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Animal and Poultry Sciences

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Corn Gluten Feed for Beef Cattle Sep 30, 2009
15th Annual Hokie Harvest Sale Sep 30, 2009
15th Annual Hokie Harvest Sale Sep 1, 2009
16th Annual Hokie Harvest Sale Sep 1, 2010
2009 Culpeper Junior BCIA Bull Sale Report May 1, 2009
2009 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale Results Dec 22, 2009
2009 Field Day - August 5, 2009 Jul 10, 2009
2009 State Fair of Virginia May 1, 2009
2009 State Fair of Virginia Lamb Carcass Evaluation Summary Nov 6, 2009
2009 Virginia BCIA Southwest Bull Test & BCIA-Influenced Virginia Premium Assured Plus Bred Heifer Sale Report May 1, 2009
2009 – 2010 BCIA Southwest Bull Test Season Begins Nov 6, 2009
2009-2010 BCIA Bull Test Season Kicks Off Aug 3, 2009
2010 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale Results Jan 1, 2011
2010 Southwest Bull Test: Sale, Open House, & Bred Heifer Sale Feb 2, 2010
2010 State Fair of Virginia Lamb Carcass Evaluation Summary Nov 1, 2010
2010 State Fair of Virginia Youth Market Lamb, Commercial Ewe Lamb, Youth Market Goat and Market Beef Nomination Schedule Apr 30, 2010
2010 Virginia BCIA Southwest Bull Test & BCIA-Influenced Virginia Premium Assured Plus Bred Heifer Sale Report Apr 30, 2010
2010 Virginia BCIA Superior Service Award Presented to Rodney Leech Mar 3, 2010
2010 – 2011 BCIA Southwest Bull Test Season Begins Dec 3, 2010
2010-11 BCIA Bull Test Season Initiated Aug 1, 2011
2011 Across-Breed EPD Adjustments

Test

Sep 9, 2011
2011 Southwest Bull Test: Sale, Open House, and Bred Heifer Sale Jan 27, 2011
2011 State Fair of Virginia Lamb Carcass Evaluation Summary Nov 10, 2011
2011 State Fair of Virginia Youth Market Lamb, Commercial Ewe Lamb, Youth Market Goat and Market Beef Nomination Schedule Jun 7, 2011
2011 State Fair of Virginia Youth Market Lamb, Commercial Ewe Lamb, Youth Market Goat and Market Beef Nomination Schedule May 4, 2011
2011 Virginia BCIA Southwest Bull Test & BCIA-Influenced Virginia Premium Assured Plus Bred Heifer Sale Report Apr 12, 2011
2011 Virginia BCIA Superior Service Award Presented to Pete Henderson Apr 12, 2011
2011 Virginia Performance Tested Ram Lamb & Replacement Ewe Lamb Sale Results Sep 9, 2011
4-H Animal Science Non-Ownership Livestock Project - Unit II

The Animal Science Project Units I, II, and III are designed for individual 4-H’ers and 4-H clubs that are interested in livestock but do not or cannot have animals of their own. These are short-term projects and may be followed by other livestock and meats projects or by the Junior Stockman’s Project.

May 1, 2009 380-124
4-H Livestock Advancement Project Guide and Record

The 4-H Livestock Advancement Project can be an important part of the livestock project(s) in which you are presently engaged.

May 1, 2009 380-119
4-H Livestock Record Book - Beef-Swine-Sheep

Livestock are a family project. Your encouragement and help in completing this record will allow the 4-H’er to receive the most benefit from the project.

May 1, 2009 380-122
4-H Market Beef Planning Guide May 1, 2009 400-833
4-H Science Fair Project/Presentation and Display Score Sheet Mar 19, 2014 380-128 (4H-256NP)
4th Annual Youth Swine Education Day Jan 27, 2011
A Brighter Idea: Eggs! Sep 22, 2009 408-032
A Horse of a Different Color! Nov 10, 2011 380-104
A Small-Scale Agriculture Alternative: Poultry

The low investment and small area required to raise a flock of domestic poultry makes this an ideal venture for the beginning small or part-time farmer. Domestic poultry can supplement family food supplies, and small specialized poultry producers can sell to several niche markets. For example, producers can consider selling organic meat and eggs, brown eggs, range-reared meat and eggs, live birds for ethnic markets, and birds for hobby, leisure, and purebred exhibition purposes. Most small specialty poultry enterprises raise chickens or waterfowl.

May 1, 2009 2902-1099
A Systematic Approach to Bull Buying Feb 2, 2010
Addressing the Consequences of Predator Damage to Livestock and Poultry May 1, 2009 410-030
Age and Source Verification - Capturing the Advantage Nov 6, 2009
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle

Feed represents the largest single production expense for cattle operations. There are many different feedstuffs that can be included in rations for cattle, and there is nothing special about particular ingredients. What matters is the nutrients they provide.

