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Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2005 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results May 1, 2009 432-301
2008 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots May 1, 2009 2812-1025
2009 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Quality Data Mar 15, 2010 3002-1436
2009 Virginia Cotton Production Guide Oct 7, 2009 424-300
2009-2010 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia‐Carolina Region Jan 25, 2011 3101-1531
2009-2011 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia-Carolina Region Apr 25, 2013 AREC-11P
2010 PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Quality Data

Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 11 Virginia-type cultivars that currently are on the market and 25 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2010. The small PVQE plots with 36 varieties were tested at six locations in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina: Suffolk, VA, Southampton Co., VA, Martin Co., NC, Rocky Mount, NC, Whiteville, NC, and Florence, SC. At Suffolk three and at Martin Co., NC, two planting dates were achieved. For the other locations, only one planting date was done. Each genotype was replicated 3 times at each location and planting date. Varieties’ names and pedigree are presented in Table 1. Since none of the advanced breeding lines were proposed for release, PVQE seed increase plots were not planted in 2010. A detailed description of the plant material, test locations, weather conditions, and cultural practices is included in the PVQE 2010 Results. I. Agronomic and Grade Data, at http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/3101/3101-1523/3101-1523.html.

Mar 24, 2011 3103-1539
2010 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results: Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 14, 2011 3101-1523
2010 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 24, 2011 3101-1524
2010 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Dec 1, 2009 2810-1017
2011 - 2012 Runner vs. Virginia Peanut Test Results Apr 12, 2013 AREC-44NP
2011 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Feb 1, 2012 AREC-7
2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Quality Data Aug 28, 2012 AREC-6
2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 12, 2011 2810-1017
2012 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Jan 28, 2013 AREC-37NP
2012 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2013 AREC-32NP
2012 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in Virginia Nov 26, 2012 AREC-30NP
2013 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Feb 19, 2014 AREC-73NP
2013 Insect Pest Management In Virginia Cotton, Peanut, Soybean, and Sorghum Dec 10, 2013 AREC-61NP
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2014 AREC-64NP
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - II. Quality Data Mar 14, 2014 AREC-85NP
2013 Tri-State Grain Sorghum Performance Tests Mar 26, 2014 AREC-83NP
2013 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Feb 12, 2013 AREC-31NP
2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide May 2, 2014 AREC-58NP
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control

Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.

May 1, 2009 444-018
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2004 May 1, 2009 450-564
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2005 May 1, 2009 450-564-05
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2006 Apr 28, 2009 424-236
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2007 May 1, 2009 2808-1005
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2008

Cool temperatures and rainfall delayed planting of cotton and peanut until after 20 April in Virginia. Thereafter, rainfall was widely scattered and soil temperatures averaged above 60 ºF which allowed planting to proceed in a timely manner. Most crops showed good emergence after planting throughout Eastern Virginia, except for some stand losses in early plantings of corn.

May 14, 2009 2905-1294
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2009 Sep 9, 2010 3009-1458
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2011 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-12
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2013 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-12
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions I: Background and General Information May 1, 2009 450-301
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions II: Identification, Biology, and Ecology May 1, 2009 450-302
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions III: Control with Fungicides May 1, 2009 450-303
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions IV: Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices May 1, 2009 450-304
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions V: Monitoring, Tracking, and Scouting May 1, 2009 450-305
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2008-2010 Jan 25, 2011 3101-1530
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2010-2012 Mar 1, 2013 AREC-35NP
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Varieties Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2007-2009

Selecting high-yielding soybean varieties is one of the most important steps for profitable production. To help
with variety selection, Virginia Tech conducts full-season and double-crop variety tests in five regions of the
Commonwealth. These regions include the Upper and Lower Piedmont, the Upper and Lower Coastal Plain, and
Eastern Shore.

Multi-year averages give greater confidence to variety performance. Data presented here is an average taken
from multiple-locations over the past three growing seasons and includes varieties that have been tested in the last
2 years. The greater number of locations, the greater confidence that the variety will perform as indicated. Actual
yield in bushels per acre is not listed. Instead, variety performance is represented as the average relative yield, or
a percentage above or below the average yield of all varieties of the similar maturity at the same location.
Average relative yield removes some of the bias that occurs with multi-year averages when varieties are not tested
at each location.

