|Addressing the Consequences of Predator Damage to Livestock and Poultry||May 1, 2009||410-030|
|Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture||
Agricultural producers are under constant pressure to minimize the impact their management practices have on the environment. Although most environmental concerns related to animal agriculture have focused on water quality during the past two decades, air quality issues have become an increasing concern. Odors have been the main air quality concern related to agricultural animal production. However, ammonia emissions from livestock and poultry operations have recently received significant attention. New air quality standards that cover ammonia emissions in the United States were adopted in 1997. These regulations will have a significant impact on the future of animal production operations. The purpose of this publication is to provide an overview of ammonia production associated with animal agriculture and to explain why it is receiving greater attention from those concerned with environmental quality.
|May 1, 2009||442-110|
|Catastrophic Livestock and Poultry Carcass Disposal||Nov 19, 2013||ANR-76NP (ANR-90NP)|
|Composting for Mortality Disposal on Hog Farms||
Even on well-managed hog farms, some animals die before being marketed. For example, a 1,200-sow farm that produces 2.2 litters per sow per year and sells weanling pigs may need to dispose of 36 sow carcasses and 7,920 stillborn and other dead piglets annually. A finishing farm producing 10,000 market hogs annually should plan for the disposal of approximately 300 pigs each year (Table 1). These examples are based on a 3 percent annual mortality rate for breeding sows and market hogs and the loss of three stillborn and nursing piglets per litter produced. Farms with lower mortality rates will have lower disposal needs, and those with higher rates will have higher disposal needs. To meet this need, a practical, cost-effective, and environmentally sound means to dispose of routine death losses is essential on all hog farms.
|May 1, 2009||414-020|
|Fencing Materials For Livestock Systems||
Good fencing protects and confines valuable livestock by presenting barriers to restrict animal movement. Barriers may be physical, psychological, or a combination of both. Physical barriers consist of enough materials of sufficient strength to prevent or discourage animals from going over, under, or through the fence. Psychological barriers depend upon inflicting pain to discourage animals from challenging a physical barrier of inferior strength.
Traditional livestock fencing materials have included barbed, woven, mesh, and electrified wire, and combinations of these materials. Board fences have also been popular. These conventional materials are still widely used and make excellent fences if properly constructed. However, new materials such as high tensile wire should also be considered when selecting fencing types.
|May 1, 2009||442-131|
|Hog Production Contracts: The Grower-Integrator Relationship||
As early as the 1970s there were some isolated hog production or marketing contracts in existence. During this era, such arrangements were limited and the overwhelming majority of hogs were produced and marketed by independent producers on open or "spot" markets. However, during the past 20 years the pork industry has evolved rapidly. Among the factors that have contributed to this rapid evolution are packer and large producer consolidation, the need to control pork supply and price volatility, and the need for pork to be of consistent high quality and competitive with other food protein sources. These conditions have led to the rapid expansion of contractual arrangements in hog production.
|May 1, 2009||414-039|
|Manure Management and Environmental Stewardship||Apr 1, 2010||442-309|
|New Views on the Importance of Colostrum Consumption by Piglets: Effects on Future Growth and Reproduction||
Colostrum is the first milk secreted by a sow during lactation and is produced for just 24 hours following the onset of farrowing. The substance is rich in energy, and contains antibodies and immunoglobulins required by the piglet to fight disease and infection. At birth, energy reserves in piglets are very low and the immune system is extremely immature. Colostrum provides energy and the passive immunity critical for survival. Newborn piglets require at least 7 ounces of colostrum within the first 24 hours of life (Quesnel et al., 2012) and the ability of the intestine of the piglet to absorb colostrum-derived antibodies is substantially decreased by 24 to 36 hours post-farrowing. Figure 1 shows the amount of colostrum consumed during the first 24 hours of life by piglets surviving to weaning and by piglets that died during the nursing period. Although these data are not necessarily indicative of a cause and effect relationship, they are consistent with the concept that adequate colostrum consumption is critical for pre-weaning survival in swine.
|Aug 12, 2015||APSC-110NP|
|Nutrient Management for Small Farms||Oct 8, 2010||442-305|
|On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers||Jul 31, 2013||2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)|
|Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage: Management and Safety||Nov 19, 2009||442-308|
|Selecting a Treatment Technology for Manure Management||May 11, 2009||442-306|
|Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage||
If you raise dairy cows, broilers, layers, turkeys, horses, beef cattle, sheep, goats, alpacas, or swine for income or a hobby, you will have to deal with the manure they produce. The amount of manure produced by the birds or animals you keep depends on their type, age, size, and diet.
|Nov 19, 2009||442-307|
|Using Artificial Insemination in Swine Production: Detecting and Synchronizing Estrus and Using Proper Insemination Technique||
In the United States, the proportion of sows bred via artificial insemination (AI) increased from less than 8 percent in 1991 to nearly 70 percent in 2000. AI offers numerous advantages over natural mating. Once collected, a boar ejaculate can be diluted in a semen extender, creating multiple insemination doses that can be used to breed several sows and gilts. This allows more extensive use of genetically superior boars, increasing the rate of genetic improvement within a herd. Fewer boars are necessary on a farm employing AI, and as a consequence, feed, veterinary, and housing costs are reduced. With AI, new genetics can be introduced into a herd with decreased health risks. Finally, use of AI saves time and labor in the breeding barn.
|May 1, 2009||414-038|
|Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Junior Record Book||Aug 27, 2013||4H-146P|
|Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Senior Record Book||Aug 27, 2013||4H-147P|