May 1, 2009 400-230
Analyzing the Cost of a Bull May 8, 2009
April Beef Management Calendar Apr 12, 2011
April Beef Management Calendar Mar 29, 2010
August Beef Management Calendar Aug 1, 2011
August Beef Management Calendar Aug 9, 2010
August Beef Management Calendar Aug 3, 2009
Avian Disease Fact Sheet

Introduction

I. Disease: “Any deviation from normal state of health.”

  1. How diseases are spread:
    1. Through feed and water
    2. Bird to bird contact:
      1. Poultry and swap shows
      2. Carrier birds
      3. New stock
      4. Free flying birds
    1. Visitors or attendants
    2. Equipment, carrying cases, feed sacks, etc.
    3. Contaminated litter and soil
    4. Flies, mosquitoes and parasites
    5. Lack of nutrient
May 1, 2009 2902-1094
BCIA Culpeper Senior Bulls Sell December 10 Nov 10, 2011
BCIA Culpeper Senior Bulls Sell December 11 Nov 1, 2010
BCIA Culpeper Senior Bulls Sell December 12 Nov 6, 2009
Barn and Farm Inspection Checklist

The Barn and Farm Inspection Checklist is a tool that helps farm owners realize how susceptible their farm is to a barn fire. Circle the answer that represents the situation on your farm. The higher your score, the higher your chance to being susceptible to a fire.

Aug 28, 2009 2908-1408
Basic Strategies for Buying the Right Bull May 8, 2009
Beef Cattle Breeds and Biological Types

Worldwide there are more than 250 breeds of beef cattle. Over 60 of these breeds are present in the United States. However, a relatively small number of breeds (less than 20) constitute the majority of the genetics utilized in the U.S. for commercial beef production.

May 1, 2009 400-803
Beef Cattle Reproduction Symposium Scheduled August 5 and 6 in Nashville, TN Jun 1, 2010
Beef Cow Size, Efficiency and Profit May 8, 2009
Beef Management Tips May 1, 2009
Beef Quality Assurance: The Future of Beef Marketing! Aug 3, 2009
Beef Webinar Focuses on Calving Management and Neonatal Calf Care - February 18th Feb 2, 2010
Beef Webinar Focuses on Keys to a Successful Breeding Season- March 18th Mar 3, 2010
Beef Webinar Focuses on Profitable Forage Management March 15th, 6:30pm

Dr. Ben Tracy, Associate Professor, Dept. of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences at Virginia Tech, will be the featured speaker for the Beef Webinar sponsored by Virginia Cooperative Extension and scheduled for 6:30 p.m., Tuesday, March 15th.

Feb 28, 2011
Beef Webinar Focuses on Sound Financial Management for Cattlemen February 15th, 6:30 p.m. Jan 27, 2011
Beginning of Life Nov 9, 2009 408-029
Beginning of Life Record Book Nov 9, 2009 408-027
Bill McDonald and McDonald Farms Named Virginia BCIA 2011 Outstanding Seedstock Producer of the Year

Virginia BCIA is proud to present the 2011 Virginia Outstanding Seedstock Producer Award to McDonald Farms, owned and operated by the McDonald family- Martha, Bill, along with his wife, Teresa, and son, Joseph, and Jim McDonald, Jr. of Blacksburg, Virginia.  After graduating from Virginia Tech in Animal Science, Bill joined the family operation and has been a driving force in developing the genetics and marketing programs of the operation and currently serves as the manager.

Feb 28, 2011
Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows

Body condition scoring (BCS) is a useful management tool for distinguishing differences in nutritional needs of beef cows in the herd. This system uses a numeric score to estimate body energy reserves in the cow.

May 1, 2009 400-795
Brooding of Domestic Fowl

If you plan to raise baby chicks, waterfowl, or any other fowl, it is very important to realize that the baby fowl is totally dependent upon you to meet its needs.

Baby fowl need proper environment, proper nutrition and protection. This fact sheet will help you get your flock off to a good start.

May 1, 2009 2902-1087
Bull Selection: Establishing Benchmarks Jan 27, 2011
Bullets for Survival in the Cow/Calf Business May 8, 2009
Calving Emergencies in Beef Cattle: Identification and Prevention

Calving difficulty, technically called dystocia, is a major cause of death loss in cow-calf herds. CHAPA (Cow-calf Health and Productivity Audit) studies indicate that dystocia is responsible for 33 percent of all calf losses and 15.4 percent of beef cattle breeding losses.

May 1, 2009 400-018
Cannibalism: Prevention and Treatment

Cannibalism in fowl is a costly and vicious habit that poultry producers can not afford to ignore. It may occur at any age among all breeds, strains and sexes of fowl.

