|2015 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations||Feb 9, 2015||456-420(AREC-132NP)|
|4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book I - The Buzz About Bees:Honey Bee Biology and Behavior||Feb 27, 2014||380-071(4H-255NP)|
|4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book II -- Veils, Smokers, and Supers: Equipment of Beekeepers||
To the 4-H Leader: The beekeeping project books (1- 4) are intended to teach young people the basic biology and behavior of honey bees in addition to hands-on management skills. The honey bee project books begin with basic honey bee and insect information (junior level) and advance to instruction on how to rear honey bee colonies and extract honey (senior level). These project books are intended to provide in-depth information related to honey bee management, yet they are written for the amateur beekeeper, who may or may not have previous experience in rearing honey bees.
|Mar 19, 2014||380-075 (4H-254NP)|
|4-H Honey Bee Youth Project Book I -- The Buzz about Bees: Honey Bee Biology and Behavior||
The beekeeping project (Books 1 - 4) will teach you the basic biology and behavior of honey bees and give you hands-on management skills. The honey bee project books begin with basic honey bee and insect information (junior level) and advance to instruction on how to rear honey bee colonies and extract honey (senior level). These project books are intended to provide in-depth information related to honey bee management, yet they are written for the amateur beekeeper, whether or not you have previous experience in rearing honey bees.
|Mar 18, 2014||380-070 (4H-253NP)|
|4-H Honey Bee Youth Project Book II -- Veils, Smokers, and Supers: Equipment of Beekeepers||
The beekeeping project (Books 1- 4) teaches you the basic biology and behavior of honey bees (junior level) in addition to hands-on management skills. The four honey bee project
|Mar 18, 2014||380-074 (4H-252NP)|
|Adventures with Insects, 4-H Entomology Project Book||
Welcome to the 4-H Entomology Project. It will introduce you to many new and exciting experiences. The Entomology Project is fun; it may help you prepare for the study of insects as your life’s work, or help you learn how important insects are in the lives of everyone.
|Mar 18, 2014||444-408 (4H-251NP)|
|American Cockroach||Mar 4, 2010||444-288|
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see. Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands. Order: Homoptera, Family: Aphididae
|Nov 3, 2014||444-220 (ENTO-82NP)|
|Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control||
Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-018|
|Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010||
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010. If not noted otherwise in the individual reports, all research was conducted at the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Painter, VA and at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Virginia Beach, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices. Soil type at the ESAREC is a Bojac Sandy Loam. Soil type at the HRAREC is tetotum loam (average pH: 5.7). Most of the research involves field evaluations of federally‐labeled and experimental insecticides. Much of the information presented herein will be published in a similar format in Arthropod Management Tests: 2011, vol. 36 (Entomological Society of America). We hope that this information will be of value to those interested in insect pest management on vegetable crops, and we wish to make the information accessible. All information, however, is for informational purposes only. Because most of the data from the studies are based on a single season’s environmental conditions, it is requested that the data not be published, reproduced, or otherwise taken out of context without the permission of the authors. The authors neither endorse any of the products in these reports nor discriminate against others. Additionally, some of the products evaluated are not commercially available and/or not labeled for use on the crop(s) in which they were used.
|Feb 22, 2011||3102-1532|
|Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2011||Feb 1, 2012||ENTO-1|
|Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2013||Feb 25, 2014||ENTO-60NP|
|Asian Needle Ant||Jan 7, 2013||ENTO-29NP|
|Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn||
Species: Maladera castanea (Arrow)
Size: The adult beetle is 5/16 to 7/16 of an inch long (slightly smaller than a Japanese beetle adult). A fully developed grub (third instar) measures about 3/4 inch long
Color: The adult is chestnut brown or reddish brown in color and faintly iridescent (Fig. 1). The grub (immature stage) is off white except for a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs that vary from in color from orange to dark brown.
Description: The beetle abdomen is covered by a pair of hardened forewings, or elytra, which are not used in flight. Instead, their main purpose is to protect the hind wings, which are folded up under the elytra when the insect is not in flight. The grub has a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs and will fold into a 'C' shape when disturbed (Fig. 2). It is very easy to differentiate an Asiatic garden beetle grub from other annual white grub species with the aid of a 10x power hand lens. The grub has a single transverse row of spines on the underside of the last abdominal segment, or raster, and a 'Y' shaped anal slit (Fig. 3).
