|4-H Animal Science Non-Ownership Livestock Project - Unit II||
The Animal Science Project Units I, II, and III are designed for individual 4-H’ers and 4-H clubs that are interested in livestock but do not or cannot have animals of their own. These are short-term projects and may be followed by other livestock and meats projects or by the Junior Stockman’s Project.
|May 1, 2009||380-124|
|4-H Livestock Advancement Project Guide and Record||
The 4-H Livestock Advancement Project can be an important part of the livestock project(s) in which you are presently engaged.
|May 1, 2009||380-119|
|4-H Livestock Record Book - Beef-Swine-Sheep||
Livestock are a family project. Your encouragement and help in completing this record will allow the 4-H’er to receive the most benefit from the project.
|May 1, 2009||380-122|
|4-H Market Beef Planning Guide||May 1, 2009||400-833|
|4-H Science Fair Project/Presentation and Display Score Sheet||Mar 19, 2014||380-128 (4H-256NP)|
|A Brighter Idea: Eggs!||Sep 22, 2009||408-032|
|A Horse of a Different Color!||Nov 10, 2011||380-104|
|A Small-Scale Agriculture Alternative: Poultry||
The low investment and small area required to raise a flock of domestic poultry makes this an ideal venture for the beginning small or part-time farmer. Domestic poultry can supplement family food supplies, and small specialized poultry producers can sell to several niche markets. For example, producers can consider selling organic meat and eggs, brown eggs, range-reared meat and eggs, live birds for ethnic markets, and birds for hobby, leisure, and purebred exhibition purposes. Most small specialty poultry enterprises raise chickens or waterfowl.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1099|
|Addressing the Consequences of Predator Damage to Livestock and Poultry||May 1, 2009||410-030|
|Agronomy Handbook, 2000||May 1, 2009||424-100||
|Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle||
Feed represents the largest single production expense for cattle operations. There are many different feedstuffs that can be included in rations for cattle, and there is nothing special about particular ingredients. What matters is the nutrients they provide.
|May 1, 2009||400-230|
|Analyzing the Cost of a Bull||May 8, 2009|
|Avian Disease Fact Sheet||
I. Disease: “Any deviation from normal state of health.”
|May 1, 2009||2902-1094|
|Barn and Farm Inspection Checklist||
The Barn and Farm Inspection Checklist is a tool that helps farm owners realize how susceptible their farm is to a barn fire. Circle the answer that represents the situation on your farm. The higher your score, the higher your chance to being susceptible to a fire.
|Aug 28, 2009||2908-1408|
|Basic Information Agents need to know about Virginia’s 4-H Horse Program||Dec 19, 2014||4H-307NP|
|Basic Strategies for Buying the Right Bull||May 8, 2009|
|Beef Cattle Breeds and Biological Types||
Worldwide there are more than 250 breeds of beef cattle. Over 60 of these breeds are present in the United States. However, a relatively small number of breeds (less than 20) constitute the majority of the genetics utilized in the U.S. for commercial beef production.
|May 1, 2009||400-803|
|Beef Cow Size, Efficiency and Profit||May 8, 2009|
|Beginning of Life||Nov 9, 2009||408-029|
|Beginning of Life Record Book||Nov 9, 2009||408-027|
|Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows||
Body condition scoring (BCS) is a useful management tool for distinguishing differences in nutritional needs of beef cows in the herd. This system uses a numeric score to estimate body energy reserves in the cow.
|May 1, 2009||400-795|
|Brooding of Domestic Fowl||
If you plan to raise baby chicks, waterfowl, or any other fowl, it is very important to realize that the baby fowl is totally dependent upon you to meet its needs.
Baby fowl need proper environment, proper nutrition and protection. This fact sheet will help you get your flock off to a good start.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1087|
|Bullets for Survival in the Cow/Calf Business||May 8, 2009||
|Calving Emergencies in Beef Cattle: Identification and Prevention||
Calving difficulty, technically called dystocia, is a major cause of death loss in cow-calf herds. CHAPA (Cow-calf Health and Productivity Audit) studies indicate that dystocia is responsible for 33 percent of all calf losses and 15.4 percent of beef cattle breeding losses.
|May 1, 2009||400-018|
|Cannibalism: Prevention and Treatment||
Cannibalism in fowl is a costly and vicious habit that poultry producers can not afford to ignore. It may occur at any age among all breeds, strains and sexes of fowl.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1095|
|Cattle Identification: Freeze Branding||
Individual animal identification is essential if beef producers are to properly manage animals and their production records. Yet at present, less than 50 percent of the cattle in the United States have any form of individual identification (USDA-APHIS, 1997).
