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Animal and Poultry Sciences

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
4-H Animal Science Non-Ownership Livestock Project - Unit II

The Animal Science Project Units I, II, and III are designed for individual 4-H’ers and 4-H clubs that are interested in livestock but do not or cannot have animals of their own. These are short-term projects and may be followed by other livestock and meats projects or by the Junior Stockman’s Project.

May 1, 2009 380-124
4-H Horse Program Key Dates Agents Need to Know Jun 27, 2016 APSC-128NP
4-H Livestock Advancement Project Guide and Record

The 4-H Livestock Advancement Project can be an important part of the livestock project(s) in which you are presently engaged.

May 1, 2009 380-119
4-H Livestock Record Book - Beef-Swine-Sheep

Livestock are a family project. Your encouragement and help in completing this record will allow the 4-H’er to receive the most benefit from the project.

May 1, 2009 380-122
4-H Market Beef Planning Guide May 1, 2009 400-833
4-H Project Horse Eligibility/Declaration Mar 11, 2016 406-125 (4H-583NP)
4-H Science Fair Project/Presentation and Display Score Sheet Mar 19, 2014 380-128 (4H-256NP)
A Brighter Idea: Eggs! Sep 22, 2009 408-032
A Small-Scale Agriculture Alternative: Poultry

The low investment and small area required to raise a flock of domestic poultry makes this an ideal venture for the beginning small or part-time farmer. Domestic poultry can supplement family food supplies, and small specialized poultry producers can sell to several niche markets. For example, producers can consider selling organic meat and eggs, brown eggs, range-reared meat and eggs, live birds for ethnic markets, and birds for hobby, leisure, and purebred exhibition purposes. Most small specialty poultry enterprises raise chickens or waterfowl.

May 1, 2009 2902-1099
Addressing the Consequences of Predator Damage to Livestock and Poultry May 1, 2009 410-030
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle

Feed represents the largest single production expense for cattle operations. There are many different feedstuffs that can be included in rations for cattle, and there is nothing special about particular ingredients. What matters is the nutrients they provide.

May 1, 2009 400-230
Analyzing the Cost of a Bull May 8, 2009
Avian Disease Fact Sheet


I. Disease: “Any deviation from normal state of health.”

  1. How diseases are spread:
    1. Through feed and water
    2. Bird to bird contact:
      1. Poultry and swap shows
      2. Carrier birds
      3. New stock
      4. Free flying birds
    1. Visitors or attendants
    2. Equipment, carrying cases, feed sacks, etc.
    3. Contaminated litter and soil
    4. Flies, mosquitoes and parasites
    5. Lack of nutrient
May 1, 2009 2902-1094
Barn and Farm Inspection Checklist

The Barn and Farm Inspection Checklist is a tool that helps farm owners realize how susceptible their farm is to a barn fire. Circle the answer that represents the situation on your farm. The higher your score, the higher your chance to being susceptible to a fire.

Aug 28, 2009 2908-1408
Basic Information Agents need to know about Virginia’s 4-H Horse Program Jul 20, 2016 4H-307NP (APSC-125NP)
Basic Strategies for Buying the Right Bull May 8, 2009
Beef Cattle Breeds and Biological Types

Worldwide there are more than 250 breeds of beef cattle. Over 60 of these breeds are present in the United States. However, a relatively small number of breeds (less than 20) constitute the majority of the genetics utilized in the U.S. for commercial beef production.

May 1, 2009 400-803
Beef Cow Size, Efficiency and Profit May 8, 2009
Beginning of Life Nov 9, 2009 408-029
Beginning of Life Record Book Nov 9, 2009 408-027
Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows

Body condition scoring (BCS) is a useful management tool for distinguishing differences in nutritional needs of beef cows in the herd. This system uses a numeric score to estimate body energy reserves in the cow.

May 1, 2009 400-795
Brooding of Domestic Fowl

If you plan to raise baby chicks, waterfowl, or any other fowl, it is very important to realize that the baby fowl is totally dependent upon you to meet its needs.

Baby fowl need proper environment, proper nutrition and protection. This fact sheet will help you get your flock off to a good start.

May 1, 2009 2902-1087
Bullets for Survival in the Cow/Calf Business May 8, 2009
Calving Emergencies in Beef Cattle: Identification and Prevention

Calving difficulty, technically called dystocia, is a major cause of death loss in cow-calf herds. CHAPA (Cow-calf Health and Productivity Audit) studies indicate that dystocia is responsible for 33 percent of all calf losses and 15.4 percent of beef cattle breeding losses.