|May 1, 2009||444-108|
Two species of asparagus beetles are found in Virginia, the asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi (L.), and the spotted asparagus beetle Crioceris duodecimpunctata (L.). Adults of the asparagus beetle are 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) long, metallic blue to black, and have wing covers with three or four white spots and reddish margins. The thorax is red and usually marked with two black spots. The spotted asparagus beetle is about 1/3 inch (8.3 mm) long and orange with 12 spots on its wing covers. Larvae of both are olive green to dark gray with a black heads and legs. Larvae measure about 6/100 inch (1.5 mm) at hatching, and as they develop they become plump and attain a length of about 1/3 inch (8 mm). Both have eggs that are approximately 4/100 inch (1 mm) long, oblong, shiny, black,\ and are attached by one end to asparagus spears.
|May 1, 2009||444-620|
|Asparagus Beetles on Asparagus||
The asparagus beetle is a sporadic pest that can be aggravating for asparagus growers throughout Virginia. The shoot damage not only reduces the quality of the spears but this beetle is also unique in the pest world, as it is an insect that is controlled because the eggs laid on the shoots is objectionable to consumers. With a little background on this pest most growers are able develop an effective pest management program.
|Jul 29, 2009||2906-1352|
|Bagworm||Nov 3, 2014||2808-1008 (ENTO-83NP)|
|Baldfaced Hornet||Nov 3, 2014||3006-1449 (ENTO-84NP)|
|Balsam Twig Aphid||Mar 3, 2015||2907-1401 (ENTO-117NP)|
|Balsam Woolly Adelgid||Jun 16, 2010||3006-1452|
Species identification is difficult because the adult beetles of the various species are very similar, cylindrical and hard-shelled. Over 600 species in the sub-family. Adult beetles are between 1/8 and 1/3 inch long. Nearly all bark beetles are black or brown. Bark beetles are in the Order: Coleoptera, Family: Curculionidae, Sub Family: Scolytinae.
|Nov 10, 2014||444-216 (ENTO-85NP)|
|Bean Leaf Beetle Biology and Management in Snap Beans||
Species: Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster)
Size: Adults are about 1/4 inch (64 mm) long.
Description: Adults range in color from yellow to a dull red with variable numbers of black spots (Fig. 1). Although some have no spots, most will have four black spots down the center of the back with marginal spots or stripes on the edge of the elytra. The distinguishing characteristic is that all have a distinct black triangle behind the prothorax. Eggs are reddish orange ovals about 3/100 inch (0.8 mm) long and have tapered ends. Larvae are white, cylindrical grubs with a black head and anal plate. They have well-developed thoracic legs as well as anal prolegs. The pupae are white and resemble the adult in size and shape.
|May 1, 2009||444-009|
|Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans||Sep 9, 2010||3009-1461|
|Bed Bugs Biology and Behavior||Jun 25, 2013||ENTO-8P|
|Bed Bugs: How to Protect Yourself and Your Home||May 14, 2013||ENTO-31NP|
|Beet Webworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1542|
|Beet Webworms||Sep 1, 2014||ENTO-77NP|
|Black Vine Weevil||
Plants Attacked: The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.
Description of Damage: Two kinds of damage are conspicuous: Adults chew marginal notches in leaves, causing damage that quite often is confused with a disease or chemical injury. The adults feed from the outer margin of the leaf inward, creating characteristic notches, and these notches can be used as an early indicator of potential larvae in the soil. Adults cut notches on the margins only; they never create holes on the center of the leaf. On yew, needles nearer to the main trunk, down inside of the shrub, show notching and feeding scars. Broadleaved evergreens exhibit notching similar to that caused by the two-banded Japanese weevil and Fullers rose beetle. Larvae, the most destructive form of this weevil, feed on roots. When large numbers of larvae are feeding on the roots, the plants will wilt, turn brown, and die.
|Nov 14, 2014||444-210 (ENTO-86NP)|
|Blister Beetles||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1543|
|Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass||
The bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus, is a weevil native to Virginia. Weevils belong to the family Curculionidae, which is contained within the order for beetles, Coleoptera. Like most weevils, the bluegrass billbug has a relatively narrow range of host plants, feeding on a handful of cool-season grass species.
|Jul 1, 2010||444-040|
|Boxelder bug, Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus||Jan 24, 2011||3101-1525|
|Brown Marmorated Stink Bug||
Homoptera: Penatomidae: Halyomorpha halys
Distribution and Hosts
The brown marmorated stink bug, (BMSB), is an invasive insect not native to North America. It was accidentally introduced near Allentown, PA in 1996 and has spread since that time. It was found in Virginia in 2004 and by 2010, it was found throughout most of the Commonwealth. The BMSB feeds on a wide range of tree fruits and seedpods as well as many vegetables including tomatoes, peppers, beans, cucurbits, and sweet corn. High densities of this pest species have also been seen in soybeans and corn. However, so far in Virginia, the most severely damaged crops have been tree fruit (apples and peaches). For homeowners, it is mainly a nuisance pest, as it invades houses in the winter looking for a place to over-winter. For businesses such as hotels and restaurants and other commercial settings with public interface, the presence of high numbers of these bugs in the fall can have economic consequences.
