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Agricultural and Applied Economics

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2007 Virginia Farm Business Management Crop Budget

The budgets in this publication have been developed by the Virginia Cooperative Extension Farm Business Management Agents* for the major crops and livestock enterprises in Virginia. These budgets show the projected costs and returns for the production of these enterprises in a given situation.

Input data for the budgets are based on information from a number of sources such as farm records, personal contact with individual farmers, farm supply businesses, Virginia Tech research, Extension agents and plain old practical experience.

While every attempt is made to make the budgets realistic, the users should realize that they are "typical" or "average" in nature rather than fitting any given farm situation. Thus, users of these budgets would be expected to modify them to better fit their particular operation.

May 1, 2009 446-047
2011 Virginia Farm Business Management Livestock Budgets May 1, 2011 446-048
2014 NASS Cropland and Pastureland Rental Rates May 4, 2015 AAEC-91NP
2016 NASS Cropland and Pastureland Rental Rates

This fall USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) released cash rental rates for irrigated and non-irrigated cropland and pastureland for Virginia counties and cities.

Oct 14, 2016 AAEC-125NP
A Characterization of Direct-Market Beef Processing and Marketing in Virginia May 11, 2009 448-123
A Characterization of Direct-Marketed Beef Production in Virginia Jul 15, 2009 448-124
A Citizens' Guide to The Use Value Taxation Program in Virginia May 1, 2009 448-037
A Comparative Analysis Between Virginia’s and North Carolina’s Wine Industries Feb 1, 2012 AAEC-29P
A Farmer’s Responsibilities to His Business Jun 6, 2014 AAEC-69NP
A Geographic Analysis of Agritourism in Virginia May 2, 2014 AAEC-62P
A Summary of Agricultural Air Quality Perceptions in Virginia Apr 20, 2010 3004-1442
Addressing the Consequences of Predator Damage to Livestock and Poultry May 1, 2009 410-030
AgCache: An Innovative Marketing Tool for your Agribusiness Jun 6, 2014 AAEC-72NP
Agri-Tourism May 1, 2009 310-003
An Inventory of Beef Slaughter & Processing Facilities for Virginia Direct Marketers of Beef May 26, 2009 448-195
An Overview of Virginia Agritourism: Results From the 2013 Profitability Survey Mar 11, 2015 AAEC-77P
Applying Cost Benefit Analysis to Nutrition Education Programs: Focus on the Virginia Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program May 1, 2009 490-403
Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Growing Specialized Apple Cultivars for Sale to Commercial Hard Cider Producers Sep 30, 2013 AREC-46P
Closing the Loop: Public-Private Partnerships for On-Farm Composting of Yard Waste May 1, 2009 452-233
Common Ground: How Can Virginia Cooperative Extension Promote Civic Harmony in Our Polarized World? Mar 17, 2014 AAEC-58NP
Cooking a Simple Family Shrimp Boil Jul 1, 2013 AEE-44NP
Cultchless (Single-Seed) Oyster Crop Budgets for Virginia: 2013 User Manual Aug 13, 2013 AAEC-40P
Describing Commercial Berry Crop Production and Marketing in Virginia: Results of a 2006 Survey May 26, 2009 448-507
Direct Marketers and the Virginia Sales Tax May 26, 2009 448-073
Does Use Value Taxation Hold Potential to Lower Farmers' Property Tax Bills? May 1, 2009 448-036
Exporting Wine to the United Kingdown: A Guide for Virginia Wineries Nov 8, 2012 AAEC-12P
FACILITATION SERIES: The Art of Flip Charting

The discussion has begun, and words are flowing from each person like the water in a rushing stream. These words must be captured and become the wallpaper plastered throughout the room. It is this process of flip charting that creates the visual summary of key discussion points and provides the group memory that supports the process of a facilitated conversation.

Dec 19, 2014 CV-44NP
Farm Business Management Update Jun 13, 2013 AAEC-47NP
Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part II: Introduction of Financial Systems for New and Beginning Farmers

There are many factors to consider before starting a new farm enterprise. Financial management is an important component in the startup and decision-making processes for beginning farmers. The purpose of this series of publications is to inform Virginia agribusiness owners and managers about farm financial risk management tools, techniques, and resources available to help them prepare and use a financial systems approach for their operations. 

Oct 19, 2016 AAEC-115P
Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part III: Introduction to Farm Planning Budgets for New and Beginning Farmers

There are many factors to consider before starting a new farm enterprise. Financial management is an important component in the startup and decision-making processes for beginning farmers. The purpose of this series of publications is to inform Virginia agribusiness owners and managers about farm financial risk management tools, techniques, and resources available to help them prepare and use a financial systems approach for their operations. 

Oct 19, 2016 AAEC-116P
Farm Record Book Apr 8, 2015 446-017(AAEC-88NP)
Foundations for a Successful Farmers Market

Starting a farmers market is a challenging task with numerous issues to be tackled and activities to sequence. While generating a customer and vendor base is clearly fundamental to the successful establishment of a farmers market, there are also key administrative foundations that should be established if the market is to get off on the right foot and have long-term viability.