May 1, 2009 400-018
Cannibalism: Prevention and Treatment

Cannibalism in fowl is a costly and vicious habit that poultry producers can not afford to ignore. It may occur at any age among all breeds, strains and sexes of fowl.

May 1, 2009 2902-1095
Cattle Identification: Freeze Branding

Individual animal identification is essential if beef producers are to properly manage animals and their production records. Yet at present, less than 50 percent of the cattle in the United States have any form of individual identification (USDA-APHIS, 1997).

May 1, 2009 400-301
Changing Times: Management Considerations for Cow-Calf Producers May 8, 2009

Let’s have a Chick-N-Que! It’s fun; it’s easy; it’s good eating; and it’s so very economical. It suggests the tantalizing aroma of golden, crusted chicken lying lazily over pit and grill – the cheer of glowing coals and gay
chatter of family and friends pleasantly hungry – appetites sharpened by fresh air and bright sunshine – good
fellowship warmed outwardly by glowing coals and inwardly by the aroma of pungent sauce.

Sep 23, 2009 408-287
Cloverbud Curriculum - Do You Have Horse Sense! Feb 3, 2016 380-107(4H-560P)
Cloverbud Curriculum - Eat Like a Horse! Feb 3, 2016 380-105(4H-562P)
Cloverbud Curriculum - Horses Wear Clothes, Too! Feb 4, 2016 380-108(4H-563P)
Cloverbud Curriculum - Knocking Off the Dirt! Feb 4, 2016 380-106(4H-564P)
Cloverbud Curriculum - Puzzling Horse Parts! Feb 4, 2016 380-109(4H-565P)
Cloverbud Curriculum, A Horse of a Different Color! Feb 11, 2016 380-104 (4H-561P)
Common Plants Causing Toxicity to Horses in Virginia Aug 3, 2009
Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia

Annual and perennial weed control in pastures and hayfields is an important aspect of successful forage management. This publication will discuss control measures for many of the common weeds found in Virginia and West Virginia permanent fescue and mixed fescue / bluegrass / orchardgrass pastures and hayfields.

May 1, 2009 427-002
Control of Internal Parasites in Sheep May 1, 2009 410-027
Control, Treatment, and Elimination of Foot Rot from Sheep May 1, 2009 410-028
Cow-Calf Manager: Value of Creep Feeding Depends on Forage May 8, 2009
Cow-Calf Profitability May 8, 2009
Creep Feeding Beef Calves

Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf.

May 1, 2009 400-003
Crossbreeding Beef Cattle

The economic climate of today’s beef business is challenging. Commercial cow-calf producers are faced with optimizing a number of economically important traits, while simultaneously reducing costs of production in order to remain competitive. Traits such as reproduction, growth, maternal ability, and end product merit all influence productivity and profitability of the beef enterprise.

May 1, 2009 400-805
Crossbreeding- The Lost Art?: Part 1 May 8, 2009
Crossbreeding- The Lost Art?: Part 2 May 8, 2009
Crossbreeding- The Lost Art?: Part 3 May 8, 2009
Estimating the Value of Domestic Fowl

This fact sheet was developed to aid poultry owners determine fair indemnity values for birds in case of eradication or insurance claims. The indemnity values are based on the cost of producing and/or replacing the bird. Foregone or lost profits are not considered as part of the indemnity value. Regular markets for domestic fowl are for day-old, broiler-fryers, started pullets, breeders, spent hens and hobby/exhibition. There are no established markets or prices for domestic fowl at other stages of development.

May 1, 2009 2902-1093
Estrus Synchronization for Heifers

Developing replacement heifers is the most expensive enterprise in the cow-calf operation. You can increase returns to heifer development if the heifers calve at 24 months of age and calve early in the calving season.

May 1, 2009 400-302
Feeding Sheep May 1, 2009 410-853
Fencing Materials For Livestock Systems

Good fencing protects and confines valuable livestock by presenting barriers to restrict animal movement. Barriers may be physical, psychological, or a combination of both. Physical barriers consist of enough materials of sufficient strength to prevent or discourage animals from going over, under, or through the fence. Psychological barriers depend upon inflicting pain to discourage animals from challenging a physical barrier of inferior strength.

Traditional livestock fencing materials have included barbed, woven, mesh, and electrified wire, and combinations of these materials. Board fences have also been popular. These conventional materials are still widely used and make excellent fences if properly constructed. However, new materials such as high tensile wire should also be considered when selecting fencing types.