May 1, 2009 2902-1095
Cassady Featured Speaker at Beef Convention for Virginia BCIA Educational Program February 12 Feb 2, 2010
Cattle Identification: Freeze Branding

Individual animal identification is essential if beef producers are to properly manage animals and their production records. Yet at present, less than 50 percent of the cattle in the United States have any form of individual identification (USDA-APHIS, 1997).

May 1, 2009 400-301
Cattlemen’s Boot Camp Comes to Blacksburg May 21-22 Mar 3, 2010
Changing Times: Management Considerations for Cow-Calf Producers May 8, 2009
Chick-N-Que

Let’s have a Chick-N-Que! It’s fun; it’s easy; it’s good eating; and it’s so very economical. It suggests the tantalizing aroma of golden, crusted chicken lying lazily over pit and grill – the cheer of glowing coals and gay
chatter of family and friends pleasantly hungry – appetites sharpened by fresh air and bright sunshine – good
fellowship warmed outwardly by glowing coals and inwardly by the aroma of pungent sauce.

Sep 23, 2009 408-287
Common Plants Causing Toxicity to Horses in Virginia Aug 3, 2009
Considering Retained Ownership as a Marketing Option Sep 30, 2009
Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia

Annual and perennial weed control in pastures and hayfields is an important aspect of successful forage management. This publication will discuss control measures for many of the common weeds found in Virginia and West Virginia permanent fescue and mixed fescue / bluegrass / orchardgrass pastures and hayfields.

May 1, 2009 427-002
Control of Internal Parasites in Sheep May 1, 2009 410-027
Control, Treatment, and Elimination of Foot Rot from Sheep May 1, 2009 410-028
Cow Herd Performance and Profitability: Measuring How You Stack Up Mar 29, 2010
Cow-Calf Manager: Value of Creep Feeding Depends on Forage May 8, 2009
Cow-Calf Profitability May 8, 2009
Creep Feeding Beef Calves

Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf.

May 1, 2009 400-003
Crossbreeding - Its Cool Again! Part 2 Dec 22, 2009
Crossbreeding - Its Cool Again!: Part 3 Feb 2, 2010
Crossbreeding Beef Cattle

The economic climate of today’s beef business is challenging. Commercial cow-calf producers are faced with optimizing a number of economically important traits, while simultaneously reducing costs of production in order to remain competitive. Traits such as reproduction, growth, maternal ability, and end product merit all influence productivity and profitability of the beef enterprise.

May 1, 2009 400-805
Crossbreeding “Revisited” Oct 1, 2010
Crossbreeding- Its Cool Again! Part 1 Dec 3, 2009
Crossbreeding- The Lost Art?: Part 1 May 8, 2009
Crossbreeding- The Lost Art?: Part 2 May 8, 2009
Crossbreeding- The Lost Art?: Part 3 May 8, 2009
DNA Selection - The Basics Nov 6, 2009
Dates To Remember Jun 8, 2010
Dates to Remember Oct 12, 2011
Dates to Remember Sep 9, 2011
Dates to Remember Aug 1, 2011
Dates to Remember Jun 7, 2011
Dates to Remember May 4, 2011
Dates to Remember Apr 12, 2011
Dates to Remember Feb 28, 2011
Dates to Remember Jan 27, 2011
Dates to Remember Jan 1, 2011
Dates to Remember Dec 3, 2010
Dates to Remember Nov 1, 2010
Dates to Remember Oct 1, 2010
Dates to Remember Sep 1, 2010
Dates to Remember Aug 9, 2010
Dates to Remember Apr 29, 2010
Dates to Remember Mar 29, 2010
Dates to Remember Mar 3, 2010
Dates to Remember Feb 2, 2010
Dates to Remember Dec 3, 2009
Dates to Remember Dec 3, 2009
Dates to Remember Nov 5, 2009
Dates to Remember Sep 30, 2009
Dates to Remember - July 2009 Jul 10, 2009
Dates to Remember - June 2009 Jun 1, 2009
Dates to Remember - May 2009 May 1, 2009
Dealing with Sheep Parasites May 1, 2009
December Beef Management Calendar Dec 12, 2011
December Beef Management Calendar Dec 3, 2010
December Beef Management Calendar Dec 3, 2009
Details Announced for 2009-10 Virginia BCIA Central Bull Test Station Program Jun 1, 2009
Details Announced for 2010-11 Virginia BCIA Central Bull Test Station Program Jun 1, 2010
Details Announced for 2011-12 Virginia BCIA Central Bull Test Station Program Jun 7, 2011
Details of 2010 Virginia Ram Lamb Performance Test Mar 3, 2010
Do You Have Horse Sense! Nov 10, 2011 380-107
Don’t Guess, Forage Test May 1, 2009
Dr. Dan Moser Featured Speaker for VT Beef Webinar January 11 Dec 3, 2010
Dr. Dan Moser Featured Speaker for VT Beef Webinar January 11 Dec 3, 2010
Eat Like a Horse! Nov 10, 2011 380-105
Economical Feed Options for Sheep Sep 9, 2011
Edgewood Angus Named Virginia BCIA 2010 Outstanding Seedstock Producer of the Year Mar 3, 2010
Edgewood Angus Receives Top Honors at 2010 Culpeper Senior Bull Test Jan 1, 2011
Estimating the Value of Domestic Fowl

