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Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Quality Data Aug 28, 2012 AREC-6
2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 9, 2012 AREC-5
2012 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2013 AREC-32NP
2012 Virginia Peanut Production Guide

Keys to Proper Use of Pesticides

  1. Read the label on each pesticide container before each use. Follow the printed
    instructions to the letter; heed all cautions and warnings; note precautions
    about residues.
  2. Store pesticides in the containers in which you bought them. Put them where
    children and animals cannot get to them — preferably locked-up and away from
    food, feed, seed, and other materials that may become harmful if contaminated.
  3. Dispose of empty containers in the manner specified on the label.
    See your doctor if symptoms or illness occurs during or after use of pesticides!
Feb 8, 2012 PPWS-3
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2014 AREC-64NP
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - II. Quality Data Mar 14, 2014 AREC-85NP
2014 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations Feb 19, 2014 456-420 (AREC-80NP)
APS Potomac Division Meeting Sep 7, 2011
AREC-Ag Industry Tour Sep 7, 2011
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Alumni Spotlight Sep 7, 2011
Angular Leaf Spot of Cucumber May 1, 2009 450-700
Anthracnose - A Fungal Disease of Shade Trees May 1, 2009 450-604
Anthracnose on Snap Beans Jan 29, 2014 450-719 (PPWS-26NP)
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions I: Background and General Information May 1, 2009 450-301
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions II: Identification, Biology, and Ecology May 1, 2009 450-302
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions III: Control with Fungicides May 1, 2009 450-303
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions IV: Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices May 1, 2009 450-304
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions V: Monitoring, Tracking, and Scouting May 1, 2009 450-305
Awards, Scholarships, and Recognition Sep 7, 2011
Azalea Leaf and Flower Gall May 1, 2009 450-605
Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Landscape Trees Jan 11, 2010 3001-1433
Bacterial Spot of Pepper May 1, 2009 450-702
Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans Sep 9, 2010 3009-1461
Best Management Practices for Bioenergy Crops: Reducing the Invasion Risk Jan 5, 2012 PPWS-8P
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in the Virginia Home Landscape: Version 1, May 2014 May 9, 2014 PPWS-29NP
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITH boxwood blight Jun 5, 2014 PPWS-34NP
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITHOUT boxwood blight Jun 6, 2014 PPWS-35NP
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for boxwood blight in Virginia production nurseries WITH boxwood blight Jul 15, 2014 PPWS-32NP
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for boxwood blight in Virginia production nurseries WITHOUT boxwood blight Jun 25, 2014 PPWS-33NP
Black Root Rot of Japanese Holly May 1, 2009 450-606
Blossom End Rot of Tomato May 1, 2009 450-703
Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback of Trees and Shrubs in the Landscape Jun 18, 2009 450-726
Botrytis Blight of Peony May 1, 2009 450-602
Boxwood Blight: A New Disease of Boxwood Found in the Eastern U.S. Jan 5, 2012 PPWS-4
Brown Rot on Peach and Other Stone Fruits May 1, 2009 450-721
Buckeye Rot of Tomato May 1, 2009 450-704
Clubroot of Crucifers May 1, 2009 450-705
Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region

Common diseases of soybean are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes. Some diseases are spread by insect vectors and nematodes while others are spread by wind, splashing rain, or movement in soil. The best way to determine if disease control would be profitable is to first identify the diseases that are capable of causing  conomic yield losses. Symptoms of disease include plant damage caused by a pathogen and the reaction of plants to infection. Signs are the visible evidence of the pathogen. Some diseases have characteristic symptoms and signs that are identifiable in the field.

Feb 17, 2010 3001-1435
Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia

Annual and perennial weed control in pastures and hayfields is an important aspect of successful forage management. This publication will discuss control measures for many of the common weeds found in Virginia and West Virginia permanent fescue and mixed fescue / bluegrass / orchardgrass pastures and hayfields.