May 1, 2009 442-131
General Horse Information Agents Need To Know Jul 20, 2016 4H-308 (APSC-127P)
Getting Started in the Cattle Business in Virginia

The beef industry consists of various segments of production. The function of this diverse industry is to produce a live beef animal from which high quality beef is ultimately delivered to the consumer. Newcomers to the business should have some understanding of the structure of the beef industry.

May 1, 2009 400-790
GnRH Based Estrus Synchronization Systems for Beef Cows

New systems of synchronizing estrus (heat) in cows for artificial insemination (AI) have been developed using commercially available Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH). These systems allow producers to artificially inseminate cows with little or no heat detection. For the first time, producers have a reliable system that results in acceptable pregnancy rates to timed AI.

May 1, 2009 400-013
Good Production Practices: Name That Feed

To demonstrate the importance of properly labeling feeds.

Oct 28, 2015 APSC-98P
Good Production Practices: Proper Storage, Labeling, and Accounting for Medications

 Purpose: To teach youth how to read a medication label so they are better able to understand how to store and administer medications for different livestock species.

Dec 7, 2015 APSC-99P
Good Production Practices: Reading a Medication Label

Purpose: To teach youth how to read a medication label and calculate dosages so they are better able to understand how to store and administer medications to different livestock species 

Dec 23, 2015 APSC-100P
Good Production Practices: Reading and Understanding a Medication Label

To teach youth how to read a medication label so they are better able to understand how to store and administer medications to different livestock species.

Apr 28, 2016 APSC-101P
Good Production Practices: Required Living Space for Sheep

To teach youth how to read a medication label so they are better able to understand how to store and administer medications to different livestock species.

May 6, 2016 APSC-103P
Good Production Practices: Understanding the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship

To teach youth how to read a medication label so they are better able to understand how to store and administer medications to different livestock species.

Apr 28, 2016 APSC-104P
Good Production Practices: Using the Flight Zone to Handle Livestock

Purpose: To help children better understand livestock flight zones so they are able to move and handle livestock more efficiently and safely.*

Apr 28, 2016 APSC-105P
Good Production Practices: When to Call the Veterinarian

Purpose: To help children better understand livestock flight zones so they are able to move and handle livestock more efficiently and safely.*

Apr 28, 2016 APSC-106P
Good Production Practices: Where Did That Medication Come From? PDF

Purpose: Teach youth to understand the differences in over-the-counter, prescription, extra-label, and illegal use of animal pharmaceuticals.*

Apr 28, 2016 APSC-107P
Good Production Practices: You Want Me to Eat From That?

Purpose: To teach youth the importance of clean feeding equipment and proper labeling of feeds.*

Apr 28, 2016 APSC-108P
Hay as Part of a Cowherd Production System

Hay is a necessary part of cow-calf production systems in Virginia. Hay is forage which is harvested and stored in a dry form when an excess of forage is available, and fed at times when forage is limited or unavailable.

May 1, 2009 400-002
Horse Emergency Go Kit Aug 27, 2009 2908-1407
Impact of Composting on Drug Residues in Large Animal Mortality

Mortalities are inevitable in animal agriculture. For most animal operations in the United States, the average annual mortality is estimated to be between 4.5 and 6 percent of the livestock population. Common methods of mortality disposal include burial, rendering, incineration, and use of a landfill. The availability of options for disposing of mortality, particularly rendering, have changed in recent years, and financially and environmentally sound alternatives are needed. 

Sep 25, 2014 APSC-59P
Implanting Calves Still Pays Dividends May 8, 2009
Incubating Eggs

Many domestic bird owners incubate eggs to help sustain their flock over time. This fact sheet is designed to assist those who wish to incubate small numbers of domestic poultry eggs. The words "fertility" and "hatchability" are often used incorrectly by small producers. These terms are important and have very important meaning.

May 1, 2009 2902-1090
Large Round Bale Feeders Compared May 8, 2009
Leader’s Guide - Virginia 4-H Horse Program May 1, 2009 406-741
Leg and Foot Disorders in Domestic Fowl

Most leg and foot disorders in fowl can be prevented through proper nutrition and management. However, some problems can be genetic. In today's large meat chickens and turkeys the problems become very complex since the birds put on weight faster than they build their bone structure to support the weight. Since large meat birds and waterfowl are prone to leg and foot problems, let's consider the causes of these problems in fowl.