This fact sheet was developed to aid poultry owners determine fair indemnity values for birds in case of eradication or insurance claims. The indemnity values are based on the cost of producing and/or replacing the bird. Foregone or lost profits are not considered as part of the indemnity value. Regular markets for domestic fowl are for day-old, broiler-fryers, started pullets, breeders, spent hens and hobby/exhibition. There are no established markets or prices for domestic fowl at other stages of development.

May 1, 2009 2902-1093
Estrus Synchronization for Heifers

Developing replacement heifers is the most expensive enterprise in the cow-calf operation. You can increase returns to heifer development if the heifers calve at 24 months of age and calve early in the calving season.

May 1, 2009 400-302
Ewe Management Tips: Mid and Late Gestation Dec 3, 2010
Ewe Nutrition and Management; Do’s and Don’ts Feb 2, 2010
Expansion Decisions for the Part-Time Sheep Producer Jan 27, 2011
Fall 2011 VQA Sire EPD Specifications Sep 9, 2011
Fall Calf Options Mar 29, 2010
Fall Flock Management Tips Sep 1, 2009
Fall Lamb Management Aug 11, 2010
February Beef Management Calendar Jan 27, 2011
February Beef Management Calendar Feb 2, 2010
Feeding Sheep May 1, 2009 410-853
Fencing Materials For Livestock Systems

Good fencing protects and confines valuable livestock by presenting barriers to restrict animal movement. Barriers may be physical, psychological, or a combination of both. Physical barriers consist of enough materials of sufficient strength to prevent or discourage animals from going over, under, or through the fence. Psychological barriers depend upon inflicting pain to discourage animals from challenging a physical barrier of inferior strength.

Traditional livestock fencing materials have included barbed, woven, mesh, and electrified wire, and combinations of these materials. Board fences have also been popular. These conventional materials are still widely used and make excellent fences if properly constructed. However, new materials such as high tensile wire should also be considered when selecting fencing types.

May 1, 2009 442-131
First Beef Webinar Will focus on Winter Nutrition Dec 3, 2009
First and Second Steps in Taking Charge of Your Cow-Calf Operation Jul 10, 2009
Flock Management Tips - Fall Sep 1, 2010
Flock Management Tips – Fall Sep 9, 2011
Getting Started in the Cattle Business in Virginia

The beef industry consists of various segments of production. The function of this diverse industry is to produce a live beef animal from which high quality beef is ultimately delivered to the consumer. Newcomers to the business should have some understanding of the structure of the beef industry.

May 1, 2009 400-790
GnRH Based Estrus Synchronization Systems for Beef Cows

New systems of synchronizing estrus (heat) in cows for artificial insemination (AI) have been developed using commercially available Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH). These systems allow producers to artificially inseminate cows with little or no heat detection. For the first time, producers have a reliable system that results in acceptable pregnancy rates to timed AI.

May 1, 2009 400-013
Grass Tetany Season Is Around the Corner

Early spring is usually the peak period for the occurrence of grass tetany in lactating beef cows in Virginia.  Grass tetany is caused by low blood levels of magnesium and is worsened by high levels of nitrogen and potassium and low levels of calcium and magnesium intake.  The lush new growth of cool season perennials and annuals consumed by spring calving cows is a recipe for trouble.  Heavy nitrogen and potassium fertilization intensify the problem.  This makes it more of an issue in the poultry production areas where litter is used routinely as a pasture fertilizer. Similar risks can be observed on pastures fertilized with other animal manures or bio-solids.

Feb 28, 2011
Hay as Part of a Cowherd Production System

Hay is a necessary part of cow-calf production systems in Virginia. Hay is forage which is harvested and stored in a dry form when an excess of forage is available, and fed at times when forage is limited or unavailable.

May 1, 2009 400-002
Highlights of the 2010 Hokie Harvest Sale Dec 3, 2010
Hokie Harvest Sale Oct 1, 2010
Hokie Harvest Sale Oct 12, 2011
Horse Emergency Go Kit Aug 27, 2009 2908-1407
Horses Wear Clothes, Too! Nov 10, 2011 380-108
How Am I Going to Feed My Cows This Winter? Trying to Make Lemonade from Lemons Oct 1, 2010
Implanting Calves Still Pays Dividends May 8, 2009
Include Clover in 2010 Forage Plans Feb 2, 2010
Incubating Eggs

Many domestic bird owners incubate eggs to help sustain their flock over time. This fact sheet is designed to assist those who wish to incubate small numbers of domestic poultry eggs. The words "fertility" and "hatchability" are often used incorrectly by small producers. These terms are important and have very important meaning.