May 1, 2009 427-002
Corn Smut May 1, 2009 450-706
Cost and benefit of seed treatments and Temik 15G in furrow for seedling disease and nematode control in Virginia, 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1419
Crown Gall of Woody Ornamentals May 1, 2009 450-608
Downy Mildew of Cucurbits May 1, 2009 450-707
Early Blight of Tomatoes May 1, 2009 450-708
Entomosporium Leaf Spot of Photinia May 1, 2009 450-609
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Feb 27, 2013 ANR-48NP
Faculty and Staff Updates Sep 7, 2011
Fall Lawn Care
Late-summer to mid-fall is the best time to establish cool-season turfgrass. Warm days and cool nights provide ideal conditions for seed germination and establishment of tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, fine-leaf fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Sod establishment is also favored at this time of year. Understanding why renovation is necessary can help you to avoid the same pitfalls in the future. Is sparse and weedy turf the result of neglect, inappropriate mowing heights, environmental limitations caused by too much or too little rain, etc.? Is there possibly a soil problem such as a nutrient deficiency, an improper pH, poor drainage, or compaction? Might the turfgrass species simply be a poor choice for the site, the climate, or the anticipated use of the turf?
May 1, 2009 430-520
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: On-Farm Assessment and Security Practices

Acts of terrorism have heightened our awareness of the need for increased personal and farm security. The greatest security risk to farms, greenhouses and nurseries where plants are grown is the unauthorized access to farm chemicals and application equipment.

Mar 9, 2011 445-005
Fine Tuning a Sprayer with "Ounce" Calibration Method

This extension publication discusses guidelines to quickly evaluate the performance of a sprayer. Sprayer calibration, nozzle discharge, spray pattern uniformity, speed checks, pump performance and plumbing arrangements are evaluated with minimal calculations.

Tractor-mounted, pull-type, pick-up-mounted and self-propelled sprayers are available from numerous sources. Rising chemical costs and new low rate chemicals are making accurate application more important than ever before. Proper calibration must be a primary management consideration whether one is a farmer or a custom applicator. Since most pesticides are applied with hydraulic sprayers, users should also know proper application methods, chemical effects on equipment, and correct cleaning and storage methods for hydraulic sprayers.

May 1, 2009 442-453
Fire Blight of Ornamentals May 1, 2009 450-610
Fire or Botrytis Blight of Tulip May 1, 2009 450-607
Foliar Diseases of Dogwood May 1, 2009 450-611
Fusarium Wilt of Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)

Fusarium wilt is a common and lethal disease of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)1, also commonly known as silktree. In the United States this disease occurs in the east from New York southward and also in Louisiana, Arkansas and California. Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis perniciosum. This pathogen causes Fusarium wilt on Albizia species and also on tree-ofheaven (Ailanthus altissima). Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. perniciosum colonizes and clogs the tree's vascular (water-conducting) tissue, and interferes with the movement of plant sap. This results in relatively rapid tree death.

May 1, 2009 2811-1020
Gray Leaf Spot Disease of Corn May 1, 2009 450-612
Greetings – Welcome to the annual PPWS newsletter! Sep 7, 2011
Growing 'Titan': A Large-Seeded, Virginia-Type Peanut for Specialty Markets Jun 18, 2013 AREC-42P
Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region

The more than 55 million people who live in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States want to purchase processed grain foods such as bread and other dough products made from hard, or bread, wheat. 

May 1, 2009 424-024
Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic May 1, 2009 424-022
Hollyhock Rust May 1, 2009 450-613
Identification and Control of Annual Ryegrass in No-Till Corn in Virginia

In Virginia, annual ryegrass has become one of the most troublesome and difficult to control weeds in small grains, as well as in corn and soybeans grown in rotation with small grains. Annual ryegrass control has declined due to the development of resistance to Hoelon, which has been the only treatment available for control in wheat and barley. Lack of control in small grains has allowed annual ryegrass to proliferate and become problematic in no-till corn establishment where high rates of triazine herbicides or sequential applications of nonselective herbicides are frequently required for acceptable control.