|May 21, 2009||2902-1100|
|Buck Moth||Oct 8, 2012||ENTO-18NP|
|Bumble Bee - Hymenoptera, Apidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1572|
|Cabbage Looper||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1544|
The cabbage webworm is found throughout the southern United States from Virginia to Florida and west to California. It is rarely a pest in northern climates. In eastern Virginia, it is a common pest on broccoli and cabbage, particularly late in the summer and fall.
|May 1, 2009||2811-1022|
|Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot||
Cabbage maggots canbe very destructive pests of early-season plantings of cole crops: cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. Additional hosts include beet, radish, turnip, and celery.
Seedcorn maggots are known to attack asparagus, cabbage, turnip, radish, onion, beet, spinach, potato, and sprouting corn seeds. Seedcorn maggots can also be very damaging to beans and peas and new plantings of alfalfa.
|May 1, 2009||444-231|
|Carpenter Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus spp.||May 13, 2011||3104-1573|
|Carpenter Bee||Jun 11, 2010||3006-1450|
|Carpet Beetles - Coleoptera: Dermestidae||May 16, 2011||3104-1588|
|Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar||
Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa, their only host. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the activity of parasites.
|Nov 14, 2014||2911-1421 (ENTO-88NP)|
|Celery Leaftier||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1545|
|Centipede - Chilopoda||May 13, 2011||3104-1574|
|Click Beetle - Coleoptera: Elateridae||May 13, 2011||3104-1575|
|Clothes Moths - Lepidoptera: Tineidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1576|
|Colorado Potato Beetle||
Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Size: Adults are ~ 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide; mature larvae are 1/2 inch long.
Color: The adult thorax is orange with black spots and the wing covers have five yellowish white and five black alternating stripes running lengthwise (Fig. 1); the larvae are reddish in color with two rows of black spots along each side (Fig. 2); and eggs are yellow (Fig. 3).
Description: The adult beetle is convex above; larvae are smooth, soft-bodied, and humpbacked; and individual eggs somewhat resemble small sausages standing on end.
|May 1, 2009||444-012|
|Common Ticks of Virginia||Mar 3, 2015||2906-1396 (ENTO-116NP)|
|Como Identificar Infestaciones de Chinches||
Los chinches no aparecen por arte de magia. Ellos aparecen porque usted los trae a su hogar. Entonces usted como cree que los trajo a su hogar, en sus maletas después de un viaje, o en algún mueble que usted compró en una tienda de garaje? La mayoría de la gente sospecha que tiene chinches cuando encuentran inexplicables picaduras en su cuerpo. En la mayoría de los casos estas personas se va a dormir sintiéndose bien pero cuando se levanta la mañana siguiente se encuentra con molestas picaduras.
|May 3, 2012||ENTO-5P|
|Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs||
Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings (Figure 1). Heavy WG infestations can cause stand and yield losses of up to 20%. Because grubs occur in the soil, their presence in fields and subsequent damage to corn may go unnoticed until too late. Also, 30% overwintering mortality in WG densities is typical in VA. Insecticidal seed treatments such as clothianidin (PonchoTM) and thiamethoxam (CruiserTM) are the tools of choice for controlling soil insect pests. Growers typically must decide whether to purchase insecticide-treated seed well in advance of spring planting.
|Jun 30, 2011||2802-7027|
|Confused Flour Beetle - Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Tribolium confusum||May 13, 2011||3104-1577|
|Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans||
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-770|
|Corn Earworm on Vegetables||Mar 22, 2011||3103-1537|
|Cottony Maple Scale||
Cottony Maple Scale (Homoptera: Coccidae), Pulvinaria innumerabilis
PLANTS ATTACKED: Maples and dogwood primarily, but also many woody ornamentals.
|Nov 14, 2014||2808-1011 (ENTO-89NP)|
Plants Attacked: Cucumber, cantaloupe, winter squash, pumpkin, gourd, summer squash, and watermelon, as well as many other species of cucurbits. Cucumber beetles may also feed on beans, corn, peanuts, potatoes, and other crops.
|May 1, 2009||2808-1009|
|Cutworms||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1547|
|Diamondback Moth in Virginia||
The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered to be the most destructive insect pest of crucifer crops worldwide. DBM larvae feed on leaves of crucifer crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, and Brussels sprouts. All plant growth stages from seedling to head are susceptible to attack. DBM larvae can reach high densities and cause substantial defoliation as well as contamination and malformation of heads in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. The absence and reduction of effective natural enemies, especially parasitoids, as well as insecticide resistance, contribute to the status of DBM as a pest.