May 1, 2009 2902-1098
Livestock Update, April 2016

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Apr 20, 2016 APSC-122NP
Livestock Update, August 2014 Sep 15, 2014 APSC-62NP
Livestock Update, August 2016

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Aug 12, 2016 APSC-129NP
Livestock Update, December 2015 Dec 2, 2015 APSC-119NP
Livestock Update, February 2016 Jan 27, 2016 APSC-120NP
Livestock Update, January 2017

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Jan 5, 2017 APSC-135NP
Livestock Update, July 2016

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Jun 30, 2016 APSC-126NP
Livestock Update, June 2015 Jun 5, 2015 APSC-96NP
Livestock Update, June 2016

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

May 31, 2016 APSC-124NP
Livestock Update, March 2016 Mar 4, 2016 APSC-121NP
Livestock Update, May 2016

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

May 13, 2016 APSC-123NP
Livestock Update, November 2015 Oct 27, 2015 APSC-117NP
Livestock Update, October 2015 Sep 24, 2015 APSC-114NP
Livestock Update, September 2014 Sep 26, 2014 APSC-64NP
Livestock Update, September 2015 Aug 24, 2015 APSC-112NP
Making Performance Tested Bulls- Determining Their Value May 8, 2009
Making the Most of Tall Fescue in Virginia May 1, 2009 418-050
Management Requirements for Laying Flocks

Best Breeds To Raise: Commercial White Leghorn-type hybrids produce white shelled eggs and are the most economical converters to feed to eggs. Commercial production Reds or Sex-linked hybrids will produce large brown shelled eggs and are usually preferred for small family flocks. Production Reds or sex-linked hybrids also produce meaty carcasses as well as a good supply of eggs. The brown egg laying hybrids tend to be more docile than white egg layer hybrids. Pure bred poultry will lay eggs, but they are not as efficient.

May 1, 2009 2902-1085
Management Requirements for Meat Bird Flocks

Best Breeds To Raise: Meat-type crosses (Rock-Cornish) or commercial hybrid broilers are the most efficient birds available. Purebred poultry most commonly raised for meat are Cornish, Plymouth Rocks and White Jersey Giants. Purebreds are less efficient and take up to 14 weeks to develop a desirable carcass. When considering birds for meat production, select birds with light colored plumage. Dark feathered birds are less desirable because of their dark pin feathers left after slaughtering.

May 1, 2009 2902-1083
Management Requirements for Waterfowl

Best Breeds To Raise: The breed of waterfowl you raise depends on your reason for raising them. First, which is best to raise--ducks or geese? Ducks are small and require less space to raise. However, ducks require a grain supplement year round and are more prone to predators. Geese require twice as much space. However, geese do well on limited grain when they have plenty of area to graze and are seldom bothered by predators.

May 1, 2009 2902-1084
Measuring the Value of Retained Ownership May 8, 2009
Newborn Lamb Management May 1, 2009 410-026
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Digestive System of the Cow May 1, 2009 400-010
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Essential Nutrients, Feed Classification and Nutrient Content of Feeds

Essential nutrients are nutrients that are needed by all living things. These nutrients must either be fed or made by the animals from building blocks obtained through eating, drinking, or breathing.

May 1, 2009 400-011
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Production Cycle Nutrition and Nutrient Requirements of Cows, Pregnant Heifers and Bulls

Developing diets and feeding strategies for the cowherd is facilitated by a basic understanding of the production cycle of the cow and her changing nutrient requirements. By knowing and anticipating the changing nutritional needs of the cow, producers can plan their feeding programs and lower feed costs.

May 1, 2009 400-012
On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers Jul 31, 2013 2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)
Poultry Yearly Plan and Record Book Nov 6, 2009 408-042
Poultry: Beginning of Life Nov 9, 2009 388-801
Powell River Project - Management of Cow-Calf Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-128
Pre-Response Plan Aug 27, 2009 2908-1406
Prevention of Egg Eating

Egg eating by hens is a habit formed over time which is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to break. It is important you plan and manage your facilities so that the hen never gets the first taste of a broken egg.

May 1, 2009 2902-1096
Profitable Artificial Rearing of Lambs May 1, 2009 410-023
Progressive Riding Series Unit 4 - Horsemaster May 1, 2009 406-099
Proper Handling of Eggs: From Hen to Consumption

To insure egg quality in small flocks, egg producers must learn to properly handle the eggs they produce. This article will discuss how you can insure that your eggs will be of the highest quality and safe for consumption.