Actual yield and other performance data from these tests are available at your county Cooperative Extension
office or can be found on the web at www.vaes.org.vt.edu/TAREC/holshouser/variety.html.

Apr 20, 2010 3004-1443
Biology and Management of Hessian Fly in the Southeast Feb 27, 2013 AREC-39P (ANR-1069)
Cereal Leaf Beetle, Biology and Management

Cereal leaf beetle, a native to Europe and Asia, was first detected in Michigan in 1962. Since that time it has spread throughout most of the mid-western and eastern United States and has become a significant pest of Virginia and North Carolina small grains. This insect can become very numerous in small grain fields and the larvae are capable of reducing grain yield by eating the green leaf tissue.

May 1, 2009 444-350
Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region

Common diseases of soybean are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes. Some diseases are spread by insect vectors and nematodes while others are spread by wind, splashing rain, or movement in soil. The best way to determine if disease control would be profitable is to first identify the diseases that are capable of causing  conomic yield losses. Symptoms of disease include plant damage caused by a pathogen and the reaction of plants to infection. Signs are the visible evidence of the pathogen. Some diseases have characteristic symptoms and signs that are identifiable in the field.

Feb 17, 2010 3001-1435
Comparison of Yield, Maturity, Value and Susceptibility to TSWV in Virginia- and Runner-type Varieties of Peanut in 2004 May 1, 2009 450-567
Composting for Mortality Disposal on Hog Farms

Even on well-managed hog farms, some animals die before being marketed. For example, a 1,200-sow farm that produces 2.2 litters per sow per year and sells weanling pigs may need to dispose of 36 sow carcasses and 7,920 stillborn and other dead piglets annually. A finishing farm producing 10,000 market hogs annually should plan for the disposal of approximately 300 pigs each year (Table 1). These examples are based on a 3 percent annual mortality rate for breeding sows and market hogs and the loss of three stillborn and nursing piglets per litter produced. Farms with lower mortality rates will have lower disposal needs, and those with higher rates will have higher disposal needs. To meet this need, a practical, cost-effective, and environmentally sound means to dispose of routine death losses is essential on all hog farms.

May 1, 2009 414-020
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans

Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.

May 1, 2009 444-770
Cost and benefit of seed treatments and Temik 15G in furrow for seedling disease and nematode control in Virginia, 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1419
Cotton Harvest Aid Cheat Sheet Aug 28, 2013 CSES-65NP
Cotton Harvest Aid Selection and Application Timing May 1, 2009 424-201
Days to Soybean Physiological Maturity Sep 9, 2010 3009-1459
Defoliating Cotton under Adverse Conditions: Drought-stress, Cool Temperatures, and Rank Growth

Modern chemical harvest aids are applied to induce leaf abscission, hasten mature-boll dehiscence, and inhibit regrowth (Gwathmey and Hayes 1997; Snipes and Cathey 1992). Their use can result in increased machine harvest efficiency and fewer lodged plants while reducing boll rot, the trash in seed cotton, and the time from defoliation to harvest (Benedict 1984). The challenge of using harvest aids is the inconsistent way cotton responds to them, making defoliation one of the most unpredictable management practices (Benedict 1984; Gwathmey and Hayes 1997).

May 1, 2009 427-208
Description and Performance of the Virginia-Market-Type Peanut Cultivars Aug 20, 2010 432-201
Disease Management in No-Till Corn in Virginia Feb 7, 2014 AREC-67NP
Effects of Drought and Heat on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Production

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Sep 20, 2012 AREC-27NP
Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizer Materials: Nitrogen Stabilizers Aug 22, 2013 CSES-52P
Green Stem Syndrome in Soybean Dec 22, 2009 2912-1430
Growing 'Titan': A Large-Seeded, Virginia-Type Peanut for Specialty Markets Jun 18, 2013 AREC-42P
Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region

The more than 55 million people who live in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States want to purchase processed grain foods such as bread and other dough products made from hard, or bread, wheat. 

