to the United States. The black walnut, Juglans nigra, which is native to Virginia, grows from Maine west to southern Michigan and south to Texas and Georgia.

May 1, 2009 430-021
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Trees for Hot Sites

Hot landscape sites require special consideration before trees are planted. Trees can survive, and even thrive, in hot sites if the site is prepared correctly, if heat-tolerant species are selected, and if the trees are properly maintained. A variety of different locations and situations qualify as hot landscape sites.

May 1, 2009 430-024
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Trees for Landscape Containers and Planters

Planting trees in aboveground containers and planters is becoming a common practice on sites that are not suited for inground planting. Containers differ from raised planters in that they are usually smaller in volume and moveable, whereas planters are generally larger, and often built as part of the permanent hardscape (paving, etc.). The greatest challenge in selecting trees for containers and planters is in choosing trees that can survive temperature extremes, and that can establish roots in a limited volume of substrate (potting soil). Consider several factors when selecting containers and trees including environmental influences, container and planter design, substrate type, and tree characteristics.

May 1, 2009 430-023
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Wet and Dry Sites

To grow, all trees require air, light, water and nutrients. Some trees can survive over a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, whereas others are very site specific. Both wet and dry sites present establishment and growth challenges, making selection of the right tree for the right site very important.

Know the site's soil

When selecting trees relative to soil moisture, begin by identifying the site's soil type. Soil maps are available for most areas in Virginia (contact your local Virginia Cooperative Extension office). Keep in mind, however, that construction activities (compaction, cut and fill, topsoil removal) may have altered the native soil.

May 1, 2009 430-026
Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop Nov 16, 2012 AREC-25NP
U-Picks and Good Ag Practices

As we near the time of year when customers frequent U-pick operations, growers should give some thought to minimizing risks associated with customers picking produce on your farm. This is actually one of the concepts with the GAPS (Good Agricultural Practices) program. Of particular concern is minimizing microbial contamination to the produce.

Jul 28, 2009 2906-1348
Urban Water-Quality Management - What Is a Watershed?

A watershed is an area of land that drains to a lake, river, wetland, or other waterway. When precipitation occurs, water travels over forest, agricultural, or urban/suburban land areas before entering a waterway. Water can also travel into underground aquifers on its way to larger bodies of water. Together, land and water make up a watershed system.

May 1, 2009 426-041
Urban Water-Quality Management - Winterizing the Water Garden

Water gardens require maintenance throughout the year. Preparation for the winter months is especially important for the survival of both the aquatic plants and the wildlife in and around the pond. Some plants will not tolerate winter weather and must be removed from the pond while cold-hardy plants need only to be completely immersed in the pond. Debris such as leaves and dying plants must be removed, especially if there are fi sh in the pond. Fall is the time to take action. Prepare the pond for the winter months by managing the plants, cleaning the pond, and monitoring the water conditions. If treated properly, many aquatic plants and wildlife can survive in the water garden for years.

May 1, 2009 426-042
Urban Water-Quality Management: Purchasing Aquatic Plants

Aquatic plants are essential for a healthy and environmentally balanced water garden. Whether you are installing a new water feature or renovating an existing one, proper plant selection is critical. Plants compliment water features, soften hard edges, and add color, texture, and form. They also provide shelter and food for fish and other aquatic wildlife. The following steps will help you select and purchase aquatic plants.

May 1, 2009 426-044
Urban Water-Quality Management: Rain Garden Plants

A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water as it seeps into the ground and evaporates back into the atmosphere. For a rain garden to work, plants must be selected, installed, and maintained properly.

May 1, 2009 426-043
Urban Water-Quality Management: Wildlife in the Home Pond Garden

Small home pond gardens support aquatic plants and also attract a variety of wildlife. Turtles, frogs, birds, snakes, lizards, and raccoons as well as many other animals may use these ponds. Most wildlife needs water to survive and will seek out ponds for drinking, bathing, habitat, and in some cases, reproduction.

May 1, 2009 426-045
Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity

Pitfall traps are excellent tools for detecting first activity and monitoring the season-long activity of walking and crawling soil and litter arthropods, especially those that are active at night. Pitfall traps can be used in sampling programs for row crops, orchards, turf, pastures, woodlands, and landscapes.