May 1, 2009 2902-1090
January Beef Management Calendar Jan 1, 2011
January Beef Management Calendar Dec 22, 2009
July Beef Management Calendar Jul 10, 2009
Jumping Through the Hoops: What It Takes to Make a BCIA Performance Tested Bull Mar 3, 2010
June Beef Management Calendar Jun 1, 2010
June Beef Management Calendar Jun 1, 2009
June-July Beef Management Calendar Jun 7, 2011
Knocking Off the Dirt! Nov 10, 2011 380-106
Large Round Bale Feeders Compared May 8, 2009
Lawrence Featured Speaker for VT Beef Webinar January 14 Dec 22, 2009
Leader’s Guide - Virginia 4-H Horse Program May 1, 2009 406-741
Leg and Foot Disorders in Domestic Fowl

Most leg and foot disorders in fowl can be prevented through proper nutrition and management. However, some problems can be genetic. In today's large meat chickens and turkeys the problems become very complex since the birds put on weight faster than they build their bone structure to support the weight. Since large meat birds and waterfowl are prone to leg and foot problems, let's consider the causes of these problems in fowl.

May 1, 2009 2902-1098
Livestock Update - April 2010 Mar 29, 2010
Livestock Update - April 2011 Apr 11, 2011
Livestock Update - August 2009 Aug 3, 2009
Livestock Update - August 2010 Aug 1, 2010
Livestock Update - August 2011 Aug 1, 2011
Livestock Update - December 2009 Dec 3, 2009
Livestock Update - December 2010 Dec 3, 2010
Livestock Update - December 2011 Dec 12, 2011
Livestock Update - February 2010 Feb 2, 2010
Livestock Update - February 2011 Jan 27, 2011
Livestock Update - January 2010 Dec 23, 2009
Livestock Update - January 2011 Jan 1, 2011
Livestock Update - January 2012 Jan 27, 2012 APSC-6
Livestock Update - July 2009 Jul 10, 2009
Livestock Update - June - July 2011 Jun 11, 2011
Livestock Update - June 2009 Jun 1, 2009
Livestock Update - June 2010 Jun 1, 2010
Livestock Update - March 2010 Mar 2, 2010
Livestock Update - March 2011 Mar 1, 2011
Livestock Update - May 2009 May 1, 2009
Livestock Update - May 2010 Apr 29, 2010
Livestock Update - May 2011 Apr 11, 2011
Livestock Update - November 2009 Nov 5, 2009
Livestock Update - November 2010 Nov 1, 2010
Livestock Update - November 2011 Nov 10, 2011
Livestock Update - October 2009 Sep 30, 2009
Livestock Update - October 2010 Oct 1, 2010
Livestock Update - October 2011 Oct 12, 2011
Livestock Update - September 2009 Sep 1, 2009
Livestock Update - September 2010 Sep 1, 2010
Livestock Update - September 2011 Sep 7, 2011
Livestock Update, April 2014

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Apr 18, 2014 APSC-57NP
Livestock Update, August 2012

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Aug 16, 2012 APSC-21
Livestock Update, August 2013

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Aug 9, 2013 APSC-45
Livestock Update, December 2012

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Dec 20, 2012 APSC-33
Livestock Update, February 2012

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Feb 17, 2012 APSC-9
Livestock Update, February 2013

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Feb 4, 2013 APSC-37
Livestock Update, February 2014

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Feb 27, 2014 APSC-56NP
Livestock Update, January 2013

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Jan 25, 2013 APSC-36
Livestock Update, June-July 2012

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Jul 16, 2012 APSC-20
Livestock Update, June/July 2013

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Jul 15, 2013 APSC-44
Livestock Update, March 2013

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Mar 1, 2013 APSC-38
Livestock Update, March/April 2012

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Apr 24, 2012 APSC-13
Livestock Update, May 2012

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

May 30, 2012 APSC-17
Livestock Update, May 2013

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Apr 26, 2013 APSC-42
Livestock Update, November 2012

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Oct 26, 2012 APSC-30NP
Livestock Update, November/December 2013

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Dec 6, 2013 APSC-53NP
Livestock Update, October 2013

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Oct 11, 2013 APSC-49NP
Livestock Update, September 2012

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Sep 17, 2012 APSC-24NP
Livestock Update, September 2013

This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. Use this material as you see fit for local newspapers, radio programs, newsletters, and for the formulation of recommendations.

