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Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 10: Dry Swale Sep 6, 2013 426-129 (BSE-86P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 11: Wet Swale

A wet swale (WS) is an engineered, best management
practice (BMP) arranged in a straight line that is
designed to reduce stormwater pollution. A WS consists
of a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad,
vegetated, side slopes and slow flows (see figure 1).
Wet swales typically stay wet because the bottom of the
swale is below the water table. This is done to encourage
the growth of wetland vegetation, providing water
quality treatment similar to a natural wetland. This
stormwater treatment practice also functions as part of
the stormwater conveyance system. Wet swales have a
relatively low capital cost; however, maintenance can
be is intensive and expensive when compared to other
BMPs.

Sep 9, 2013 426-130 (BSE-89P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 12: Filtering Practices

A stormwater filtering practice (FP) treats stormwater
runoff by passing it through an engineered filter media
consisting of either sand, gravel, organic matter, and/
or a proprietary manufactured product, collecting it in
an underdrain, and then discharging the effluent to a
stormwater conveyance system. FPs are stormwater
treatment practices that are often obtained from the
marketplace due to unique proprietary technologies
(see figure 1).

Sep 9, 2013 426-131 (BSE-87P)
Common Ground: Why Should University Faculty Partner with Virginia Cooperative Extension? Feb 21, 2014 BSE-94NP
Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems Jul 10, 2014 BSE-77P
Denitrifying Bioreaders: An Emerging Best Management Practice to Improve Water Quality Apr 12, 2013 BSE-55P
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Fluvanna and Louisa Counties, Virginia. October 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-10
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Suffolk, Virginia May 1, 2009 442-202
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Albemarle County, Virginia, April 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-62NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Albemarle and Fluvanna Counties, Virginia, March-May 2009 Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1502
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Amherst County, Virginia, June - July 2009, Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1503
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Appomattox and Campbell Counties, Virginia May - June 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1504
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Augusta County, Virginia, September - November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1505
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia, October-November 2009, Virginia Household water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1506
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Bedford County, Virginia, June-July 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1507
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Botetourt County, Virginia. July 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-7
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Buckingham County, Virginia. September 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-28
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Caroline County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1508
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia. March 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-29
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Culpeper County, Virginia, November-December 2008, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1509
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, February-March 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1510
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Floyd County, Virginia. April 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-9
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia, May 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-67NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia. May 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-8
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Greene County, Virginia, April-May 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 23, 2010 3010-1511
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Isle of Wight County, Virginia, June 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-30
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in King George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 23, 2010 3010-1512
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Lee and Scott Counties March 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-31
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia, May 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-66NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia. June 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-14
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia. May 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-32
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Lunenburg and Nottoway Counties 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-34
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Madison and Orange Counties, Virginia. November 2010. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-13
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Montgomery County, Virginia. March 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-11
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Nelson County, Virginia. November 2010. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-12
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Page and Shenandoah Counties, Virginia, June 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-70NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Prince George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 24, 2010 3010-1513
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Prince William County, Virginia, November 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-65NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockbridge County, Virginia, September-November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 29, 2010 3010-1514
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockingham County, Virginia, August-September 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 29, 2010 3010-1515
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Russell and Tazewell Counties 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-33
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Smyth County, Virginia February 2011. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-35
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Southside, Virginia (Halifax, Mecklenburg, Charlotte, Lunenburg, and Brunswick Counties), September 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-69NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Southwest Virginia (Buchanan, Dickenson, Lee, Russell, Scott, Tazewell, and Wise Counties), Spring and Fall 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 21, 2013 BSE-64NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties, Virginia, August 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-63NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties, Virginia. October 2011. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-36
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Warren County, Virginia, June 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-68NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in the Northern Neck, Virginia (Northumberland, Lancaster, Richmond, Westmoreland, and Essex Counties), March and September 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-61NP
Greywater Reuse Apr 30, 2014 BSE-114NP
Household Water Quality in Albemarle County, Virginia, April 2013 Aug 14, 2014 BSE-151NP
Household Water Quality in Caroline County, Virginia

 In October 2013, residents from Caroline County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program. Clinic participants received a confidential water sample analysis and attended educational meetings where they learned how to interpret their water test results and how to address potential issues. According to survey data, 41 samples were tested, serving 94 individuals. The most common household water quality issues identified were high levels of lead and sodium, as well as the presence of acidic water and total coliform bacteria. Figure 1, found at the end of this report shows these common water quality issues along with basic information on standards, causes, and treatment options. 

Aug 19, 2014 BSE-152NP
Household Water Quality: Emergency Supplies of Water for Drinking and Food Preparation

When preparing for a disaster, it is important to provide for an adequate supply of water for drinking and cooking. In natural disasters, such as floods, hurricanes, or earthquakes, the municipal water supply is likely to be disrupted. Ice storms and other emergencies can cause a loss of electrical power, leaving well pumps unable to function.

May 1, 2009 356-479
Household Water Quality: Household Water Testing

Concerns about personal and family health may lead you to question the safety of the water used in your household.

May 1, 2009 356-485
Household Water Quality: Water Quality Problems - Causes and Treatments

Many areas have water containing impurities from natural or artificial sources. These impurities may cause health problems, damage equipment or plumbing, or make the water undesirable due to taste, odor, appearance or staining.

May 1, 2009 356-482
Innovative Best Management Fact Sheet No. 1: Floating Treatment Wetlands Aug 28, 2013 BSE-76P
Interpreting Your Water Test Report May 1, 2009 356-489
Living Well Newsletter, Volume 6, Issue 1 Apr 24, 2013 370-105
Living Well Newsletter, Volume 8, Issue 1 Apr 17, 2013 FCS-15P
Questions to Ask When Purchasing Water Treatment Equipment

Until recently, the point‑of‑use water treatment industry focused on improving the aesthetic quality of drinking water. The industry has lately been thrust into the forefront of treatment of contaminated drinking waters that pose a serious health hazard. The response has been a plethora of companies and products promising to render the consumer’s drinking water safe and contaminant free.

May 1, 2009 356-480
Rainwater Harvesting Systems May 9, 2014 BSE-116NP
Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration

Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment

Jul 5, 2011 426-046
Using Reclaimed Water Apr 30, 2014 BSE-115NP
Virginia Household Water Quality Program, Water Sample Sep 16, 2013 BSE-95NP
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Bacteria and Other Microorganisms in Household Water May 17, 2011 442-662
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Corrosive Household Water May 17, 2011 442-665
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Fluoride in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-660
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Hardness in Household Water May 17, 2011 442-664
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Heavy Metals in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-657
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Household Water Treatment Aug 22, 2013 442-670 (BSE-75P)
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Iron and Manganese in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-656
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Nitrate in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-659
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Shock Chlorination: Disinfecting Private Household Water Supply Systems May 17, 2011 442-663
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Sodium and Chloride in Household Drinking Water Dec 2, 2011 442-661
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Sulfate and Hydrogen Sulfide in Household Water Dec 2, 2011 442-658
Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in Household Water May 17, 2011 442-666