May 1, 2009 424-024
Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic May 1, 2009 424-022
Hog Production Contracts: The Grower-Integrator Relationship

As early as the 1970s there were some isolated hog production or marketing contracts in existence. During this era, such arrangements were limited and the overwhelming majority of hogs were produced and marketed by independent producers on open or "spot" markets. However, during the past 20 years the pork industry has evolved rapidly. Among the factors that have contributed to this rapid evolution are packer and large producer consolidation, the need to control pork supply and price volatility, and the need for pork to be of consistent high quality and competitive with other food protein sources. These conditions have led to the rapid expansion of contractual arrangements in hog production.

May 1, 2009 414-039
Identifying Soybean Fields at Risk to Leaf-Feeding Insects


What is LAI? Leaf area index (LAI) is the ratio of leaf area to land area. Soybean requires LAI values of at least 3.5 to 4.0 by early to mid-reproductive developmental stages to achieve maximum yield for that year and environment. A soybean crop that does not achieve adequate LAI could be at risk to yield loss from insect leaf-feeders, whereas, fields with high (4+) LAI can sustain significant insect feeding with little to no effect on yield. This publication will aid producers in evaluating soybean fields at risk to yield reduction from leaf-feeding insects.

May 1, 2009 444-203
Insect Pest Management in Virginia: Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2010 May 1, 2009 2812-1027
Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual

Integrated Pest Management

In the competitive global peanut market, you need to lower production costs. At the same time, you also need to keep pesticide residues in peanuts to a minimum; protect rivers, streams, and lakes from runoff; and prevent chemicals from leaching through the soil to groundwater. Using IPM to protect crops only from pests that are likely to cause economic losses is a good way to meet these goals.

The Three Keys to IPM

  1. Scout the crop regularly and systematically to identify pests.
  2. Use control measures only when monitoring shows that a pest is likely to reach economically damaging levels.
  3. Apply the lowest effective amount of pesticide using equipment that is correctly calibrated.
May 1, 2009 444-126
Intensive Soft Red Winter Wheat Production

New and successful techniques have been developed for intensive soft red winter wheat management by a multidisciplinary research and Extension team at Virginia Tech. Research was started in the early 1980's and continues today. The guidelines presented in this manual and the accompanying videotape are based on that research.

May 1, 2009 424-803
No-Tillage Small Grain Production in Virginia May 1, 2009 424-005
Palmer Amaranth Control in Cotton: 2008 & 2009 Efficacy Experiments Dec 22, 2009 2912-1428
Palmer Amaranth Control in Soybean: 2009 Efficacy Experiments Dec 22, 2009 2912-1429
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Nutrition

Maintaining the right soil pH for each crop ensures optimal nutrient uptake by plants. For peanut, the recommended pH range is 5.8 – 6.2. If soil pH is higher than 6.2, manganese (Mn) or boron (B) deficiency may occur; if pH is less than 5.8, zinc (Zn) toxicity problems could be favored. Therefore, taking soil samples correctly is very important for correcting soil pH. A single composite sample should be taken for each 5 irrigated and 10 rainfed acres. This sample should be composed of 20 or more subsamples collected from an imaginary grid uniformly covering the land area. The subsamples should be well mixed together and only a small composite sample should be retained and sent to the soil lab.

Sep 1, 2014 PPWS-40NP
Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research & Extension Center 2009 Sep 9, 2010 3009-1460
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results 2008 May 1, 2009 2902-1082
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2008 May 1, 2009 2812-1030
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2009. I. Agronomic and Grade Data

Peanut is an important crop for the Virginia and the Carolinas. It annually brings over $90 million to the economies of this region from over 180,000 acres planted every year. For example this year, 12,000 acres were planted in Virginia and 70,000 in North Carolina. Average yield was approximately 3,500 lb/A in both states. Due to environmental similarities and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia- type peanut, growers in Virginia and North Carolina generally grow the same peanut varieties. More recently, farmers in South Carolina started to grow the large-seeded Virginia-type varieties as well. For example this year, growers in South Carolina planted approximately 70,000 acres of Virginia-type peanut. In the view of this common interest in the Virginia-type peanut, the three states are working together through a multi-state project, the Peanut Variety Quality Evaluation Project (PVQE), to evaluate advanced breeding lines and standard varieties throughout their production regions. The objectives of this project are: 1) to determine yield, grade, quality, and disease response of released peanut varieties and advanced breeding lines at various locations in the Virginia and the Carolinas, 2) develop a database for Virginia-type peanut to allow research-based selection of the best genotypes by growers, industry, and the breeding programs, and 3) to identify the most suited peanut genotypes for various regions that can be developed into varieties. This report contains agronomic and grade data of the PVQE tests in 2009.