May 1, 2009 427-001
Identification and Control of Hemp Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum L.) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-140
Identification and Control of Honeyvine Milkweed (Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt.) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-139
Identification and Control of Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-142
Identification and Control of Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-141
Identification and Control of Trumpetcreeper (Campsis radicans (L.) Seem ex Bureau) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-143
Impact of Cotton Monoculture, Variety Selection, and Chemical Inputs on Disease Control, 2011 Jan 27, 2012 AREC-13
Impatiens Downy Mildew May 21, 2013 PPWS-19NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module I: Integrated Pest Management Feb 21, 2013 PPWS-14NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module II: The Plant Disease Triangle Feb 21, 2013 PPWS-15NP
Intensive Soft Red Winter Wheat Production

New and successful techniques have been developed for intensive soft red winter wheat management by a multidisciplinary research and Extension team at Virginia Tech. Research was started in the early 1980's and continues today. The guidelines presented in this manual and the accompanying videotape are based on that research.

May 1, 2009 424-803
Iris Leaf Spot May 1, 2009 450-600
Itchgrass Identification and Control in Virginia

On October 3, 2007, the Weed Identification Clinic at Virginia Tech received an itchgrass [Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton] sample from a cornfield in Westmoreland County, near Montross (Figure 1). Currently, itchgrass is considered a federal noxious weed and the Westmoreland County sample is the first record of this plant in the state of Virginia.

May 1, 2009 427-008
Juniper Tip Blights May 1, 2009 450-601
Late Blight of Tomato and Potato Jan 20, 2012 ANR-6
Lawn Moss: Friend or Foe?

There are thousands of species of moss worldwide. These very simple plants lack the typical leaf, shoot, root, and seed-forming systems of most higher plants; however, they are some of the hardiest living organisms on the planet (Figure 1). Lawn moss can reproduce sexually (spores, etc.) or asexually (breaking off into smaller pieces that divide and multiply), and their numbers can increase rapidly under the right conditions. They are tolerant of extremely low mowing, so regular clipping of the grass will not remove them. It would seem that these plants would not offer much resistance to our efforts to manage or control them, but as Mother Nature often shows, their simplicity in design and function correlates well with their ability to colonize and persist in some of the most inhospitable growing conditions around your property: sidewalks, driveways, and yes – the lawn.

May 1, 2009 430-536
Maintenance Calendar for Cool-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-523
Maintenance Calendar for Warm-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-522
Managing Fusarium Head Blight in Virginia Small Grains

Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, continues to impact small grain crops grown in Virginia. Caused primarily by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (also known as Gibberella zeae), this disease can negatively impact yield and grain quality. Grain may also contain toxins (mycotoxins) produced by the fungus and reduce the price received for grain at local mills and elevators. Corn and small grain residues remaining in the field prior to small grain planting are known to provide a place for the fungus
to overwinter and proliferate during favorable environmental conditions.

Mar 4, 2011 3102-1535
No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes

No-till seeding of forage grasses and legumes can be successful and has become an accepted practice for a number of reasons. One of the primary concerns in establishing new forage stands in a well-tilled seedbed is the threat of soil erosion during the establishment period. Not only is valuable topsoil lost, but resulting ruts and gullies damage equipment and are dangerous to equipment operators. In addition to reducing soil erosion, no-till seedings conserve moisture already present in the seedbed. Moisture conservation, along with a dramatic reduction in water run-off, improves the water supply for the new seedlings. No-till seeding methods also require less time and fuel than traditional methods because rocks remain below the soil surface.

May 1, 2009 418-007
No-Tillage Small Grain Production in Virginia May 1, 2009 424-005
Nozzles: Selection and Sizing

This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.

Jan 31, 2014 442-032 (BSE-103P)
On the Cover of “Science” Sep 7, 2011
PPWS News 2011 Sep 7, 2011
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Nutrition

Maintaining the right soil pH for each crop ensures optimal nutrient uptake by plants. For peanut, the recommended pH range is 5.8 – 6.2. If soil pH is higher than 6.2, manganese (Mn) or boron (B) deficiency may occur; if pH is less than 5.8, zinc (Zn) toxicity problems could be favored. Therefore, taking soil samples correctly is very important for correcting soil pH. A single composite sample should be taken for each 5 irrigated and 10 rainfed acres. This sample should be composed of 20 or more subsamples collected from an imaginary grid uniformly covering the land area. The subsamples should be well mixed together and only a small composite sample should be retained and sent to the soil lab.

