|A Summary of Agricultural Air Quality Perceptions in Virginia||Apr 20, 2010||3004-1442|
|Denitrification Management||Mar 27, 2013||BSE-54P|
|Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia||Oct 5, 2010||420-039|
|Manure Management and Environmental Stewardship||Apr 1, 2010||442-309|
|Nutrient Management for Small Farms||Oct 8, 2010||442-305|
|On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives||
The purpose of this publication is to describe on-site technologies for treating domestic sewage where conventional means (public sewer or septic tank with drainfield) are not available. These technologies are described as alternatives in this publication. Our goal is to provide information that can be used by property owners and residents to initiate action to rectify sewage-disposal problems, especially where current wastewater treatment is inadequate. This work is intended to provide information on alternative wastewater treatment options that will help the reader to make informed decisions when dealing with oversight agencies and contractors; it is not intended to serve as a stand-alone reference for design or construction.
|Jul 1, 2009||448-407|
|Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage: Management and Safety||Nov 19, 2009||442-308|
|Powell River Project - Passive Treatment of Acid-Mine Drainage||
Acidic mine drainage (AMD; also called “acid rock drainage” or “acid drainage”) is an environmental pollutant that impairs water resources in mining regions throughout the world. Where such treatment is required legally, treatment must be efficient and continual. Treatment methods are commonly divided into either “active,” meaning reliance on the addition of alkaline chemicals to neutralize the acidity, or “passive.” The term “passive treatment” means reliance on biological, geochemical, and gravitational processes. Passive treatment does not require constant care or the chemical reagents that characterize “active” AMD treatment.
|Mar 30, 2011||460-133|
|Powell River Project - Reclamation of Coal Refuse Disposal Areas||Oct 21, 2010||460-131|
|Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage||
If you raise dairy cows, broilers, layers, turkeys, horses, beef cattle, sheep, goats, alpacas, or swine for income or a hobby, you will have to deal with the manure they produce. The amount of manure produced by the birds or animals you keep depends on their type, age, size, and diet.
|Nov 19, 2009||442-307|
|Trees and Water||Jul 30, 2012||ANR-18NP|
|Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Household Wastewater Treatment and Septic Systems||
Household wastewater contains some contaminants that degrade water quality for such uses as drinking, stock watering, food preparation and cleaning. Potential contaminants in household wastewater include disease-causing bacteria, infectious viruses, household chemicals, and nutrients, such as nitrate. Viruses can infect the liver, causing hepatitis or infect the lining of the intestine, causing gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea). If coliform organisms (a group of indicator bacteria) are found in well water, they show that the water is potentially dangerous for drinking and food preparation. Virtually all farmsteads use a septic system or similar on-site wastewater treatment system.
|May 1, 2009||442-903|
|Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities||
Storage of livestock wastes involves accumulating manure and wastewater in an environmentally sound manner until they can be applied to land or otherwise utilized. Manure storage facilities allow farmers to spread manure when conditions are right for nutrient use by crops. Storing manure in a concentrated area, however, increases risk to the environment and to human and animal health. Fecal bacteria in livestock waste can contaminate groundwater, causing such infectious diseases as dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis.
|May 1, 2009||442-909|
|Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Livestock and Poultry Yard Management||
Livestock and poultry yards, such as barnyards, holding areas and feedlots, and areas around production buildings are areas of concentrated animal wastes. They can be a source of nitrate and bacteria contamination of groundwater. This is especially true if there is no system to 1) divert clean water flow from the livestock/poultry yard, 2) drain surface water away from wells or springs, or 3) collect polluted runoff from the yard for diversion to an area where its effect on surface water or groundwater is minimal. The potential for livestock and poultry operations to affect groundwater is greatest if the facility or area of animal concentration is located on karst terrain or over sandy-textured permeable soils, or when the water table is at or near the surface, bedrock is within a few feet of the surface, or polluted runoff is discharged to permeable soils and bedrock.
|May 1, 2009||442-908|
|Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Milking Center Wastewater Treatment||
Wastewater from the dairy milking center includes wastes from the milking parlor (manure, feed solids, hoof dirt) and milk house (bulk tank rinse water and detergent used in cleaning). The amount of wastewater generated varies with milking preparation, equipment use, and the number of cows. A milking center for a 100-cow free-stall operation may use anywhere from 100 to 1000 gallons of water per day, and sometimes more.
|May 1, 2009||442-911|
|Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Poultry Litter Management and Carcass Disposal||
Nearly all broiler, pullet, and breeder operations grow the birds on concrete, wooden, or earthen floors. A 2-to 6-inch layer of wood shavings, peanut hulls, or other bedding material is used as an absorptive base. The manure and bedding mixture is commonly called litter, and it is removed one or more times a year and replaced with fresh bedding material. Most broiler operations produce 1.1 to 1.4 tons of litter per 1,000 birds. For a flock of 18,000 to 20,000 birds, this amounts to between 22 and 34 tons of litter per flock.
|May 1, 2009||442-910|
|Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Silage Storage and Management||
Silage can be made from corn, grain, or alfalfa, or from canning wastes, such as those resulting from sweet corn processing. The amount of leachate (silage juices) produced varies with the material stored, its moisture and nitrogen content, and handling and storage conditions. Of these, moisture content is the most crucial.
|May 1, 2009||442-912|
|Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Site Evaluation: Groundwater, Soils, & Geology||
In Virginia, groundwater is an important source of private and public water supplies. In fact, in 60 of Virginia's 95 counties, the majority of households obtain water from private wells and springs (see Figure 1). For 38 counties, groundwater is the sole source for public water supplies, and another 16 counties depend on groundwater to obtain more than 50 percent of their water for public supplies. Overall, more than one-third of Virginia's almost 6.4 million residents depend on groundwater. Agriculture, an important part of Virginia's economy, maintains its high productivity, partially by using groundwater. According to U.S. Geological Survey estimates for the year 1990, almost 22 percent of the 36 million gallons of fresh water source used per day for crop irrigation in Virginia was derived from groundwater.
|May 1, 2009||442-901|
|Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Well and Spring Management||
More than 40% of Virginia's population depends on wells or springs as a source of drinking water and this dependence is close to 100% in rural areas. Furthermore, approximately one-fourth of all Virginia households rely on an individual water supply system, such as a backyard well or spring Figure 1. Wells and springs should be designed and managed to provide clean water. If improperly constructed or maintained, however, they can allow bacteria, pesticides, fertilizers or petroleum products to contaminate groundwater. These contaminants can put human and animal health at risk.
|May 1, 2009||442-902|
|Virginia Landowner’s Guide to the Carbon Market||May 28, 2009||442-138|