|May 1, 2009||400-301|
|Changing Times: Management Considerations for Cow-Calf Producers||May 8, 2009|
Let’s have a Chick-N-Que! It’s fun; it’s easy; it’s good eating; and it’s so very economical. It suggests the tantalizing aroma of golden, crusted chicken lying lazily over pit and grill – the cheer of glowing coals and gay
|Sep 23, 2009||408-287|
|Common Plants Causing Toxicity to Horses in Virginia||Aug 3, 2009|
|Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia||
Annual and perennial weed control in pastures and hayfields is an important aspect of successful forage management. This publication will discuss control measures for many of the common weeds found in Virginia and West Virginia permanent fescue and mixed fescue / bluegrass / orchardgrass pastures and hayfields.
|May 1, 2009||427-002|
|Control of Internal Parasites in Sheep||May 1, 2009||410-027|
|Control, Treatment, and Elimination of Foot Rot from Sheep||May 1, 2009||410-028|
|Cow-Calf Manager: Value of Creep Feeding Depends on Forage||May 8, 2009|
|Cow-Calf Profitability||May 8, 2009|
|Creep Feeding Beef Calves||
Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf.
|May 1, 2009||400-003|
|Crossbreeding Beef Cattle||
The economic climate of today’s beef business is challenging. Commercial cow-calf producers are faced with optimizing a number of economically important traits, while simultaneously reducing costs of production in order to remain competitive. Traits such as reproduction, growth, maternal ability, and end product merit all influence productivity and profitability of the beef enterprise.
|May 1, 2009||400-805|
|Crossbreeding- The Lost Art?: Part 1||May 8, 2009|
|Crossbreeding- The Lost Art?: Part 2||May 8, 2009|
|Crossbreeding- The Lost Art?: Part 3||May 8, 2009|
|Do You Have Horse Sense!||Nov 10, 2011||380-107|
|Eat Like a Horse!||Nov 10, 2011||380-105|
|Estimating the Value of Domestic Fowl||
This fact sheet was developed to aid poultry owners determine fair indemnity values for birds in case of eradication or insurance claims. The indemnity values are based on the cost of producing and/or replacing the bird. Foregone or lost profits are not considered as part of the indemnity value. Regular markets for domestic fowl are for day-old, broiler-fryers, started pullets, breeders, spent hens and hobby/exhibition. There are no established markets or prices for domestic fowl at other stages of development.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1093|
|Estrus Synchronization for Heifers||
Developing replacement heifers is the most expensive enterprise in the cow-calf operation. You can increase returns to heifer development if the heifers calve at 24 months of age and calve early in the calving season.
|May 1, 2009||400-302|
|Feeding Sheep||May 1, 2009||410-853|
|Fencing Materials For Livestock Systems||
Good fencing protects and confines valuable livestock by presenting barriers to restrict animal movement. Barriers may be physical, psychological, or a combination of both. Physical barriers consist of enough materials of sufficient strength to prevent or discourage animals from going over, under, or through the fence. Psychological barriers depend upon inflicting pain to discourage animals from challenging a physical barrier of inferior strength.
Traditional livestock fencing materials have included barbed, woven, mesh, and electrified wire, and combinations of these materials. Board fences have also been popular. These conventional materials are still widely used and make excellent fences if properly constructed. However, new materials such as high tensile wire should also be considered when selecting fencing types.
|May 1, 2009||442-131|
|General Horse Information Agents Need To Know||Jan 14, 2015||4H-308 (4H-364)|
|Getting Started in the Cattle Business in Virginia||
The beef industry consists of various segments of production. The function of this diverse industry is to produce a live beef animal from which high quality beef is ultimately delivered to the consumer. Newcomers to the business should have some understanding of the structure of the beef industry.
|May 1, 2009||400-790|
|GnRH Based Estrus Synchronization Systems for Beef Cows||
New systems of synchronizing estrus (heat) in cows for artificial insemination (AI) have been developed using commercially available Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH). These systems allow producers to artificially inseminate cows with little or no heat detection. For the first time, producers have a reliable system that results in acceptable pregnancy rates to timed AI.
|May 1, 2009||400-013|
|Hay as Part of a Cowherd Production System||
Hay is a necessary part of cow-calf production systems in Virginia. Hay is forage which is harvested and stored in a dry form when an excess of forage is available, and fed at times when forage is limited or unavailable.
|May 1, 2009||400-002|
|Horse Emergency Go Kit||Aug 27, 2009||2908-1407|
|Horses Wear Clothes, Too!||Nov 10, 2011||380-108|
|Impact of Composting on Drug Residues in Large Animal Mortality||
Mortalities are inevitable in animal agriculture. For most animal operations in the United States, the average annual mortality is estimated to be between 4.5 and 6 percent of the livestock population. Common methods of mortality disposal include burial, rendering, incineration, and use of a landfill. The availability of options for disposing of mortality, particularly rendering, have changed in recent years, and financially and environmentally sound alternatives are needed.