|May 1, 2009||444-007|
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
|Nov 18, 2014||2808-1010 (ENTO-90NP)|
|Dogwood Twig Borer||
The larvae tunnel in live twigs and feed down the center of the branch, making a long series of closely placed round holes for the exudation of frass. Periodically, the larvae cut off portions of the twig from within and continue to feed inside the twig on the green wood working their way down.
|Nov 18, 2014||444-625 (ENTO-91NP)|
|Droplet Chart / Selection Guide||
When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.
|Sep 25, 2014||442-031 (BSE-149P)|
|Drugstore and Cigarette Beetles, Drugstore Beetle: Coleoptera: Anobiidae, Stegobium paniceum Cigarette Beetle: Coleoptera: Anobiidae, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)||Jan 24, 2011||3101-1526|
|Earwigs, Dermaptera: Forficulidae||Jan 24, 2011||3101-1527|
|Eastern Tent Caterpillar||
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
|Nov 18, 2014||444-274 (ENTO-92NP)|
|Eggplant Lace Bug||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1548|
|Emerald Ash Borer||
Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire
Plants Attacked: Emerald ash borer (EAB) attacks all species of ash trees that grow in Virginia. Only Asian species of ash trees have shown any resistance to this pest.
|May 1, 2009||2904-1290|
|Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners||Sep 4, 2014||ENTO-76NP|
|Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses||Feb 27, 2013||ANR-48NP|
Eggs are laid early in the spring and hatch in late May or early June. The crawlers settle quickly and produce a second brood by mid-July. A third brood is produced in October. There is continuous overlapping of broods, so that all stages may be found during favorable conditions. Two to three-plus generations per year may occur in Virginia. The overwintering stage is the adult female.
|Nov 21, 2014||444-277 (ENTO-93NP)|
|European Corn Borer||
Description of DamageEuropean corn borer (ECB) is a major pest of corn grown for grain in Virginia. This pest is found throughout the commonwealth, but its population density fluctuates from year to year in a given locality. Typical damage to corn plants caused by this insect are reduced plant vigor leading to subsequent ear drop and stalk lodging.
When fully grown, ECB larvae are 3/4 to 1 inch in length and creamy-white to pink in color. The larval head capsule is dark brown and, on top of each abdominal ring or segment, there are several small dark brown or black spots. (Figure 1)
|May 1, 2009||444-232|
|European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper||
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a significant pest to over 200 different plant species. In Virginia, it is the number one pest of pepper, Capsicum annuum L. This pest can damage over 50 percent of pepper fruit if control measures are not taken.
|May 1, 2009||444-006|
|European Hornet||Mar 12, 2015||2911-1422 (ENTO-123NP)|
|Fall Armyworm in Vegetable Crops||
Scientific Name: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)
Color: Larvae vary in color from light tan or green to dark brown (nearly black) [base color ranging from yellow-green to a dark brown to gray] with three yellowish-white lines down the sides and back from head to tail and four dark circular spots on the upper portion of each abdominal segment. Front of the head is marked with a prominent inverted white Y, but this characteristic is not always a reliable identifier. The forewing of adult male moths is generally shaded gray and brown, with triangular white spots at the tip and near the center of the wing. The forewings of females are less distinctly marked, ranging from a uniform grayish brown to a fine mottling of gray and brown. The hind wing is iridescent silver-white with a narrow dark border in both sexes.
Description: Larvae are hairless and smooth skinned (See Fig. 1).
|May 1, 2009||444-015|
Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.
|Nov 21, 2014||2808-1013 (ENTO-94NP)|
|Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: On-Farm Assessment and Security Practices||
Acts of terrorism have heightened our awareness of the need for increased personal and farm security. The greatest security risk to farms, greenhouses and nurseries where plants are grown is the unauthorized access to farm chemicals and application equipment.
|Mar 9, 2011||445-005|
|Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity||
Acts of terrorism have heightened our awareness of the need for security, both at home and on the farm or nursery. This publication and the checklist that accompanies it will help you be proactive with regard to farm security.
|Mar 9, 2011||445-004|
|Field Guide to Stink Bugs||Nov 17, 2014||444-356 (ENTO-68)|
|Fine Tuning a Sprayer with “Ounce” Calibration Method||
This extension publication discusses guidelines to quickly evaluate the performance of a sprayer. Sprayer calibration, nozzle discharge, spray pattern uniformity, speed checks, pump performance, and plumbing arrangements are evaluated with minimal calculations.