Jan 11, 2010 3001-1432
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Quality Data Apr 26, 2013 AREC-41NP
Planter/Drill Considerations for Conservation Tillage Systems

No-till planters and drills must be able to cut and handle residue, penetrate the soil to the proper seeding depth, and establish good seed-to-soil contact. Many different soil conditions can be present in the Mid-Atlantic region at planting time. Moist soils covered with residue, which may also be wet, can dominate during the late fall and early spring and, occasionally, in the summer. Although this condition provides an ideal environment for seed germination, it can make it difficult to cut through the residue. In contrast, hard and dry conditions may also prevail. Although cutting residue is easier during dry conditions, it is more difficult to penetrate the hard, dry soils. Proper timing, equipment selection and adjustments, and crop management can overcome these difficult issues.

Aug 8, 2014 442-457 (BSE-147P)
Planting Considerations and Variety Performance for Virginia Cotton Producers

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Mar 11, 2013 AREC-43NP
Precision Farming Tools: Soil Electrical Conductivity

Soil electrical conductivity (EC) is a measurement that correlates with soil properties that affect crop productivity, including soil texture, cation exchange capacity (CEC), drainage conditions, organic matter level, salinity, and subsoil characteristics. This publication discusses: 1) How, with field verification, soil EC can be related to specific soil properties that affect crop yield, such as topsoil depth, pH, salt concentrations, and available water-holding capacity; 2) Soil EC maps often visually correspond to patterns on yield maps and can help explain yield variation; and 3) Other uses of soil EC maps (Table 1), including developing management zones, guiding directed soil sampling, assigning variable rates of crop inputs, fine tuning NRCS soil maps, improving the placement and interpretation of on-farm tests, salinity diagnosis, and planning drainage remediation.

May 1, 2009 442-508
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per 30 foot of row can reduce cotton yield by 6 to 12%.

May 1, 2009 2805-1001
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. Four Palmer amaranth plants per 100 ft2 of row can reduce soybean yield by 12 to 17%.

May 1, 2009 2808-1006
Roadside Survey of Continuous No-till and Cover Crop Acres in Virginia

In 2009, the Chesapeake Clean Water Ecosystem Restoration Act (HB 3852/S 1816) was passed, and was intended to strengthen certain standards for the Chesapeake Bay, particularly, to address nonpoint source pollution. Nonpoint source pollution includes that of urban, suburban and agricultural runoff. Cited in the bill was the need to establish and codify the Bay-wide pollution budget, or Total Maximum Daily Loads, (TMDL) for nitrogen, phosphorous and sediment that EPA was in process of developing for the Bay. Hence all states and their perspective watersheds would have pollution caps for all sources of pollution.

Oct 13, 2014 CSES-103NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Diseases Head mold

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Aug 21, 2012 AREC-20NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Insects Corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)]

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Aug 31, 2012 AREC-21NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Marketability Grain Color and Relationship to Feed Value

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Aug 31, 2012 AREC-23NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Weed Control

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Nov 16, 2012 AREC-29NP
Soybean Choices and Challenges for Your Family

What do you know about soybeans? Research on soybeans is showing exciting health benefits for all family
members. This publication focuses on three topics that will help you enjoy the health benefits of soybeans.