Apr 27, 2010 448-502
Frequently Asked Questions About Virginia's Use Value Assessment Program Sep 24, 2015 AAEC-39P (AAEC-102P)
General Permit Requirements for Confined Animal Feeding Operations in Virginia
A new waste management permit for confined animal feeding operations was adopted by the Virginia State Water Control Board on September 19, 1994, and became effective on November 16, 1994. The new regulation is referred to as the Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) General Permit Regulation for Confined Animal Feeding Operations [VR-680-14-22]. The purpose of this publication is to help producers understand who must have a permit to manage animal waste, how to apply for a permit, and the basic requirements contained in the general permit.
May 1, 2009 446-049
Getting Started in the Cattle Business in Virginia

The beef industry consists of various segments of production. The function of this diverse industry is to produce a live beef animal from which high quality beef is ultimately delivered to the consumer. Newcomers to the business should have some understanding of the structure of the beef industry.

May 1, 2009 400-790
Grain and Soybean Production and Storage in Virginia: A Summary and Spatial Examination Mar 25, 2014 AAEC-60P
Horse Manure Management

Manure management is a vital part of modern day horse ownership. Many horses spend a significant portion of their day in stalls, accumulating large amounts of manure and stall waste. Horse owners generally have a limited amount of time to spend caring for their equine charges; thus, efficient manure removal and disposal is crucial.

May 1, 2009 406-208
Intensive Soft Red Winter Wheat Production

New and successful techniques have been developed for intensive soft red winter wheat management by a multidisciplinary research and Extension team at Virginia Tech. Research was started in the early 1980's and continues today. The guidelines presented in this manual and the accompanying videotape are based on that research.

May 1, 2009 424-803
Introduction to Labor Issues for Beginning Farmers Feb 25, 2015 AEE-106NP
Investing in GPS Guidance Systems?

The price of GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) guidance system technology continues to decline as its capabilities increase. Many farmers question if or when they should invest in this technology. The major advantage of using GPS is input savings from more precise field application of seed, fertilizers, chemicals, fuel, and labor, as well as increased benefits to the farm production process (extended working time, reduced fatigue, etc.).

May 26, 2009 448-076
Managing Prosperity: Estate and Retirement Planning for All Ages. Advance Medical Directives (Previously Called "Living Wills") May 1, 2009 448-065
Managing Prosperity: Estate and Retirement Planning for All Ages. An Introduction to Trusts May 1, 2009 448-087
Managing Prosperity: Estate and Retirement Planning for All Ages. Love, Marriage, and Divorce May 1, 2009 448-066
Managing Prosperity: Estate and Retirement Planning for All Ages. Planning for Long-Term Health Care

This publication will outline some basic issues pertaining to Medicaid assistance eligibility and long term care planning. The federal and Virginia laws concerning Medicaid fill several books. Therefore, this discussion is necessarily limited. An attorney who deals with Medicaid and long term planning issues should be consulted for more information.

May 1, 2009 448-089
Managing Prosperity: Estate and Retirement Planning for All Ages. Powers of Attorney May 1, 2009 448-064
Managing Prosperity: Estate and Retirement Planning for All Ages. Probate and the Probate Process May 1, 2009 448-067
Managing Prosperity: Estate and Retirement Planning for All Ages. Rights of Surviving Spouses and Children May 1, 2009 448-079
Managing Prosperity: Estate and Retirement Planning for All Ages. Use of Conservation Easements in Estate and Conservation Planning May 1, 2009 448-094
Methods and Procedures: Determining the Use Value of Agricultural and Horticultural Land in Virginia

Virginia law allows for localities adopting a program of special assessments for agriculture, horticulture, forestry and/or open space lands for their land to be taxed based on the value of the land in one of these four uses (use value) instead of its market value. This document describes methods and procedures used to calculate use values for agriculture and horticulture land based on an income and rental rate approach.

Aug 3, 2016 446-011 (AAEC-118NP)
NASS to Release Final Census of Agriculture Data

WASHINGTON, June 1, 2004 - The U. S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) will release final data from the 2002 Census of Agriculture for every county and state in the Nation.

Aug 4, 2009 2906-1363
On-Farm Composting - A Guide to Principles, Planning & Operations May 1, 2009 452-232
Organic Feed-grain Markets: Considerations for Potential Virginia Producers May 1, 2009 448-520
Planning Fencing Systems For Controlled Grazing

Controlled grazing can be an economical way to provide forage to grazing animals. Utilizing pasture as a major portion of the forage plan can significantly reduce feed costs during the grazing season. Virginia's soils and climate are especially favorable for the growth of a wide range of productive, high-quality grasses and legumes suitable for grazing. However, optimizing a controlled grazing system requires careful planning and good management of a fencing system.