|Dec 3, 2014||442-453 (BSE-178P)|
|Firebrat - Thysanura: Lepismatidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1578|
|Flea Beetles||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1549|
|Fungus Gnat - Diptera: Sciaridae||May 13, 2011||3104-1579|
|Gardening and Your Health: Ticks||
During early spring and summer, as the weather warms up and the garden springs back to life from its winter dormancy, many gardeners -- and ticks -- eagerly return to their outdoor activities. Gardeners should be aware of the risks and know how to protect themselves from becoming hosts to disease-carrying ticks.
|May 1, 2009||426-066|
|Giant Resin Bee||
Size: about 0.75 inch (1.9 cm) Color: Black and yellow-brown Giant resin bees are large with a cylindrical body and large jaws. They have a dark head and abdomen with yellow-brown hair on the face, thorax, and the first segment of the abdomen behind the "waist." The wings are a transparent brown color that darkens toward the tips. Male giant resin bees have a truncated, squared abdomen while the females have a more tapered, pointed abdomen. Giant resin bees can be distinguished from bumblebees and carpenter bees by their cylindrical bodies and the appearance of their abdomens. Giant resin bees do not have hairy abdomens like bumblebees, nor are their abdomens shiny like carpenter bees. Hymenoptera: Megachilidae Megachile sculpturalis Smith.
|Dec 10, 2014||444-206 (ENTO-96NP)|
|Gloomy Scale||Sep 25, 2013||ENTO-44NP|
|Grasshoppers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1550|
|Green Peach Aphid on Vegetables||
Homoptera: Aphididae, Myzus persicae
Distribution. The green peach aphid can be found worldwide and is considered a pest of numerous vegetable crops throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1081|
|Green Stink Bug||Apr 11, 2014||ENTO-67NP|
|Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners||
The people of Virginia use nearly 400 million gallons of groundwater each day to meet industrial, agricultural, public, and private water demands. One-third of Virginia's citizens rely on groundwater as their primary source of fresh drinking water, and 80 percent of Virginians use groundwater to supply some or all of their daily water needs. Groundwater is an important resource, but it is a hidden one and, therefore, is often forgotten. In fact, until recent incidents of groundwater contamination, little attention was paid to the need to protect Virginia's groundwater.
|May 1, 2009||426-059|
|Gypsy Moth Management for Homeowners on Small Properties||
The gypsy moth, native to Europe and Asia, is a major invasive pest of hardwood forests in the U. S. Introduced into Massachusetts in 1869, the gypsy moth has rapidly moved into other regions of the country and is responsible for large amounts of defoliation each year. Most of Virginia is generally infested by this pest. Visit http://fubyss.ento.vt.edu/vagm/ to read more about the gypsy moth biology and control.
|May 1, 2009||2811-1021|
|Gypsy Moth in Virginia: An Update||
Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a serious pest of hardwoods in our state. Although this insect has maintained a low profile the past few years, there was a general resurgence in moth populations in 2000. This population increase serves as a reminder that, in areas where gypsy moth has become established, this pest is still present in the environment even when populations are too low to be noticed.
Gypsy moth is a native of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It was accidentally released in the U.S. over 130 years ago by a Frenchman who wanted to cross it with native silk moths. From its original introduction near Boston, Massachusetts, this pest has spread into the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern states (Fig. 1).
|May 1, 2009||444-750|
|Hag Moth Caterpillar||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-19NP|
|Hemlock Woolly Adelgid||Jun 11, 2010||3006-1451|
|Hickory Horned Devil||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-20NP|
|History, Distribution and Pest Status of the Mexican bean beetle||Mar 25, 2014||ENTO-62NP|
|Hornworms on Tomato||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1551|
|House Fly Maggot - Diptera: Muscidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1580|
|How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation||
You cannot just “get” bed bugs. They have to be brought into your home. So what is your first clue that you have brought bed bugs home (say after a trip, or after purchasing a piece of used furniture that you bought at a garage sale)? Most people become suspicious of a bed bug infestation when they find unexplained bites on their bodies.
|May 3, 2012||ENTO-4P|
|Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass||Jul 1, 2010||444-041|
|IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact||Nov 13, 2014||ANR-105P|
|Imported Cabbageworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1552|
|Improving Pest Management with Farmscaping||Dec 6, 2013||ENTO-52NP(ENTO-55NP)|
|Indian Meal Moth - Lepidoptera: Pyralidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1582|
|Insect Identification Lab||Sep 25, 2013||ENTO-45NP|
|Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show||Mar 6, 2015||2909-1415 (ENTO-122NP)|
|Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show||Mar 6, 2015||2909-1414 (ENTO-121NP)|
|Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood||Sep 25, 2013||ENTO-42NP|
The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United States. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.
|Dec 11, 2014||2902-1101 (ENTO-97NP)|
|Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries||Sep 15, 2009||2909-1411|
|Japanese Beetle in Field Corn||
Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Popillia japonica Newman
Size: Adult is 1/3 to 1/2 inch long; the fully developed grub or larva is 1/2 to 1 inch long.
