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Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2009 Virginia Cotton Production Guide Oct 7, 2009 424-300
2010 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Dec 1, 2009 2810-1017
2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 12, 2011 2810-1017
2013 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Feb 19, 2014 AREC-73NP
2013 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Feb 12, 2013 AREC-31NP
2014 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations Feb 19, 2014 456-420 (AREC-80NP)
2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide May 2, 2014 AREC-58NP
A Longer Marketing Life For Bramble Fruits May 1, 2009 423-701
A Powerful New Insecticide for the Organic Grower

Entrust 80WP® is a new insecticide manufactured by Dow, and it will be available commercially by mid-April 2003. Entrust contains the active ingredient spinosad, which is in the naturalyte class of chemistry. Spinosad is a fermentation product produced by the soil-dwelling actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1340
A Summary of Recent Pesticide Registrations and Other Updates (Extracted from the Virginia Crop Pest Advisory Newsletter)

The EPA has granted a Section 18 registration again this year for Topsin M WSB fungicide manufactured by Cerexagri, Inc. for the control of white mold or timber rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in tomato.

Aug 10, 2009 2906-1373
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010

This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010. If not noted otherwise in the individual reports, all research was conducted at the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Painter, VA and at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Virginia Beach, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices. Soil type at the ESAREC is a Bojac Sandy Loam. Soil type at the HRAREC is tetotum loam (average pH: 5.7). Most of the research involves field evaluations of federally‐labeled and experimental insecticides. Much of the information presented herein will be published in a similar format in Arthropod Management Tests: 2011, vol. 36 (Entomological Society of America). We hope that this information will be of value to those interested in insect pest management on vegetable crops, and we wish to make the information accessible. All information, however, is for informational purposes only. Because most of the data from the studies are based on a single season’s environmental conditions, it is requested that the data not be published, reproduced, or otherwise taken out of context without the permission of the authors. The authors neither endorse any of the products in these reports nor discriminate against others. Additionally, some of the products evaluated are not commercially available and/or not labeled for use on the crop(s) in which they were used.

Feb 22, 2011 3102-1532
Bean Leaf Beetle Biology and Management in Snap Beans

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Chrysomelidae

Species: Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster)

Size: Adults are about 1/4 inch (64 mm) long.

Description: Adults range in color from yellow to a dull red with variable numbers of black spots (Fig. 1). Although some have no spots, most will have four black spots down the center of the back with marginal spots or stripes on the edge of the elytra. The distinguishing characteristic is that all have a distinct black triangle behind the prothorax. Eggs are reddish orange ovals about 3/100 inch (0.8 mm) long and have tapered ends. Larvae are white, cylindrical grubs with a black head and anal plate. They have well-developed thoracic legs as well as anal prolegs. The pupae are white and resemble the adult in size and shape.

May 1, 2009 444-009
Bt Sweet Corn: What Is It and Why Should We Use It?

Transgenic Bt sweet corn hybrids are a genetically modified organism (GMO) that are the result of combining commercially available sweet corn varieties with genes from a naturally occurring soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner or Bt.

Jul 17, 2009 2906-1300
Cabbage Webworm

The cabbage webworm is found throughout the southern United States from Virginia to Florida and west to California. It is rarely a pest in northern climates. In eastern Virginia, it is a common pest on broccoli and cabbage, particularly late in the summer and fall.

May 1, 2009 2811-1022
Chemical Control of European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most economically important pests of agricultural crops in much of the eastern and central United States.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1355
Colorado Potato Beetle

Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Size: Adults are ~ 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide; mature larvae are 1/2 inch long.

Color: The adult thorax is orange with black spots and the wing covers have five yellowish white and five black alternating stripes running lengthwise (Fig. 1); the larvae are reddish in color with two rows of black spots along each side (Fig. 2); and eggs are yellow (Fig. 3).

Description: The adult beetle is convex above; larvae are smooth, soft-bodied, and humpbacked; and individual eggs somewhat resemble small sausages standing on end.

May 1, 2009 444-012
Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region

Common diseases of soybean are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes. Some diseases are spread by insect vectors and nematodes while others are spread by wind, splashing rain, or movement in soil. The best way to determine if disease control would be profitable is to first identify the diseases that are capable of causing  conomic yield losses. Symptoms of disease include plant damage caused by a pathogen and the reaction of plants to infection. Signs are the visible evidence of the pathogen. Some diseases have characteristic symptoms and signs that are identifiable in the field.