|Sep 25, 2014||APSC-59P|
|Implanting Calves Still Pays Dividends||May 8, 2009|
Many domestic bird owners incubate eggs to help sustain their flock over time. This fact sheet is designed to assist those who wish to incubate small numbers of domestic poultry eggs. The words "fertility" and "hatchability" are often used incorrectly by small producers. These terms are important and have very important meaning.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1090|
|Knocking Off the Dirt!||Nov 10, 2011||380-106|
|Large Round Bale Feeders Compared||May 8, 2009|
|Leader’s Guide - Virginia 4-H Horse Program||May 1, 2009||406-741|
|Leg and Foot Disorders in Domestic Fowl||
Most leg and foot disorders in fowl can be prevented through proper nutrition and management. However, some problems can be genetic. In today's large meat chickens and turkeys the problems become very complex since the birds put on weight faster than they build their bone structure to support the weight. Since large meat birds and waterfowl are prone to leg and foot problems, let's consider the causes of these problems in fowl.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1098|
|Livestock Update, August 2014||Sep 15, 2014||APSC-62NP|
|Livestock Update, January 2015||Jan 13, 2015||APSC-79NP|
|Livestock Update, June 2015||Jun 5, 2015||APSC-96NP|
|Livestock Update, June/July 2014||
This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.
|Jul 2, 2014||APSC-60NP|
|Livestock Update, October 2014||Nov 4, 2014||APSC-66NP|
|Livestock Update, October 2015||Sep 24, 2015||APSC-114NP|
|Livestock Update, September 2014||Sep 26, 2014||APSC-64NP|
|Livestock Update, September 2015||Aug 24, 2015||APSC-112NP|
|Making Performance Tested Bulls- Determining Their Value||May 8, 2009|
|Making the Most of Tall Fescue in Virginia||May 1, 2009||418-050|
|Management Requirements for Laying Flocks||
Best Breeds To Raise: Commercial White Leghorn-type hybrids produce white shelled eggs and are the most economical converters to feed to eggs. Commercial production Reds or Sex-linked hybrids will produce large brown shelled eggs and are usually preferred for small family flocks. Production Reds or sex-linked hybrids also produce meaty carcasses as well as a good supply of eggs. The brown egg laying hybrids tend to be more docile than white egg layer hybrids. Pure bred poultry will lay eggs, but they are not as efficient.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1085|
|Management Requirements for Meat Bird Flocks||
Best Breeds To Raise: Meat-type crosses (Rock-Cornish) or commercial hybrid broilers are the most efficient birds available. Purebred poultry most commonly raised for meat are Cornish, Plymouth Rocks and White Jersey Giants. Purebreds are less efficient and take up to 14 weeks to develop a desirable carcass. When considering birds for meat production, select birds with light colored plumage. Dark feathered birds are less desirable because of their dark pin feathers left after slaughtering.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1083|
|Management Requirements for Waterfowl||
Best Breeds To Raise: The breed of waterfowl you raise depends on your reason for raising them. First, which is best to raise--ducks or geese? Ducks are small and require less space to raise. However, ducks require a grain supplement year round and are more prone to predators. Geese require twice as much space. However, geese do well on limited grain when they have plenty of area to graze and are seldom bothered by predators.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1084|
|Measuring the Value of Retained Ownership||May 8, 2009|
|Newborn Lamb Management||May 1, 2009||410-026|
|Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Digestive System of the Cow||May 1, 2009||400-010|
|Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Essential Nutrients, Feed Classification and Nutrient Content of Feeds||
Essential nutrients are nutrients that are needed by all living things. These nutrients must either be fed or made by the animals from building blocks obtained through eating, drinking, or breathing.
|May 1, 2009||400-011|
|Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Production Cycle Nutrition and Nutrient Requirements of Cows, Pregnant Heifers and Bulls||
Developing diets and feeding strategies for the cowherd is facilitated by a basic understanding of the production cycle of the cow and her changing nutrient requirements. By knowing and anticipating the changing nutritional needs of the cow, producers can plan their feeding programs and lower feed costs.