Color: The adult is shiny metallic green with copperbrown wing covers and is characterized by the presence of five tufts of white hairs which protrude from under the wing covers along each side of the abdomen, with two additional tufts of white hairs on the tip of the abdomen (Fig. 1); the grub has a distinct head capsule that is dark brown to orange in color with the rest of the body an off-white or grayish color due to the presence of soil or fecal matter in the hindgut (Fig. 2).
|May 1, 2009||444-106|
The Japanese weevil has a long list of hosts, but is especially found on cherry laurel, broad-leaved evergreens, pyracantha, privet, barberry, euonymus, and many others. This weevil has also damaged vegetable and field crops in Virginia.
|Dec 11, 2014||444-624 (ENTO-98NP)|
|Lace Bugs - Hemiptera: Tingidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1581|
|Leafhoppers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1553|
|Leafminers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1554|
|Leaf‐ Footed Bugs||Dec 21, 2010||3012-1522|
|Leatherwing (Soldier) Beetles||Dec 10, 2013||ENTO-53NP|
|Lilac Borer/Ash Borer||
The adult has clear wings and is wasp-like in appearance. Size: The moth is about 1 inch long with a wingspan of 1 1/2 inches. Color: The fore wings are brown or chocolate color and the hind wings are clear with a dark border. The larvae are pure white worms with brown heads. Order: Lepidoptera Family: Sesiidae Species: Podosesia syringae (Harris).
|Dec 11, 2014||444-278 (ENTO-99NP)|
|Locust Leafminer, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg)||Jan 25, 2011||3101-1528|
|Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers||
Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more. Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Adults are called longhorned beetles because of their long and distinctive 11-segmented antennae, often longer than the beetle's body. The thorax and wing covers on some species bear small, stout spines. Roundheaded borers (larvae) are elongate, cylindrical, and have large gnawing mandibles. The name roundheaded borer refers to the enlarged thorax directly behind the head. Order: Coleoptera, Family: Cerambycidae.
|Dec 11, 2014||444-215 (ENTO-100NP)|
|Magnolia Soft Scale||
Heavy magnolia soft scale infestations cause stunting of twigs and undersize leaves, visibly weakening the trees. Small trees may be killed. Large trees lose branches and tree shape may become irregular.
|Dec 11, 2014||444-623 (ENTO-101NP)|
|Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region||
Stink bug pests across the south eastern cotton belt consist of three main species: the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say); and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) Due to the diverse environmental conditions across this production region, population levels of these species vary widely across seasons, states, and fields. In North Carolina and Virginia, green and brown stink bugs are the primary species, while southern green and brown stink bugs predominate in Georgia,and all three species are commonly observed in South Carolina.
|Sep 23, 2009||444-390|
|Mexican Bean Beetle||Dec 13, 2013||ENTO-51NP|
|Mexican Bean Beetle||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1555|
|Millipedes||Sep 25, 2013||ENTO-43NP|
|Monitoring and Management of Beet Armyworm and Other Rind-feeding Larvae in Watermelon||
The following are categories of plants known to thrive in the southeastern/Hampton Roads area of
|Apr 21, 2011||3104-1540|
|Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia||
Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk. Once inside, insecticides are not recommended except for severe cases. Sweep up with a broom and dustpan all beetles that collect in windowsills and on walls. Beetles can also be picked up with a vacuum cleaner but bags will need to be discarded so that beetles do not escape.
|Dec 11, 2014||444-275 (ENTO-102NP)|
|Nosema and Honey Bee Colony Health||Mar 31, 2014||ENTO-66NP|
|Nozzles: Selection and Sizing||
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
|Jan 31, 2014||442-032 (BSE-103P)|
|Obscure Scale - Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Melanaspis obscura (Comstock)||May 13, 2011||3104-1583|
|Onion Thrips||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1556|
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
|Dec 11, 2014||2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)|
|Parasitic Wasps||Aug 8, 2014||ENTO-74NP|
|Parsleyworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1557|
|Pepper Maggot in Sweet (Bell) Pepper||
The pepper maggot, Zonosemata electa (Say) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to eastern North America and is thought to have moved from the weedy perennial horse nettle, Solanium carolinense L., to domesticated crops like the bell pepper. Pepper maggot occurrence in pepper is patchy and sporadic. However, infestation can reach 100 percent of the fruit with only a single maggot causing the destruction of an entire pepper fruit.
|May 1, 2009||444-005|
|Pepper Weevil||Mar 25, 2014||ENTO-63NP|
|Pepper Weevil||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1558|
|Performance of Insecticides on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug on Vegetables||Dec 14, 2012||ENTO-28NP|
In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.