Feb 17, 2010 3001-1435
Controlling Bean Leaf Beetle on Snap Beans

In eastern Virginia, the bean leaf beetle (BLB), Ceratoma trifucata (Forster), has caused serious damage to snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in recent years.

Jul 16, 2009 2906-1332
Corn Fertility Update – Spring 2010 Jun 11, 2010 3006-1448
Cotton Harvest Aid Selection and Application Timing May 1, 2009 424-201
Cruiser 5FS: Supplemental Label for Use on Edible Beans

A supplemental label has been approved in Virginia for the use of Cruiser 5FS (Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc.) seed treatment for beans, both shelled and edible podded. Snap beans and wax beans are included on this label, as well as lima beans, broad beans, blackeyed peas, southern peas, cowpeas, runner beans, asparagus beans, Chinese longbeans, moth beans and yardlong beans.

Jul 30, 2009 2906-1357
Cucumber Beetle Management in Melons

Cucumber beetles can be a major pest of cucurbit crops in Virginia, particularly cantaloupes and cucumbers. This was displayed in dramatic fashion this spring at the Eastern Shore AREC.

Jul 21, 2009 2906-1303
Defoliating Cotton under Adverse Conditions: Drought-stress, Cool Temperatures, and Rank Growth

Modern chemical harvest aids are applied to induce leaf abscission, hasten mature-boll dehiscence, and inhibit regrowth (Gwathmey and Hayes 1997; Snipes and Cathey 1992). Their use can result in increased machine harvest efficiency and fewer lodged plants while reducing boll rot, the trash in seed cotton, and the time from defoliation to harvest (Benedict 1984). The challenge of using harvest aids is the inconsistent way cotton responds to them, making defoliation one of the most unpredictable management practices (Benedict 1984; Gwathmey and Hayes 1997).

May 1, 2009 427-208
Diamondback Moth in Virginia

The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered to be the most destructive insect pest of crucifer crops worldwide. DBM larvae feed on leaves of crucifer crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, and Brussels sprouts. All plant growth stages from seedling to head are susceptible to attack. DBM larvae can reach high densities and cause substantial defoliation as well as contamination and malformation of heads in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. The absence and reduction of effective natural enemies, especially parasitoids, as well as insecticide resistance, contribute to the status of DBM as a pest.

May 1, 2009 444-007
Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center Apr 18, 2014 AREC-81NP
Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center Feb 25, 2014 AREC-69NP
Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizer Materials: Nitrogen Stabilizers Aug 22, 2013 CSES-52P
European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a significant pest to over 200 different plant species. In Virginia, it is the number one pest of pepper, Capsicum annuum L. This pest can damage over 50 percent of pepper fruit if control measures are not taken.

May 1, 2009 444-006
Fall Armyworm in Vegetable Crops

Scientific Name: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)
Size: Caterpillars vary in length from 1/2 inch (2mm) as first instar larvae to 3/4 to 1 inch (35 to 50mm) as mature larvae (See Fig. 1). Adult moths have a wingspan of 1.2 to 1.6 inches (32 to 40mm).

Color: Larvae vary in color from light tan or green to dark brown (nearly black) [base color ranging from yellow-green to a dark brown to gray] with three yellowish-white lines down the sides and back from head to tail and four dark circular spots on the upper portion of each abdominal segment. Front of the head is marked with a prominent inverted white Y, but this characteristic is not always a reliable identifier. The forewing of adult male moths is generally shaded gray and brown, with triangular white spots at the tip and near the center of the wing. The forewings of females are less distinctly marked, ranging from a uniform grayish brown to a fine mottling of gray and brown. The hind wing is iridescent silver-white with a narrow dark border in both sexes.

Description: Larvae are hairless and smooth skinned (See Fig. 1).

May 1, 2009 444-015
Fine Tuning a Sprayer with "Ounce" Calibration Method

This extension publication discusses guidelines to quickly evaluate the performance of a sprayer. Sprayer calibration, nozzle discharge, spray pattern uniformity, speed checks, pump performance and plumbing arrangements are evaluated with minimal calculations.