Sep 1, 2014 PPWS-40NP
Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center 2010 Dec 16, 2011 PPWS-2
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2014 Feb 3, 2014 456-016 (ENTO-37P)
Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2014 Jan 28, 2014 456-018 (ENTO-36P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2014 Jan 28, 2014 456-017 (ENTO-38P)
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Phytophthora Root Rot of Rhododendron and Azalea May 1, 2009 450-615
Plant Disease Diagnostic Form Jun 24, 2014 450-097 (PPWS-37NP)
Plectosporium Blight of Cucurbits May 1, 2009 450-709
Plumbing Systems of Agricultural Sprayers

The plumbing systems of agricultural sprayers are usually considered foolproof. Sprayer problems may occur if plumbing and/or modifications are improperly done or maintenance is ignored. Retrofitting, addition of electrical control systems, and replacement of pumps or nozzles require proper knowledge of the plumbing system and the implications of these changes to sprayer performance. Routine maintenance of the plumbing system is essential.

May 1, 2009 442-452
Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits May 1, 2009 450-710
Powdery Mildew of Ornamental Plants May 1, 2009 450-603
Powdery Mildew-Resistant Woody Ornamentals May 1, 2009 450-616
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. Four Palmer amaranth plants per 100 ft2 of row can reduce soybean yield by 12 to 17%.

May 1, 2009 2808-1006
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes May 1, 2009 450-236
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes May 1, 2009 450-237
Pyridine Herbicide Carryover: Causes and Precautions May 9, 2012 VTTP-6NP
Recent Faculty Hires Sep 7, 2011
Reducing Pesticide Use in the Home Lawn and Garden May 1, 2009 450-725
Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn

Order: Tylenchida

Family: Heteroderidae

Species: Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode), M. arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), M. javanica (Javanese root-knot nematode), M. hapla (northern root-knot nematode; not found in corn)

Size: Adult females are up to 1/16 inch in diameter.

Color: Adult females are a translucent cream color.

Description: Adult females are pear shaped and sedentary.

May 1, 2009 444-107
Rose Rosette Disease Sep 17, 2012 450-620 (PPWS-10P)
Second Annual MPS Mini-Symposium Sep 7, 2011
Septoria Leaf Spot of Tomato May 1, 2009 450-711
Sooty Mold of Conifers and Hardwoods May 1, 2009 450-618
Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005 May 1, 2009 450-561
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Foliar Fungicides in 2006 May 1, 2009 450-562
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2007 May 1, 2009 2810-1016
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1420
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses

There is no time of year that generates as much excitement in the management of lawns and landscapes as spring. Sales of all lawn and garden products soar as many homeowners strive for the best looking lawn possible. However, your enthusiasm for returning the lawn to tip-top shape should be tempered enough so that you make sound agronomic and environmental management decisions. Smart choices now will result in a healthy, dense turf canopy that will better withstand the environmental extremes of the summer months.

May 1, 2009 430-532
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Warm-Season Turfgrasses

Soil testing. Sampling the soil to determine pH and nutrient levels is always a prudent choice in developing a management program for a lawn, especially if a soil test has not been done within the past three years (Figure 1). Any time of year is appropriate for sampling. A majority of Virginia soils are acidic and need to be amended with periodic applications of lime. For information on how to properly sample your soil, consult Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 452-129, at http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/452-129/. For additional soil testing information, see the presentation "Soil Testing for the Lawn and Landscape," at http://breeze.ag.vt.edu/p36588349/.

May 1, 2009 430-533
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
Theses and Dissertations Sep 7, 2011
Timber Rot of Tomato May 1, 2009 450-712
Verticillium Wilt of Shade Trees May 1, 2009 450-619
Virginia Boxwood Blight Task Force May 20, 2014 PPWS-30
Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Evaluation of Chemicals and Variety Selection for Control of Nematodes in Cotton May 1, 2009 424-234
Virginia Master Naturalist, Basic Training Course, Botany (Introductory Version) Jan 31, 2014 ANR-12NP
Westwood Lab at International Parasitic Plant Conference Sep 7, 2011
Wire Stem and Bottom Rot of Cabbage May 1, 2009 450-713