May 1, 2009 442-130
Precision Farming Tools: GPS Navigation

For a review of the principles of GPS to locate specific field points, refer to this GPS Tutorial (Trimble Navigation Limited, 2008). GPS and associated navigation systems are used in many types of agricultural operations. These systems are useful particularly in applying pesticides, lime, and fertilizers and in tracking wide planters/drills or large grain-harvesting platforms. GPS navigation tools can replace foam for sprayers and planter/drill-disk markers for making parallel swaths across a field. Navigation systems help operators reduce skips and overlaps, especially when using methods that rely on visual estimation of swath distance and/or counting rows. This technology reduces the chance of misapplication of agrochemicals and has the potential to safeguard water quality. Also, GPS navigation can be used to keep implements in the same traffic pattern year-to-year (controlled traffic), thus minimizing adverse effects of implement traffic.

May 1, 2009 442-501
Preparing for an Agritourism Event: A Checklist May 1, 2009 448-501
Selling Directly to Buyers: How to Price Your Products

 Did you know that farmers who sell unprocessed foods to retail outlets typically receive just 11.6 cents of each dollar the consumer spends on food? The remaining amount is allocated to industry groups such as food processors, packaging and transportation, retail trade, food services, energy, finance and insurance, and legal services. These industry groups are important participants in the food supply chain that allows individual farmers to efficiently focus their time and resources on production-specific issues such as new technologies, improved yields, pest management, and best management practices. 

Dec 11, 2015 AAEC-97P
Sometimes, Half the Road Is Not Enough™: A Public Safety Awareness Message to Improve Farm Equipment Safety on Public Roadways Jun 10, 2014 AAEC-70NP
Specialty Crop Profile: Rhubarb

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is an herbaceous edible perennial and a member of the buckwheat family. It has also been classified as Rheum rhaponticum, Rheum x hybridum, and Rheum x cultorum, and there are many related, non-edible Rheum species. It is native to Siberia, and has been used as a medicinal plant in Asia for over 5,000 years. Rhubarb was once a very well-known and popular vegetable in this country. But it is not as widely grown as it was in the past. Introduced by European settlers in the 1700s, it is commonly known as “pie plant” and is grown for its edible, but very tart leaf petioles (leaf stalks), which can reach 12 to 18 inches long and one to two inches thick with a crispy texture similar to a large celery stalk (Figures 1a, b). The leaves are toxic because of their oxalic acid (soluble oxalates) content, which can cause human and animal poisoning and must be trimmed from the petiole prior to use.

May 1, 2009 438-110
Supermarkets as Alternative Market Outlets for Virginia-Grown Berries Jan 18, 2010 448-508
The Income Side of Seasonal vs. Year-Round Pasture-based Milk Production

One issue in the debate on dairy production is seasonal versus year-round milk production. The frame of reference in this debate is seasonal price trends. Farmers historically receive the lowest milk price for milk sold during the six months following spring pasture flush. Conversely, the season's highest price is received during the period of October to January. The driving force behind the current interest in grass-based dairy production is lowering total costs per hundredweight of milk sold by using pasture as the primary source of forage. 

May 1, 2009 404-113
Tree Crops For Marginal Farmland -- Christmas Trees

This publication describes the most effective practices used to grow Christmas trees in the southern United States and the cost of those practices. It includes a financial analysis with typical costs and expected returns.

Only eastern white pine and Virginia pines are discussed in this guide. But other species, such as Scotch pine and Fraser fir, also can be grown profitably in some locations in the South. To use this publication to best advantage, read it straight through. Take special note of the cultural practices described and their estimated costs. Think about potential markets for the harvest. Read how to evaluate your potential investment, and think about the other benefits of tree crops. Read the case studies to get a better idea of how these investments can be evaluated. To conduct a financial analysis of your own situation, carefully estimate all the production costs, then take your estimates to the local Extension agent or farm management agent for assistance.

May 1, 2009 446-605
Using Market Maker to Connect Virginia Meat Producers and Processors Jun 6, 2014 AAEC-86NP
Using the Internet for Direct Marketing May 1, 2009 448-505
Virginia Beginning Farmer & Rancher Coalition Program: Technical Assistance & Resource Directory Aug 28, 2013 AEE-76NP
Virginia Census of Agriculture 1997: Tabulations and Analyses May 1, 2009 490-700
Virginia Citizen’s Guide to Environmental Credit Trading Programs: An Overview

Virginia has implemented several regulatory programs
to improve environmental quality and protect
Virginia’s diverse ecosystems. One approach to help
achieve Virginia’s environmental goals is through
the development of environmental credit trading
programs. These programs can complement pollution
control and environmental protection programs by
providing citizens, businesses, and local governments
with incentives and additional flexibility in achieving
how these requirements are met.

May 4, 2016 ANR-173P
Virginia Landowner’s Guide to the Carbon Market May 28, 2009 442-138
Why Use-value Estimates Can Differ Between Counties

During September of each year, annual use-value estimates for the upcoming tax-year are voted on for acceptance by the State Land Evaluation Advisory Council (SLEAC)1 the governing body of the use-value estimate program. The Council’s voting members include Virginia’s: Tax Commissioner, Commissioner of Agriculture, State Forester, Director of the Department of Conservation and Recreation, and the Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Virginia Tech. One month prior to the September meeting, use-value estimates are presented for public review. The September meeting allows for discussion, explanation, and comments regarding the estimates before a final vote. All the meetings are open to interested individuals to ask questions on values and methods.

May 1, 2009 446-013