Sep 16, 2013 APSC-45NP
Make Plans to Stockpile Fescue to Reduce Winter Hay Needs Jul 10, 2009
Making Performance Tested Bulls- Determining Their Value May 8, 2009
Making the Most of Tall Fescue in Virginia May 1, 2009 418-050
Management Requirements for Laying Flocks

Best Breeds To Raise: Commercial White Leghorn-type hybrids produce white shelled eggs and are the most economical converters to feed to eggs. Commercial production Reds or Sex-linked hybrids will produce large brown shelled eggs and are usually preferred for small family flocks. Production Reds or sex-linked hybrids also produce meaty carcasses as well as a good supply of eggs. The brown egg laying hybrids tend to be more docile than white egg layer hybrids. Pure bred poultry will lay eggs, but they are not as efficient.

May 1, 2009 2902-1085
Management Requirements for Meat Bird Flocks

Best Breeds To Raise: Meat-type crosses (Rock-Cornish) or commercial hybrid broilers are the most efficient birds available. Purebred poultry most commonly raised for meat are Cornish, Plymouth Rocks and White Jersey Giants. Purebreds are less efficient and take up to 14 weeks to develop a desirable carcass. When considering birds for meat production, select birds with light colored plumage. Dark feathered birds are less desirable because of their dark pin feathers left after slaughtering.

May 1, 2009 2902-1083
Management Requirements for Waterfowl

Best Breeds To Raise: The breed of waterfowl you raise depends on your reason for raising them. First, which is best to raise--ducks or geese? Ducks are small and require less space to raise. However, ducks require a grain supplement year round and are more prone to predators. Geese require twice as much space. However, geese do well on limited grain when they have plenty of area to graze and are seldom bothered by predators.

May 1, 2009 2902-1084
Management for Spring Breeding Apr 12, 2011
Managing Internal Parasites Jun 1, 2010
Managing Pastures for the Stocker Operation Sep 1, 2010
Managing Your Pastures When It Rains Jun 1, 2009
March Beef Management Calendar Feb 28, 2011
March Beef Management Calendar Mar 3, 2010
May Beef Management Calendar Apr 30, 2010
Measuring the Value of Retained Ownership May 8, 2009
Mullins Angus Farm Named Virginia BCIA 2011 Premier Angus Breeder and Bartenslager Award Winner Feb 28, 2011
Newborn Lamb Management Feb 2, 2010
Newborn Lamb Management May 1, 2009 410-026
November Beef Management Calendar Nov 10, 2011
November Beef Management Calendar Nov 1, 2010
November Beef Management Calendar Nov 5, 2009
Nueropathic Hydrocephaly – Information for Cow-Calf Producers Jul 10, 2009
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Digestive System of the Cow May 1, 2009 400-010
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Essential Nutrients, Feed Classification and Nutrient Content of Feeds

Essential nutrients are nutrients that are needed by all living things. These nutrients must either be fed or made by the animals from building blocks obtained through eating, drinking, or breathing.

May 1, 2009 400-011
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Production Cycle Nutrition and Nutrient Requirements of Cows, Pregnant Heifers and Bulls

Developing diets and feeding strategies for the cowherd is facilitated by a basic understanding of the production cycle of the cow and her changing nutrient requirements. By knowing and anticipating the changing nutritional needs of the cow, producers can plan their feeding programs and lower feed costs.

May 1, 2009 400-012
October Beef Management Calendar Oct 12, 2011
October Beef Management Calendar Oct 1, 2010
October Beef Management Calendar Sep 30, 2009
On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers Jul 31, 2013 2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)
Parasite Control in Your Sheep and Goats - Fecal Egg Counts and FAMACHA Aug 1, 2011
Parasite Management Strategies for Sheep May 4, 2011
Phosphorus Supplementation of Beef Cows Jun 7, 2011
Planning the Feeding of Your Beef Herd This Winter Nov 5, 2009
Planning the Feeding of Your Beef Herd This Winter - Part II Dec 3, 2009
Playing the Cards You’re Dealt Jan 27, 2011
Poultry Yearly Plan and Record Book Nov 6, 2009 408-042
Poultry: Beginning of Life Nov 9, 2009 388-801
Powell River Project - Management of Cow-Calf Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-128
Practical Experiences With CIDRs Sep 12, 2011
Pre-Response Plan Aug 27, 2009 2908-1406
Prevention of Egg Eating

Egg eating by hens is a habit formed over time which is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to break. It is important you plan and manage your facilities so that the hen never gets the first taste of a broken egg.

May 1, 2009 2902-1096
Procedure for Entering a Youth Livestock Competition at the 2009 State Fair of Virginia Aug 3, 2009
Profitable Artificial Rearing of Lambs May 1, 2009 410-023
Progressive Riding Series Unit 4 - Horsemaster May 1, 2009 406-099
Proper Handling of Eggs: From Hen to Consumption

To insure egg quality in small flocks, egg producers must learn to properly handle the eggs they produce. This article will discuss how you can insure that your eggs will be of the highest quality and safe for consumption.