May 1, 2009 348-040
Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005 May 1, 2009 450-561
Soybean Insect Guide Feb 7, 2014 AREC-68NP
Soybean Reproductive Development Stages Nov 25, 2013 AREC-59NP
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Foliar Fungicides in 2006 May 1, 2009 450-562
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2007 May 1, 2009 2810-1016
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1420
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
The Nutritive Value of Common Pasture Weeds and Their Relation to Livestock Nutrient Requirements

Weeds constantly invade crop fields and pastures; therefore, it is important to know the potential quality of individual weed species in making management decisions concerning weed control. It is frequently assumed that weeds have low nutritive value and livestock will not eat weeds, so expensive and time-consuming measures are often used for their control.12 Some weeds are toxic or poisonous to livestock, and certain weeds are unpalatable – causing a reduction in total intake.9 Several weed species have thorns or spines that can injure the grazing animal’s mouth and/or irritate its eyes, which may lead to pinkeye.9 Other weeds can cause the milk and meat of livestock to have a negative taste or odor. Weeds also compete with cultivated crops and forages for moisture, light, and nutrients, but many weeds are nutrient-rich and digestible.9 The objective of this review paper is to recognize the nutritional values of weeds commonly found in pastures.2

Aug 6, 2009 418-150
The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory

The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.

May 1, 2009 444-351
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials

Selecting an appropriate, high-yielding variety is one of the most important management decisions that producers make. Yield potential is clearly important, but the decision is complicated by such factors as the cropping system, the need for disease resistance, end-use quality goals, year-to-year climatic variation, and the need to select multiple varieties in order to reduce risk by spreading out flowering and maturity dates.

Jul 29, 2011 424-040
Tomato Variety Trial, 2006 May 1, 2009 423-401
Using Artificial Insemination in Swine Production: Detecting and Synchronizing Estrus and Using Proper Insemination Technique

In the United States, the proportion of sows bred via artificial insemination (AI) increased from less than 8 percent in 1991 to nearly 70 percent in 2000. AI offers numerous advantages over natural mating. Once collected, a boar ejaculate can be diluted in a semen extender, creating multiple insemination doses that can be used to breed several sows and gilts. This allows more extensive use of genetically superior boars, increasing the rate of genetic improvement within a herd. Fewer boars are necessary on a farm employing AI, and as a consequence, feed, veterinary, and housing costs are reduced. With AI, new genetics can be introduced into a herd with decreased health risks. Finally, use of AI saves time and labor in the breeding barn.

May 1, 2009 414-038
Virginia 4-H Youth Market Hog Project Guide May 1, 2009 414-001
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2010 Dec 10, 2009 2810-1019
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2011 Jan 12, 2011 2810-1019-11
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2012 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-8
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2013 Feb 6, 2013 AREC-33NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014 Feb 7, 2014 AREC-62NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide, 2008 May 1, 2009 424-300-08
Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Effect of Planting Date and Plant Populations on Growth and Yield of Cotton May 1, 2009 424-232
Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Evaluation of Chemicals and Variety Selection for Control of Nematodes in Cotton May 1, 2009 424-234
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2006 May 1, 2009 424-109-06
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2007 May 1, 2009 424-109-07
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2008 May 1, 2009 2901-1032
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2009

The purpose of the publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for grain producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of certain varieties, management practices, and new technology through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. The plot work and analyzed results enable those producers to make management decisions based on research and provides them a greater opportunity to improve yields and profits, which can improve the quality of life for them and their families. The success of these on-farm plots is very dependant on the cooperative effort of the producer and the assisting agribusiness.

Mar 24, 2010 3003-1441
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2009

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.

Dec 17, 2009 2912-1427
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2010

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.

Mar 1, 2011 3102-1536
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2011

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Feb 15, 2012 AREC-16
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2012

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Feb 14, 2013 AREC-40
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2013

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Feb 21, 2014 AREC-79NP
Virginia Soybean Update Jul 10, 2013 AREC-49NP
Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2004 May 1, 2009 424-107-04
Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2005 May 1, 2009 424-107-05
Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2006 Apr 28, 2009 424-107-06
Winter Grain Mite

Order: Acarina

Family: Penthaleidae

Species: Penthaleus major (Dugès)

Size: Adult, 1 mm long; eggs, .25 mm long..

Color: Adult is dark brown to almost black with red legs (Figs. 1 and 2); nymph is brownish with orange legs; a young larva is bright pink to orange but darkens to light brown after one day; freshly deposited eggs are smooth, kidney shaped, and reddish orange, but within minutes become wrinkled and after several days become a straw yellow color.

Description: The adult is relatively large compared to other spider mites and is the only mite of economic importance with the anal pore (a tan to orange spot best seen with microscope, but can be seen with a hand lens) on the upper surface of the abdomen.

May 1, 2009 444-037