May 1, 2009 444-416
Using the Internet for Direct Marketing May 1, 2009 448-505
VCE and the Dairy Science Department Welcome Jeremy Daubert and His Family to Virginia Jan 7, 2014
Virginia 4-H Beef Heifer Project Junior Record Book Jun 27, 2013 4H-140P
Virginia 4-H Beef Heifer Project Senior Record Book Jul 1, 2013 4H-141P
Virginia 4-H Forestry Judging Project Book May 1, 2009 420-125
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Junior Record Book May 1, 2009 406-122
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book May 1, 2009 406-123
Virginia 4-H Market Beef Project Junior Record Book Aug 23, 2013 4H-142P
Virginia 4-H Market Beef Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-143P
Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-144P
Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-145P
Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-146P
Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-147P
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-148P
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-149P
Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Junior Record Book Sep 30, 2013 4H-150P
Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Senior Record Book Sep 27, 2013 4H-151P
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2010 Dec 10, 2009 2810-1019
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2011 Jan 12, 2011 2810-1019-11
Virginia Cotton Production Guide, 2008 May 1, 2009 424-300-08
Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Household Wastewater Treatment and Septic Systems

Household wastewater contains some contaminants that degrade water quality for such uses as drinking, stock watering, food preparation and cleaning. Potential contaminants in household wastewater include disease-causing bacteria, infectious viruses, household chemicals, and nutrients, such as nitrate. Viruses can infect the liver, causing hepatitis or infect the lining of the intestine, causing gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea). If coliform organisms (a group of indicator bacteria) are found in well water, they show that the water is potentially dangerous for drinking and food preparation. Virtually all farmsteads use a septic system or similar on-site wastewater treatment system.

May 1, 2009 442-903
Virginia Landowner’s Guide to the Carbon Market May 28, 2009 442-138
Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots 2006 May 1, 2009 424-038-06
Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2005 May 1, 2009 424-050
Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2006 May 1, 2009 424-050-06
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2006 May 1, 2009 424-109-06
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2007 May 1, 2009 424-109-07
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2008 May 1, 2009 2901-1032
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2009

The purpose of the publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for grain producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of certain varieties, management practices, and new technology through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. The plot work and analyzed results enable those producers to make management decisions based on research and provides them a greater opportunity to improve yields and profits, which can improve the quality of life for them and their families. The success of these on-farm plots is very dependant on the cooperative effort of the producer and the assisting agribusiness.

Mar 24, 2010 3003-1441
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2013 Jan 22, 2014 ANR-101NP
Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots, 2007 May 1, 2009 424-050-07
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots - Eastern Virginia, August 2009

The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by seven Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, several extension specialists from Virginia Tech, area
producers, and agribusinesses. We are proud to present this year’s on-farm wheat plot work to you. The 2008-09 wheat season was a tough one for producers. Below normal temperatures in the fall and winter
reduced tillering, and wet conditions in the spring delayed harvest and resulted in low quality and yields in many areas. With wheat prices down considerably and input costs relatively high, wheat producers
will need to really focus on maximum economic yields during 2009-10 to produce profitable wheat.

Aug 28, 2009 2908-1409
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, Eastern Virginia, August 2010 Aug 19, 2010 3008-1457
Virginia Tech On-Farm Wheat Test Plots 2008 May 1, 2009 2808-1015
Virginia Wildlife Project - Wildlife Foods May 1, 2009 390-405
Water Garden Plants Sep 29, 2011 3109-1594
What is a Fair Price for My Crop? Oct 7, 2009
When Compared To Maryland... Jun 5, 2013
When Do I Cull a Cow From My Cow-Calf Herd? Apr 13, 2010
When the Storm Passes: Managing the Farm Family’s Living Expenses Feb 8, 2010
When the Storm Passes…: Managing Market Downturns in Agriculture Feb 8, 2010
Who Will Operate My Farm in Ten Years? Aug 12, 2009
Winter Annual Cover Crops Increase Profits
Research on cover crops started in the 1940’s.  The book, Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 3rd Edition, which is published by Sustainable Agriculture Network, discusses how and why cover crops work and provides an extensive listing of cover crops.
Jun 7, 2011
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596