|May 1, 2009||400-012|
|On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers||Jul 31, 2013||2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)|
|Poultry Yearly Plan and Record Book||Nov 6, 2009||408-042|
|Poultry: Beginning of Life||Nov 9, 2009||388-801|
|Powell River Project - Management of Cow-Calf Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land||Feb 12, 2010||460-128|
|Pre-Response Plan||Aug 27, 2009||2908-1406|
|Prevention of Egg Eating||
Egg eating by hens is a habit formed over time which is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to break. It is important you plan and manage your facilities so that the hen never gets the first taste of a broken egg.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1096|
|Profitable Artificial Rearing of Lambs||May 1, 2009||410-023|
|Progressive Riding Series Unit 4 - Horsemaster||May 1, 2009||406-099|
|Proper Handling of Eggs: From Hen to Consumption||
To insure egg quality in small flocks, egg producers must learn to properly handle the eggs they produce. This article will discuss how you can insure that your eggs will be of the highest quality and safe for consumption.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1091|
|Puzzling Horse Parts!||Nov 10, 2011||380-109|
|Raising Fowl and Small Animals in Urban Areas||
Raising hobby fowl like pigeons, cage birds, ornamental fowl and small laying flocks is an increasingly popular pastime for urban residents. While at the same time, city limits and subdivisions seem to advance further into the rural countryside.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1086|
|Ratite Nutrition and Feeding||
There is limited quality research concerning the nutritional requirements of Ratites. However, some dependable guidelines have been established because of work completed in Australia and Africa. As in all diet formulations, a variety of high quality ingredients should be used to meet the nutrient recommendations of the Ratite. Using a wide variety of ingredients helps to decrease the effect of variations that are inherent in all ingredients.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1089|
|Selection for Carcass Traits: New Tools||May 8, 2009|
|Self-Determined Horse Project||May 1, 2009||406-107|
|Sheep Grazing Management||May 1, 2009||410-366|
|Sheep Management Schedule||May 1, 2009||410-365|
|Small Scale Poultry Housing||
Small scale poultry coops seem to be built in almost every possible shape and size. Those building a new coop often ask for plans for the perfect chicken coop. However, few plans for small poultry houses are available. Many existing buildings can easily be adapted to accommodate poultry. Poultry housing can be as crude or elaborate as you wish to build as long as you provide the following:
|May 1, 2009||2902-1092|
|Survival Guide for 4-H Leaders||May 1, 2009||406-130|
|The Egg-citing Egg||Nov 9, 2009||408-030|
|The Egg-citing Egg - Teacher/Leader Guide||Nov 6, 2009||408-031|
|The Optimum Cow||May 8, 2009|
|The Value of a Good Bull||May 8, 2009|
|Transporting Poultry in a Humane Manner||
During the summer and fall months, poultry owners are hauling poultry to fairs, markets and other gatherings. Unfortunately, very few people put much thought into how to best transport their fowl. As a result, birds don't show well, get sick or die in transit. These results can be avoided with a little planning and extra care. Consider the following factors before transporting fowl.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1088|
|Understanding Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs)||
Expected progeny differences (EPDs) provide estimates of the genetic value of an animal as a parent. Specifically, differences in EPDs between two individuals of the same breed predict differences in performance between their future offspring when each is mated to animals of the same average genetic merit.
|May 1, 2009||400-804|
|VIRGINIA 4-H HORSE PROJECT: PROGRESSIVE RIDING SERIES UNIT 1 Basic Horsemanship||Oct 3, 2014||406-053 (4H-325NP)|
|VT Policy Guidelines for Open vs. 4-H Horse Events||Jun 27, 2014||4H-306NP|
|Virginia 4-H Ewe Flock Project Guide||May 1, 2009||410-089|
|Virginia 4-H Horse Project Junior Record Book||May 1, 2009||406-122|
|Virginia 4-H Horse Project Measurement Card||Jun 27, 2014||406-050 (4H -305NP)|
|Virginia 4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book||May 1, 2009||406-123|
|Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Junior Record Book||Aug 27, 2013||4H-144P|
|Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Senior Record Book||Aug 27, 2013||4H-145P|
|Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Junior Record Book||Aug 27, 2013||4H-146P|
|Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Senior Record Book||Aug 27, 2013||4H-147P|
|Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Guide||May 1, 2009||410-083|
|Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Junior Record Book||Aug 27, 2013||4H-148P|
|Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Senior Record Book||Aug 27, 2013||4H-149P|
|Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Junior Record Book||Sep 30, 2013||4H-150P|
|Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Senior Record Book||Sep 27, 2013||4H-151P|
|Virginia Cow Herd Performance Check-Up||
Profitability of the cow/calf enterprise within any particular year is impacted by several factors. A cursory analysis of the most basic farm records can quantify important issues affecting herd success such as reproductive performance, calf growth and weaning weight, calf health performance, market price, and herd turnover.
|May 1, 2009||400-791|
|Voluntary Standards for a Forage-Fed Livestock Marketing Claim||May 8, 2009|
|What is Age and Source Verification?||May 8, 2009|
|Whole-Grain Diets For Finishing Lambs||May 1, 2009||410-024|
|Why Cattle Differ in Value: Virginia Retained Ownership Program Summary||May 8, 2009|
|Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying?||
A common question from small backyard laying flock owners is "Why have my hens stopped laying?" There are many factors which can cause hens to stop laying and in many cases there are multiple causes which add up to few or no eggs.
|May 1, 2009||2902-1097|
|You Can Cut Corners on Cow Minerals, Just Not Right Now||May 8, 2009|