|2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Quality Data||Aug 28, 2012||AREC-6|
|2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 9, 2012||AREC-5|
|2012 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 16, 2013||AREC-32NP|
|2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 16, 2014||AREC-64NP|
|2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - II. Quality Data||Mar 14, 2014||AREC-85NP|
|2015 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations||Feb 9, 2015||456-420(AREC-132NP)|
|APS Potomac Division Meeting||Sep 7, 2011|
|AREC-Ag Industry Tour||Sep 7, 2011|
|Agronomy Handbook, 2000||May 1, 2009||424-100||
|Alumni Spotlight||Sep 7, 2011|
|Angular Leaf Spot of Cucumber||May 1, 2009||450-700|
|Anthracnose - A Fungal Disease of Shade Trees||May 1, 2009||450-604|
|Anthracnose on Snap Beans||Jan 29, 2014||450-719 (PPWS-26NP)|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions I: Background and General Information||May 1, 2009||450-301|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions II: Identification, Biology, and Ecology||May 1, 2009||450-302|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions III: Control with Fungicides||May 1, 2009||450-303|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions IV: Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices||May 1, 2009||450-304|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions V: Monitoring, Tracking, and Scouting||May 1, 2009||450-305|
|Awards, Scholarships, and Recognition||Sep 7, 2011|
|Azalea Leaf and Flower Gall||May 1, 2009||450-605|
|Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Landscape Trees||Jan 11, 2010||3001-1433|
|Bacterial Spot of Pepper||May 1, 2009||450-702|
|Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans||Sep 9, 2010||3009-1461|
|Best Management Practices for Bioenergy Crops: Reducing the Invasion Risk||Jan 5, 2012||PPWS-8P|
|Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Greenery Producers||Feb 23, 2015||PPWS-39NP (PPWS-51NP)|
|Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Professionally Managed Landscapes and Public and Historic Gardens in Virginia||
Boxwood blight is caused by the fungal pathogen Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium buxicola). Boxwood blight was first described in the United Kingdom in the mid-1990’s and by 2002 was found in several other European countries and New Zealand. In September 2011 boxwood blight was discovered in North America. Symptoms of the disease include leaf spotting (Fig. 1), elongate, dark cankers on stems (Fig. 2), defoliation, and dieback (Fig. 3). The primary means by which the disease spreads is the inadvertent introduction of infected boxwood to existing plantings. The pathogen can also spread by spores, which readily adhere to equipment and work clothes, and by microsclerotia, which survive in infested soil and plant debris. This document outlines best management practices for landscapers and property managers to reduce the risk of spreading boxwood blight to landscapes and public and historic gardens, and to manage the disease if it is introduced.
|Dec 19, 2014||PPWS-49NP|
|Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in the Virginia Home Landscape: Version 2, January 2015||Jan 20, 2015||PPWS-29NP(PPWS-55NP)|
|Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITH boxwood blight||Jun 5, 2014||PPWS-34NP|
|Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITHOUT boxwood blight||Jun 6, 2014||PPWS-35NP|
|Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for boxwood blight in Virginia production nurseries WITH boxwood blight||Jul 15, 2014||PPWS-32NP|
|Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for boxwood blight in Virginia production nurseries WITHOUT boxwood blight||Jun 25, 2014||PPWS-33NP|
|Black Root Rot of Japanese Holly||May 1, 2009||450-606|
|Blossom End Rot of Tomato||May 1, 2009||450-703|
|Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback of Trees and Shrubs in the Landscape||Jun 18, 2009||450-726|
|Botrytis Blight of Peony||May 1, 2009||450-602|
|Boxwood Blight: A New Disease of Boxwood Found in the Eastern U.S.||Jan 5, 2012||PPWS-4|
|Brown Rot on Peach and Other Stone Fruits||May 1, 2009||450-721|
|Clubroot of Crucifers||May 1, 2009||450-705|
|Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region||
Common diseases of soybean are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes. Some diseases are spread by insect vectors and nematodes while others are spread by wind, splashing rain, or movement in soil. The best way to determine if disease control would be profitable is to first identify the diseases that are capable of causing conomic yield losses. Symptoms of disease include plant damage caused by a pathogen and the reaction of plants to infection. Signs are the visible evidence of the pathogen. Some diseases have characteristic symptoms and signs that are identifiable in the field.