Tractor-mounted, pull-type, pick-up-mounted and self-propelled sprayers are available from numerous sources. Rising chemical costs and new low rate chemicals are making accurate application more important than ever before. Proper calibration must be a primary management consideration whether one is a farmer or a custom applicator. Since most pesticides are applied with hydraulic sprayers, users should also know proper application methods, chemical effects on equipment, and correct cleaning and storage methods for hydraulic sprayers.

May 1, 2009 442-453
Forced-Air Produce Cooler

This is a plan for a simple device you can build yourself to speed cooling of non-wrapped produce packed in vented cartons. The cooler is designed for small fruits, but can easily be adapted for other products. Some dimensions of the cooler depend on the size of produce cartons used, so select and measure your cartons before starting construction. The cooler is designed to cool one to three columns of cartons (about 15 cartons per column, depending on carton depth) at a time.

May 1, 2009 442-060
Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic May 1, 2009 424-022
Harley Blackwell - A Recent Potato Release from USDA

Harley Blackwell is a round-white multipurpose potato cultivar released in 2003 by Dr. Kathy Haynes of the USDA-Beltsville, MD potato breeding program. It was named after the retired Superintendent of the Mountain Horticulture Crops Research Station in Fletcher, North Carolina and evaluated under the pedigree number B0564-8.

Jul 31, 2009 2906-1361
Increasing Fresh Produce Availability From Local Sources Jul 19, 2013 AREC-50NP
Insecticide Label Updates

Here are several new insecticide labels and label changes that have occurred recently for vegetable and field crop production in Virginia.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1337
Interpreting Yield Maps - "I gotta yield map - now what?"

Yield monitors are the first step many producers take into the age of precision farming. While their cost is reasonable, the commitment of time and resources required to effectively use this technology is significant. A yield monitor, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, is simply an electronic tool that collects data on crop performance for a given year. The monitor measures and records information such as crop mass, moisture, area covered, and location. Yield data are automatically calculated from these variables.

May 1, 2009 442-509
Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries Sep 15, 2009 2909-1411
Management of Aphids in Spinach

In Virginia, spinach can be a profitable crop to grow and is harvested in the spring and the fall. Aphids, especially the green peach aphid (GPA), Myzus personae Sulzer) (see Figure), can be major pests to spinach production.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1338
Multi-Cropping Plasticulture in the Mid-Atlantic Area

Plasticulture is very expensive for smaller growers to establish. Multi-cropping would spread these costs over more than one crop. Double-cropping is done in the mid-Atlantic area but the favorable climate of Virginia's Eastern Shore should make three crops possible.

Jul 22, 2009 2906-1314
Nitrogen Management for White Potato Production

One of the challenges of white potato production, as with any crop, is the efficient management of nitrogen
(N) fertilizer. Excessive N fertilizer applied at or before tuberization can extend the vegetative growth period and delay tuber development, resulting in a lower tuber yield. However, too much N applied later in the season can delay maturity of the tubers, reducing
yield and adversely affecting tuber quality and skin set. Conversely, under-application of N at any point in the season can result in lower tuber yields and reduced profits. Environmental considerations must also be taken into account in N fertilizer management. Nitrogen
is a mobile nutrient in the soil and any excess N has the potential to move off-site via leaching or surface runoff. This is particularly true on the coarse-textured, low-organic matter soils common to the Eastern Shore, the premier potato-producing region in Virginia. These factors make the appropriate N rate and N application timing critical for successful white potato production.

Sep 28, 2009 438-012
Pepper Maggot in Sweet (Bell) Pepper

The pepper maggot, Zonosemata electa (Say) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to eastern North America and is thought to have moved from the weedy perennial horse nettle, Solanium carolinense L., to domesticated crops like the bell pepper. Pepper maggot occurrence in pepper is patchy and sporadic. However, infestation can reach 100 percent of the fruit with only a single maggot causing the destruction of an entire pepper fruit.

May 1, 2009 444-005
Plumbing Systems of Agricultural Sprayers

The plumbing systems of agricultural sprayers are usually considered foolproof. Sprayer problems may occur if plumbing and/or modifications are improperly done or maintenance is ignored. Retrofitting, addition of electrical control systems, and replacement of pumps or nozzles require proper knowledge of the plumbing system and the implications of these changes to sprayer performance. Routine maintenance of the plumbing system is essential.