|Feb 25, 2015||444-276 (ENTO-105NP)|
|Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2015||Feb 13, 2015||456-016 (ENTO-70P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2015||Feb 16, 2015||456-018 (ENTO-69P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2015||Feb 16, 2015||456-017 (ENTO-71P)|
|Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia||May 1, 2009||430-524|
|Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems||May 1, 2009||420-013|
|Pickleworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1559|
|Pine Bark Adelgid||Mar 6, 2015||2907-1402 (ENTO-120NP)|
|Pine Needle Scale||Mar 3, 2015||2907-1400 (ENTO-118NP)|
|Pine Sawyers||Mar 5, 2015||2907-1399 (ENTO-119NP)|
|Pine Shoot Beetle||
Species: Tomicus piniperda (Linnaeus)
Size: The adults are 1/8 to 1/4 inch long. The larvae are legless and can be up to 1/4 inch long.
Color: Pine shoot beetles are dark brown. The larvae have a dark brown head and creamy white body.
Description: Pine shoot beetles are in the same family as bark beetles and resemble bark beetles in appearance with their cylindrical shape.
|May 1, 2009||444-291|
|Pine Tortoise Scale, Hemiptera: Coccidae, Toumeyella numismaticum||Jan 25, 2011||3101-1529|
|Plumbing Systems of Agricultural Sprayers||
The plumbing systems of agricultural sprayers are usually considered foolproof. Sprayer problems may occur if plumbing and/or modifications are improperly done or maintenance is ignored. Retrofitting, addition of electrical control systems, and replacement of pumps or nozzles require proper knowledge of the plumbing system and the implications of these changes to sprayer performance. Routine maintenance of the plumbing system is essential.
|Oct 1, 2014||442-452 (BSE-171P)|
|Potato Aphid on Tomatoes||
Homoptera: Aphididae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae
The potato aphid is found throughout the United States and southern Canada but is only considered a serious pest in the northeast and north central regions of the United States.
|May 1, 2009||2901-1031|
|Potato Tuberworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1560|
|Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes||Feb 12, 2015||450-236 (PPWS-48P)|
|Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes||Feb 18, 2015||450-237 (PPWS-47P)|
|Raspberry Crown Borer||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1561|
|Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA)||Mar 5, 2010||444-284|
|Redheaded Pine Sawfly||Jun 16, 2010||3006-1453|
|Rednecked Cane Borer, Agrilus ruficollis (F.)||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1562|
|Rhubarb Curculio||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1563|
|Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn||
Species: Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode), M. arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), M. javanica (Javanese root-knot nematode), M. hapla (northern root-knot nematode; not found in corn)
Size: Adult females are up to 1/16 inch in diameter.
Color: Adult females are a translucent cream color.
Description: Adult females are pear shaped and sedentary.
|May 1, 2009||444-107|
|Rose Chafer||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1564|
|Rose Rosette Disease||Sep 17, 2012||450-620 (PPWS-10P)|
|Rose Scale||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1565|
|Sampling Methods for Varroa Mites on the Domesticated Honeybee||
Varroa mites (Fig. 1) are serious pests of the apiculture industry throughout the Americas. The mites were first reported in the United States in Florida in 1987, apparently as an accidental introduction along with illegally imported South American queen bees. By 1989, the mite was found in 19 of the southern states and has continued to spread throughout the United States and much of Canada. To date, the varroa mite has killed one-half of the managed honeybee colonies and almost all of the feral honeybee colonies in North America. If a varroa mite infestation is left untreated, it can kill a bee colony within one to three years. As a result, the varroa mite is considered to be one of the most severe threats to the apiculture industry.
|May 1, 2009||444-103|
|Sap Beetles||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1546|
|Sawtoothed Grain Beetle - Coleoptera: Silvanidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1584|
|Scale Insects||Feb 26, 2015||2808-1012 (ENTO-106NP)|
|Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains||Oct 4, 2012||444-360|
|Signs of Subterranean Termite Infestation||Mar 1, 2010||444-501|
|Silverfish and Firebrats||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-24NP|
|Slugs in Field Corn||
Scientific Names: Deroceras reticulatum (gray garden slug) (Fig. 1), Deroceras laeve (marsh slug) (Fig. 2), Arion subfuscus (dusky slug) (Fig. 3)
Size: Mature slugs vary in size from 1/2 inch to several inches in length; however, the typical size range of slugs found in cornfields is about 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches.