|Feb 17, 2010||3001-1435|
|Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia||
Annual and perennial weed control in pastures and hayfields is an important aspect of successful forage management. This publication will discuss control measures for many of the common weeds found in Virginia and West Virginia permanent fescue and mixed fescue / bluegrass / orchardgrass pastures and hayfields.
|May 1, 2009||427-002|
|Corn Smut||May 1, 2009||450-706|
|Cost and benefit of seed treatments and Temik 15G in furrow for seedling disease and nematode control in Virginia, 2008||Nov 19, 2009||2911-1419|
|Crown Gall of Woody Ornamentals||May 1, 2009||450-608|
|Downy Mildew of Cucurbits||May 1, 2009||450-707|
|Early Blight of Tomatoes||May 1, 2009||450-708|
|Entomosporium Leaf Spot of Photinia||May 1, 2009||450-609|
|Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses||Feb 27, 2013||ANR-48NP|
|Faculty and Staff Updates||Sep 7, 2011|
|Fall Lawn Care||
Late-summer to mid-fall is the best time to establish cool-season turfgrass. Warm days and cool nights provide ideal conditions for seed germination and establishment of tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, fine-leaf fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Sod establishment is also favored at this time of year. Understanding why renovation is necessary can help you to avoid the same pitfalls in the future. Is sparse and weedy turf the result of neglect, inappropriate mowing heights, environmental limitations caused by too much or too little rain, etc.? Is there possibly a soil problem such as a nutrient deficiency, an improper pH, poor drainage, or compaction? Might the turfgrass species simply be a poor choice for the site, the climate, or the anticipated use of the turf?
|May 1, 2009||430-520|
|Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: On-Farm Assessment and Security Practices||
Acts of terrorism have heightened our awareness of the need for increased personal and farm security. The greatest security risk to farms, greenhouses and nurseries where plants are grown is the unauthorized access to farm chemicals and application equipment.
|Mar 9, 2011||445-005|
|Fire Blight of Ornamentals||May 1, 2009||450-610|
|Fire or Botrytis Blight of Tulip||May 1, 2009||450-607|
|Foliar Diseases of Dogwood||May 1, 2009||450-611|
|Fusarium Wilt of Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)||
Fusarium wilt is a common and lethal disease of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)1, also commonly known as silktree. In the United States this disease occurs in the east from New York southward and also in Louisiana, Arkansas and California. Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis perniciosum. Albizia spp. are the only known host of F. oxysporum'' f.sp. ''perniciosum''. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. perniciosum colonizes and clogs the tree’s vascular (water-conducting) tissue, and interferes with the movement of plant sap. This results in relatively rapid tree death.
|Jan 20, 2015||2811-1020(PPWS-53NP)|
|Gray Leaf Spot Disease of Corn||May 1, 2009||450-612|
|Greetings – Welcome to the annual PPWS newsletter!||Sep 7, 2011|
|Growing 'Titan': A Large-Seeded, Virginia-Type Peanut for Specialty Markets||Jun 18, 2013||AREC-42P|
|Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region||
The more than 55 million people who live in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States want to purchase processed grain foods such as bread and other dough products made from hard, or bread, wheat.
|May 1, 2009||424-024|
|Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic||May 1, 2009||424-022|
|Hollyhock Rust||May 1, 2009||450-613|
|Identification and Control of Annual Ryegrass in No-Till Corn in Virginia||
In Virginia, annual ryegrass has become one of the most troublesome and difficult to control weeds in small grains, as well as in corn and soybeans grown in rotation with small grains. Annual ryegrass control has declined due to the development of resistance to Hoelon, which has been the only treatment available for control in wheat and barley. Lack of control in small grains has allowed annual ryegrass to proliferate and become problematic in no-till corn establishment where high rates of triazine herbicides or sequential applications of nonselective herbicides are frequently required for acceptable control.