May 1, 2009 2902-1091
Raising Fowl and Small Animals in Urban Areas

Raising hobby fowl like pigeons, cage birds, ornamental fowl and small laying flocks is an increasingly popular pastime for urban residents. While at the same time, city limits and subdivisions seem to advance further into the rural countryside.

May 1, 2009 2902-1086
Ratite Nutrition and Feeding

There is limited quality research concerning the nutritional requirements of Ratites. However, some dependable guidelines have been established because of work completed in Australia and Africa. As in all diet formulations, a variety of high quality ingredients should be used to meet the nutrient recommendations of the Ratite. Using a wide variety of ingredients helps to decrease the effect of variations that are inherent in all ingredients.

May 1, 2009 2902-1089
Selection for Carcass Traits: New Tools May 8, 2009
Self-Determined Horse Project Feb 11, 2016 406-107 (4H-567P)
Sheep Grazing Management May 1, 2009 410-366
Sheep Management Schedule May 1, 2009 410-365
Small Scale Poultry Housing

Small scale poultry coops seem to be built in almost every possible shape and size. Those building a new coop often ask for plans for the perfect chicken coop. However, few plans for small poultry houses are available. Many existing buildings can easily be adapted to accommodate poultry. Poultry housing can be as crude or elaborate as you wish to build as long as you provide the following:

May 1, 2009 2902-1092
Survival Guide for 4-H Leaders May 1, 2009 406-130
The Egg-citing Egg Nov 9, 2009 408-030
The Egg-citing Egg - Teacher/Leader Guide Nov 6, 2009 408-031
The Optimum Cow May 8, 2009
The Value of a Good Bull May 8, 2009
Transporting Poultry in a Humane Manner

During the summer and fall months, poultry owners are hauling poultry to fairs, markets and other gatherings. Unfortunately, very few people put much thought into how to best transport their fowl. As a result, birds don't show well, get sick or die in transit. These results can be avoided with a little planning and extra care. Consider the following factors before transporting fowl.

May 1, 2009 2902-1088
Understanding Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs)

Expected progeny differences (EPDs) provide estimates of the genetic value of an animal as a parent. Specifically, differences in EPDs between two individuals of the same breed predict differences in performance between their future offspring when each is mated to animals of the same average genetic merit.

May 1, 2009 400-804
VIRGINIA 4-H HORSE PROJECT: PROGRESSIVE RIDING SERIES UNIT 1 Basic Horsemanship Feb 19, 2016 406-053 (4H-559P)
VT Policy Guidelines for Open vs. 4-H Horse Events Jun 27, 2014 4H-306NP
Virginia 4-H Ewe Flock Project Guide May 1, 2009 410-089
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Junior Record Book May 1, 2009 406-122
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Measurement Card Jun 27, 2014 406-050 (4H -305NP)
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book May 1, 2009 406-123
Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-144P
Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-145P
Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-146P
Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-147P
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Guide May 1, 2009 410-083
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-148P
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-149P
Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Junior Record Book Sep 30, 2013 4H-150P
Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Senior Record Book Sep 27, 2013 4H-151P
Virginia 4-H State Horse Program

An educational organization for youth, ages 5-19, for those who love horses. Horse ownership not required!

Mar 2, 2016 4H-570NP
Virginia Citizen’s Guide to Environmental Credit Trading Programs: An Overview

Virginia has implemented several regulatory programs
to improve environmental quality and protect
Virginia’s diverse ecosystems. One approach to help
achieve Virginia’s environmental goals is through
the development of environmental credit trading
programs. These programs can complement pollution
control and environmental protection programs by
providing citizens, businesses, and local governments
with incentives and additional flexibility in achieving
how these requirements are met.

May 4, 2016 ANR-173P
Virginia Cow Herd Performance Check-Up

Profitability of the cow/calf enterprise within any particular year is impacted by several factors. A cursory analysis of the most basic farm records can quantify important issues affecting herd success such as reproductive performance, calf growth and weaning weight, calf health performance, market price, and herd turnover.

May 1, 2009 400-791
Voluntary Standards for a Forage-Fed Livestock Marketing Claim May 8, 2009
What is Age and Source Verification? May 8, 2009
Whole-Grain Diets For Finishing Lambs May 1, 2009 410-024
Why Cattle Differ in Value: Virginia Retained Ownership Program Summary May 8, 2009
Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying?

A common question from small backyard laying flock owners is "Why have my hens stopped laying?" There are many factors which can cause hens to stop laying and in many cases there are multiple causes which add up to few or no eggs.

May 1, 2009 2902-1097
You Can Cut Corners on Cow Minerals, Just Not Right Now May 8, 2009