May 1, 2009 442-452
Potato Seed Selection and Management

Selection of good quality seed is essential for Virginia growers. We often plant under less than ideal growing conditions in cold, wet soils. Seed need to be disease-free, physiologically young, handled gently and stored with care.

Aug 17, 2009 2906-1391
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per 30 foot of row can reduce cotton yield by 6 to 12%.

May 1, 2009 2805-1001
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. Four Palmer amaranth plants per 100 ft2 of row can reduce soybean yield by 12 to 17%.

May 1, 2009 2808-1006
Proceedings of the 31st Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference

Data from the Conservation Technology Information Center’s (CTIC) National Crop Residue Management Survey was used to establish trend lines for Virginia agricultural commodities. In 2007, double crop soybeans had the highest use of conservation tillage at 95.6% while 100% of potatoes were planted using conventional tillage. Most Virginia producers are integrating conservation tillage into their cropping systems, but vegetable crops have challenges that make adoption more difficult. Higher value vegetable and specialty crops are the last frontier for conquering the widespread use of conventional tillage and should be the main focus of research and Extension education programs to implement reduced and conservation tillage when systematically feasible.

Dec 3, 2009 2910-1417
Reduction in Sediment Movement in Plasticulture

Tomato plasticulture is currently one of the most profitable agricultural enterprises on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The advantages of plastic mulch include soil warming, weed suppression, water and fertilizer conservation and early yield enhancement. However, runoff and sediment movement may adversely impact the rapidly expanding clam aquaculture enterprises that are extremely sensitive to changes in water quality, including sediment movement.

Aug 4, 2009 2906-1369
Sampling for European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most economically important pests of agricultural crops in much of the eastern and central United States. O. nubilalis is particularly damaging to sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) because it causes direct injury to the fruit, premature fruit ripening, and fruit rot, a result of pathogens such as Erwinia carotovora entering the feeding wound.

Jul 30, 2009 2906-1356
Scouting for Wireworms before Planting Vegetables

Wireworms are the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are worm-like, hard-bodied, and have 3 pair of legs and a distinct head.

Jul 24, 2009 2906-1329
Seed-Piece Treatments for Insect Control in Potatoes

Tops-MZ-Gaucho is a new seed treatment produced by Gustafson LLC. This product enables potato growers to apply both an insecticide, Gaucho (Bayer Corp.), and a fungicide (Tops-MZ) prior to planting.

Jul 21, 2009 2906-1310
Sources of Lime for Acid Soils in Virginia May 1, 2009 452-510
Southeastern U.S. 2014 Vegetable Crop Handbook Feb 6, 2014 AREC-66NP
Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005 May 1, 2009 450-561
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2007 May 1, 2009 2810-1016
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1420
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

A high incidence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has occurred in crops in Virginia and other Mid-Atlantic states this season. Be on the lookout for this plant virus in tomatoes, peppers, peanuts, potatoes, and tobacco.

Jul 24, 2009 2906-1326
Use of In-furrow Fungicide Treatments and Seedpiece Dusts for Disease Control in White Potato

On the Eastern Shore of Virginia, potato growers plant potatoes in early spring for summer harvest. Fungicide dusts have been typically used to protect the potato seedpiece from infection when planted in cool, wet soil in the early spring.

Aug 18, 2009 2906-1394
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2010 Dec 10, 2009 2810-1019
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2011 Jan 12, 2011 2810-1019-11
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014 Feb 7, 2014 AREC-62NP
Wireworm Pest Management in Potatoes

Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are pests of many agricultural crops including corn, sorghum, small grains, tobacco, and various vegetables, but are particularly damaging to potatoes, since the marketable portion of that crop is in the soil. Wireworms are found throughout the world, and species vary greatly across regions. In Virginia, three important pest species of agricultural crops are the corn wireworm, Melanotus communis, the tobacco wireworm, Conoderus vespertinus, and a related species, C. lividus (Fig. 1). A field survey of more than 60 fields in eastern Virginia from 2002 to 2004 revealed that 80% of wireworms collected were the corn wireworm, M. communis. This is the primary soil pest attacking potatoes in Virginia.

May 1, 2009 2812-1026