|May 1, 2009||427-001|
|Identification and Control of Hemp Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum L.) in Virginia||May 1, 2009||450-140|
|Identification and Control of Honeyvine Milkweed (Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt.) in Virginia||May 1, 2009||450-139|
|Identification and Control of Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) in Virginia||May 1, 2009||450-142|
|Identification and Control of Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) in Virginia||May 1, 2009||450-141|
|Identification and Control of Trumpetcreeper (Campsis radicans (L.) Seem ex Bureau) in Virginia||May 1, 2009||450-143|
|Impact of Cotton Monoculture, Variety Selection, and Chemical Inputs on Disease Control, 2011||Jan 27, 2012||AREC-13|
|Impatiens Downy Mildew||May 21, 2013||PPWS-19NP|
|Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module I: Integrated Pest Management||Feb 21, 2013||PPWS-14NP|
|Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module II: The Plant Disease Triangle||Feb 21, 2013||PPWS-15NP|
|Intensive Soft Red Winter Wheat Production||
New and successful techniques have been developed for intensive soft red winter wheat management by a multidisciplinary research and Extension team at Virginia Tech. Research was started in the early 1980's and continues today. The guidelines presented in this manual and the accompanying videotape are based on that research.
|May 1, 2009||424-803|
|Iris Leaf Spot||May 1, 2009||450-600|
|Itchgrass Identification and Control in Virginia||
On October 3, 2007, the Weed Identification Clinic at Virginia Tech received an itchgrass [Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton] sample from a cornfield in Westmoreland County, near Montross (Figure 1). Currently, itchgrass is considered a federal noxious weed and the Westmoreland County sample is the first record of this plant in the state of Virginia.
|May 1, 2009||427-008|
|Juniper Tip Blights||May 1, 2009||450-601|
|Late Blight of Tomato and Potato||Jan 20, 2012||ANR-6|
|Lawn Moss: Friend or Foe?||
There are thousands of species of moss worldwide. These very simple plants lack the typical leaf, shoot, root, and seed-forming systems of most higher plants; however, they are some of the hardiest living organisms on the planet (Figure 1). Lawn moss can reproduce sexually (spores, etc.) or asexually (breaking off into smaller pieces that divide and multiply), and their numbers can increase rapidly under the right conditions. They are tolerant of extremely low mowing, so regular clipping of the grass will not remove them. It would seem that these plants would not offer much resistance to our efforts to manage or control them, but as Mother Nature often shows, their simplicity in design and function correlates well with their ability to colonize and persist in some of the most inhospitable growing conditions around your property: sidewalks, driveways, and yes – the lawn.
|May 1, 2009||430-536|
|Maintenance Calendar for Cool-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia||May 1, 2009||430-523|
|Maintenance Calendar for Warm-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia||May 1, 2009||430-522|
|Managing Fusarium Head Blight in Virginia Small Grains||
Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, continues to impact small grain crops grown in Virginia. Caused primarily by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (also known as Gibberella zeae), this disease can negatively impact yield and grain quality. Grain may also contain toxins (mycotoxins) produced by the fungus and reduce the price received for grain at local mills and elevators. Corn and small grain residues remaining in the field prior to small grain planting are known to provide a place for the fungus
|Mar 4, 2011||3102-1535|
|No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes||
No-till seeding of forage grasses and legumes can be successful and has become an accepted practice for a number of reasons. One of the primary concerns in establishing new forage stands in a well-tilled seedbed is the threat of soil erosion during the establishment period. Not only is valuable topsoil lost, but resulting ruts and gullies damage equipment and are dangerous to equipment operators. In addition to reducing soil erosion, no-till seedings conserve moisture already present in the seedbed. Moisture conservation, along with a dramatic reduction in water run-off, improves the water supply for the new seedlings. No-till seeding methods also require less time and fuel than traditional methods because rocks remain below the soil surface.
|May 1, 2009||418-007|
|No-Tillage Small Grain Production in Virginia||May 1, 2009||424-005|
|Nozzles: Selection and Sizing||
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
|Jan 31, 2014||442-032 (BSE-103P)|
|On the Cover of “Science”||Sep 7, 2011|
|PPWS News 2011||Sep 7, 2011|
|Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Nutrition||
Maintaining the right soil pH for each crop ensures optimal nutrient uptake by plants. For peanut, the recommended pH range is 5.8 – 6.2. If soil pH is higher than 6.2, manganese (Mn) or boron (B) deficiency may occur; if pH is less than 5.8, zinc (Zn) toxicity problems could be favored. Therefore, taking soil samples correctly is very important for correcting soil pH. A single composite sample should be taken for each 5 irrigated and 10 rainfed acres. This sample should be composed of 20 or more subsamples collected from an imaginary grid uniformly covering the land area. The subsamples should be well mixed together and only a small composite sample should be retained and sent to the soil lab.