May 1, 2009 2902-1091
Puzzling Horse Parts! Nov 10, 2011 380-109
R. L. Blanton Named Virginia BCIA 2011 Outstanding Commercial Producer of the Year

R. L. Blanton and Son is a fourth generation farm in Amelia County with 1500 acres that includes over 600 acres of improved pasture in a well managed rotational grazing system, 500 acres of crops in corn, soybeans and small grains, 100 acres of small grain hay, as well a managed timber stand with a combination of hardwoods and planted loblolly pines.

Feb 28, 2011
Raising Fowl and Small Animals in Urban Areas

Raising hobby fowl like pigeons, cage birds, ornamental fowl and small laying flocks is an increasingly popular pastime for urban residents. While at the same time, city limits and subdivisions seem to advance further into the rural countryside.

May 1, 2009 2902-1086
Ratite Nutrition and Feeding

There is limited quality research concerning the nutritional requirements of Ratites. However, some dependable guidelines have been established because of work completed in Australia and Africa. As in all diet formulations, a variety of high quality ingredients should be used to meet the nutrient recommendations of the Ratite. Using a wide variety of ingredients helps to decrease the effect of variations that are inherent in all ingredients.

May 1, 2009 2902-1089
Remember What Drives Profitability in the Cow-Calf Business Nov 1, 2010
Replacement Heifer Development Steps Aug 3, 2009
Results of the 2009 Hokie Harvest Sale Dec 3, 2009
Selection for Carcass Traits: New Tools May 8, 2009
Self-Determined Horse Project May 1, 2009 406-107
September Beef Management Calendar Sep 9, 2011
September Beef Management Calendar Sep 1, 2010
September Beef Management Calendar Sep 1, 2009
Sheep Field Day, 36th Annual Virginia Performance Tested Ram Lamb Sale and Replacement Ewe Lamb Sale Aug 1, 2011
Sheep Foot Care and Treatment Mar 29, 2010
Sheep Grazing Management May 1, 2009 410-366
Sheep Management 101 Workshop and Shepherd’s Symposium scheduled for January 8-9, 2010 Nov 6, 2009
Sheep Management Schedule May 1, 2009 410-365
Sheep Management Tips - Late Fall Nov 10, 2011
Sheep Management Tips - Late Fall Nov 1, 2010
Sheep Management Tips - Late Fall Nov 6, 2009
Sheep Parasite Management Strategies Apr 30, 2010
Sheep Update Dec 12, 2011
Sheep Update Sep 9, 2011
Sheep Update Feb 28, 2011
Sheep Update Jan 1, 2011
Sheep Update Sep 1, 2010
Sheep Update Aug 11, 2010
Sheep Update Jun 1, 2010
Sheep Update Dec 22, 2009
Sheep Update Sep 1, 2009
Sheep Update Jul 10, 2009
Sheep Update Jun 1, 2009
Sheep Update Aug 1, 2011
Sheep Update Jun 7, 2011
Shepherd’s Symposium Scheduled for January 15 Nov 1, 2010
Shepherd’s Symposium Scheduled for January 7 Nov 10, 2011
Shepherd’s Symposium scheduled for January 15, 2011 Dec 3, 2010
Sire EPD Specifications for VQA- Spring 2010 Mar 3, 2010
Small Scale Poultry Housing

Small scale poultry coops seem to be built in almost every possible shape and size. Those building a new coop often ask for plans for the perfect chicken coop. However, few plans for small poultry houses are available. Many existing buildings can easily be adapted to accommodate poultry. Poultry housing can be as crude or elaborate as you wish to build as long as you provide the following:

May 1, 2009 2902-1092
Spring is a Good Time to Evaluate Forage Needs and Plan for Next Winter May 1, 2009
State Fair of Virginia Lamb Carcass Contest Summary 1999-2010 Nov 1, 2010
Strategies for Coping with Drought for the Sheep Flock Aug 11, 2010
Strong Support at the 2011 Hokie Harvest Sale Nov 10, 2011
Summer Management of Replacement Ewe Lambs Jul 10, 2009
Summer Slump to Summer Shortage Aug 9, 2010
Survival Guide for 4-H Leaders May 1, 2009 406-130
Ten Steps to Buying the Right Bull Nov 10, 2011
The Egg-citing Egg Nov 9, 2009 408-030
The Egg-citing Egg - Teacher/Leader Guide Nov 6, 2009 408-031
The Optimum Cow May 8, 2009
The Value of Crossbreeding in the Beef Business Sep 1, 2010
The Value of a Good Bull May 8, 2009
Time for Fall Nutrition Tune-up Sep 30, 2009
Tips for a Successful Breeding Season Aug 1, 2011
Tips for a Successful Breeding Season Aug 3, 2009
Tips to Becoming More Efficient in Cow-Calf Business Aug 3, 2009
Transporting Poultry in a Humane Manner

During the summer and fall months, poultry owners are hauling poultry to fairs, markets and other gatherings. Unfortunately, very few people put much thought into how to best transport their fowl. As a result, birds don't show well, get sick or die in transit. These results can be avoided with a little planning and extra care. Consider the following factors before transporting fowl.