Color: Mature slugs are gray to brownish-gray, depending on the species. Immature slugs resemble adults in color (Fig. 4).
|May 1, 2009||444-109|
|Southeastern U.S. 2014 Vegetable Crop Handbook||Feb 6, 2014||AREC-66NP|
|Spider Mites||Feb 26, 2015||444-221 (ENTO-107NP)|
|Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia||Aug 8, 2014||ENTO-73NP|
|Springtails||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-23NP|
|Spruce Spider Mite||Mar 2, 2015||444-235 (ENTO-108NP)|
|Squash Bug||Mar 25, 2014||ENTO-64NP|
|Squash Vine Borer||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1566|
|Stalk Borer||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1567|
|Stinging Caterpillars: Slug Caterpillars and Flannel Moths||Aug 8, 2014||ENTO-75NP|
Adults and nymphs suck sap, feeding primarily on buds and seedpods. This feeding results in weakened plants and malformed buds and fruit. On okra and bean pods, the damage appears as pimples or wart-like growths. On tomatoes and peppers, white marks, often resembling halos, appear on the fruit. On pecans and beans, the damage shows up as brown spots on the nutmeat or seed. On some tree fruit, stink bugs can cause a deforming condition called cat facing on the fruit.
|May 1, 2009||444-621|
|Striped Cucumber Beetle||Feb 25, 2014||ENTO-61NP|
|Subterranean Termite Biology and Behavior||Mar 5, 2010||444-502|
|Subterranean Termite Treatment Options||Mar 5, 2010||444-500|
|Successful No-Tillage Corn Production||Jul 29, 2009||424-030|
|Sugarcane beetle in corn||Jun 28, 2012||ENTO-13NP|
|Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation||May 1, 2009||420-531|
|Tarnished Plant Bug||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1568|
|The Minute Pirate Bug (Orius)||Mar 8, 2010||3002-1437|
|The pest caterpillars of cole crops in Virginia||
Caterpillars, or the larval stage of Lepidoptera, are probably the most damaging of insect groups that feed on cole crops, such as collard, kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, and Chinese cabbage. Caterpillars typically feed on foliage reducing marketability or outright killing plants. The most common and damaging caterpillars in Virginia cole crops are diamondback moth (DBM), cabbage looper (CL), and imported cabbageworm (ICW). In addition to these key species, there are several other species of caterpillars that will be observed feeding on cole crops that may or may not be a threat to yield of the crop. These species are summarized in Table 1. Normally pest management is meant to target all caterpillars, treating them as one pest “complex;” however, there are some noteworthy differences between the caterpillar species in their life histories and feeding behaviors where proper identification is sometimes necessary.
|Mar 2, 2012||ENTO-2|
|Thrips||Mar 3, 2015||444-281 (ENTO-110NP)|
|Tulip Tree Leaf Miner (Sassafras Weevil)||Mar 3, 2015||444-279 (ENTO-111NP)|
|Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner||Mar 16, 2015||2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)|
|Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity||
Pitfall traps are excellent tools for detecting first activity and monitoring the season-long activity of walking and crawling soil and litter arthropods, especially those that are active at night. Pitfall traps can be used in sampling programs for row crops, orchards, turf, pastures, woodlands, and landscapes.
|May 1, 2009||444-416|
|Vegetable Weevil||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1569|
|Velvet Ants||Oct 9, 2012||ENTO-22NP|
|Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014||Feb 7, 2014||AREC-62NP|
|Virginia Pine Sawfly||Mar 16, 2015||2911-1424 (ENTO-125NP)|
|Wax Scale||Mar 3, 2015||444-622 (ENTO-112NP)|
|Wheel Bug - Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Arilus cristatus||May 13, 2011||3104-1585|
|White Grubs in Vegetable Gardens||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1570|
|White Pine Weevil||Mar 3, 2015||444-270 (ENTO-113NP)|
|Whiteflies||Mar 3, 2015||444-280 (ENTO-114NP)|
|Whitefringed Beetles||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1571|
|Widow Spiders||Dec 18, 2012||444-422|
|Wireworm Pest Management in Potatoes||
Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are pests of many agricultural crops including corn, sorghum, small grains, tobacco, and various vegetables, but are particularly damaging to potatoes, since the marketable portion of that crop is in the soil. Wireworms are found throughout the world, and species vary greatly across regions. In Virginia, three important pest species of agricultural crops are the corn wireworm, Melanotus communis, the tobacco wireworm, Conoderus vespertinus, and a related species, C. lividus (Fig. 1). A field survey of more than 60 fields in eastern Virginia from 2002 to 2004 revealed that 80% of wireworms collected were the corn wireworm, M. communis. This is the primary soil pest attacking potatoes in Virginia.
|May 1, 2009||2812-1026|
|Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011||Nov 3, 2011||3110-1596|
|Wolf Spider - Araneae: Lycosidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1586|
|Yellow Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1587|
|Yellowjackets||Sep 26, 2013||ENTO-49NP|