|Sep 1, 2014||PPWS-40NP|
|Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center 2010||Dec 16, 2011||PPWS-2|
|Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2015||Feb 13, 2015||456-016 (ENTO-70P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2015||Feb 16, 2015||456-018 (ENTO-69P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2015||Feb 16, 2015||456-017 (ENTO-71P)|
|Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia||May 1, 2009||430-524|
|Phytophthora Root Rot of Rhododendron and Azalea||May 1, 2009||450-615|
|Plant Disease Diagnostic Form||Nov 20, 2014||450-097 (PPWS-43NP)|
|Plectosporium Blight of Cucurbits||May 1, 2009||450-709|
|Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits||May 1, 2009||450-710|
|Powdery Mildew of Ornamental Plants||May 1, 2009||450-603|
|Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean||
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. Four Palmer amaranth plants per 100 ft2 of row can reduce soybean yield by 12 to 17%.
|May 1, 2009||2808-1006|
|Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes||Feb 12, 2015||450-236 (PPWS-48P)|
|Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes||Feb 18, 2015||450-237 (PPWS-47P)|
|Pyridine Herbicide Carryover: Causes and Precautions||May 9, 2012||VTTP-6NP|
|Recent Faculty Hires||Sep 7, 2011|
|Reducing Pesticide Use in the Home Lawn and Garden||May 1, 2009||450-725|
|Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn||
Species: Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode), M. arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), M. javanica (Javanese root-knot nematode), M. hapla (northern root-knot nematode; not found in corn)
Size: Adult females are up to 1/16 inch in diameter.
Color: Adult females are a translucent cream color.
Description: Adult females are pear shaped and sedentary.
|May 1, 2009||444-107|
|Rose Rosette Disease||Sep 17, 2012||450-620 (PPWS-10P)|
|Second Annual MPS Mini-Symposium||Sep 7, 2011|
|Septoria Leaf Spot of Tomato||May 1, 2009||450-711|
|Sooty Mold of Conifers and Hardwoods||May 1, 2009||450-618|
|Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005||May 1, 2009||450-561|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Foliar Fungicides in 2006||May 1, 2009||450-562|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2007||May 1, 2009||2810-1016|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008||Nov 19, 2009||2911-1420|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009||Dec 21, 2010||3012-1520|
|Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses||
There is no time of year that generates as much excitement in the management of lawns and landscapes as spring. Sales of all lawn and garden products soar as many homeowners strive for the best looking lawn possible. However, your enthusiasm for returning the lawn to tip-top shape should be tempered enough so that you make sound agronomic and environmental management decisions. Smart choices now will result in a healthy, dense turf canopy that will better withstand the environmental extremes of the summer months.
|May 1, 2009||430-532|
|Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Warm-Season Turfgrasses||
Soil testing. Sampling the soil to determine pH and nutrient levels is always a prudent choice in developing a management program for a lawn, especially if a soil test has not been done within the past three years (Figure 1). Any time of year is appropriate for sampling. A majority of Virginia soils are acidic and need to be amended with periodic applications of lime. For information on how to properly sample your soil, consult Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 452-129, at http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/452-129/. For additional soil testing information, see the presentation "Soil Testing for the Lawn and Landscape," at http://breeze.ag.vt.edu/p36588349/.
|May 1, 2009||430-533|
|Successful No-Tillage Corn Production||Jul 29, 2009||424-030|
|Theses and Dissertations||Sep 7, 2011|
|Timber Rot of Tomato||May 1, 2009||450-712|
|Verticillium Wilt of Shade Trees||May 1, 2009||450-619|
|Virginia Boxwood Blight Task Force||May 20, 2014||PPWS-30|
|Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Evaluation of Chemicals and Variety Selection for Control of Nematodes in Cotton||May 1, 2009||424-234|
|Virginia Master Naturalist, Basic Training Course, Botany (Introductory Version)||Jan 31, 2014||ANR-12NP|
|Westwood Lab at International Parasitic Plant Conference||Sep 7, 2011|
|Wire Stem and Bottom Rot of Cabbage||May 1, 2009||450-713|