May 1, 2009 2902-1088
Tri State Cow/Calf Conference Jun 7, 2011
Tri-State Beef Conference To Be Hosted August 15-16 Jun 7, 2011
Tri-State Cow-Calf Conference Sep 1, 2009
Tri-State Stocker Conference Aug 11, 2010
Tri-State Stocker Conference To Be Hosted August 17-18 Jun 1, 2010
USDA Announces Results of Lamb Checkoff Program Referendum May 1, 2009
Understanding Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs)

Expected progeny differences (EPDs) provide estimates of the genetic value of an animal as a parent. Specifically, differences in EPDs between two individuals of the same breed predict differences in performance between their future offspring when each is mated to animals of the same average genetic merit.

May 1, 2009 400-804
Understanding and Coping with Summer Slump Jun 1, 2010
Understanding and Utilizing Across Breed EPDs Jan 1, 2011
VQA Sire EPD Specifications Fall 2009 Sep 30, 2009
VQA Sire EPD Specifications Fall 2010 Oct 1, 2010
VT Beef - Winter Webinar Series to Kick-Off December 6th Nov 10, 2011
VT Beef - Winter Webinar Series to Kick-Off December 7 Nov 1, 2010
VT Beef - Winter Webinar Series – Market Outlook – January 10th Dec 12, 2011
Value of Forages is Rising Sep 9, 2011
Video Clips of Culpeper Senior Bulls Available Dec 3, 2010
Virginia 4-H Ewe Flock Project Guide May 1, 2009 410-089
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Junior Record Book May 1, 2009 406-122
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book May 1, 2009 406-123
Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-144P
Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-145P
Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-146P
Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-147P
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Guide May 1, 2009 410-083
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-148P
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-149P
Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Junior Record Book Sep 30, 2013 4H-150P
Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Senior Record Book Sep 27, 2013 4H-151P
Virginia BCIA Central Bull Test Program Summary 2008-09 May 1, 2009
Virginia BCIA Central Bull Test Program Summary 2009-10 Jun 1, 2010
Virginia BCIA Central Bull Test Program Summary 2010-11 May 4, 2011
Virginia BCIA Presents Premier Angus Breeder Award Mar 3, 2010
Virginia Cow Herd Performance Check-Up

Profitability of the cow/calf enterprise within any particular year is impacted by several factors. A cursory analysis of the most basic farm records can quantify important issues affecting herd success such as reproductive performance, calf growth and weaning weight, calf health performance, market price, and herd turnover.

May 1, 2009 400-791
Virginia Retained Ownership Program Summary Sep 1, 2010
Virginia Simmental Field Day Scheduled for October 7 Sep 1, 2009
Virginia Simmental Field Day Set for October 6 Aug 11, 2010
Virginia-North Carolina Shepherds’ Symposium - January 7, 2012 Alphin-Stuart Livestock Arena, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Dec 12, 2011
Virginia-North Carolina Shepherds’ Symposium - January 8-9, 2010 Alphin-Stuart Livestock Arena, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Dec 22, 2009
Virginia-North Carolina Shepherds’ Symposium Augusta County Government Center, Verona, VA January 15, 2011 Jan 1, 2011
Voluntary Standards for a Forage-Fed Livestock Marketing Claim May 8, 2009
Weaning Nutrition and Management Sep 1, 2009
What Kind of Year Did You Have? Dec 22, 2009
What is Age and Source Verification? May 8, 2009
Whole-Grain Diets For Finishing Lambs May 1, 2009 410-024
Why Cattle Differ in Value: Virginia Retained Ownership Program Summary May 8, 2009
Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying?

A common question from small backyard laying flock owners is "Why have my hens stopped laying?" There are many factors which can cause hens to stop laying and in many cases there are multiple causes which add up to few or no eggs.

May 1, 2009 2902-1097
Winter Feeding Tips Jan 1, 2011
Winter Hangover Mar 3, 2010
Winter Memories and Forage Plans Apr 30, 2010
Yearling Bull Management Feb 28, 2011
Yearling Bull Management Mar 3, 2010
You Can Cut Corners on Cow Minerals, Just Not Right Now May 8, 2009
Youth Cattle Working Contest: Intense Competition and Great Learning May 5, 2009
“Time to Judge the Book by its Cover” or Time to Body Condition Score Your Cows Nov 5, 2009