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Garden Insects / Pests

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Aphids
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see.

Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands.

May 1, 2009 444-220
Applying Pesticides Safely

Proper use of pesticides is essential for your safety and for that of the environment. Pesticides must be used correctly to be effective.

Review the product label before each use. Be sure you have all the materials necessary for a safe and proper application. Check precautions label sites (e.g., types of plants or areas) and timing requirements such as days to harvest, temperature, and wind speed restrictions. Be sure you can indeed use this pesticide when and where you intend to!

May 1, 2009 426-710
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010

This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010. If not noted otherwise in the individual reports, all research was conducted at the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Painter, VA and at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Virginia Beach, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices. Soil type at the ESAREC is a Bojac Sandy Loam. Soil type at the HRAREC is tetotum loam (average pH: 5.7). Most of the research involves field evaluations of federally‐labeled and experimental insecticides. Much of the information presented herein will be published in a similar format in Arthropod Management Tests: 2011, vol. 36 (Entomological Society of America). We hope that this information will be of value to those interested in insect pest management on vegetable crops, and we wish to make the information accessible. All information, however, is for informational purposes only. Because most of the data from the studies are based on a single season’s environmental conditions, it is requested that the data not be published, reproduced, or otherwise taken out of context without the permission of the authors. The authors neither endorse any of the products in these reports nor discriminate against others. Additionally, some of the products evaluated are not commercially available and/or not labeled for use on the crop(s) in which they were used.

Feb 22, 2011 3102-1532
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2013 Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-60NP
Bagworm

Lepidoptera: Psychidae, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis

Plants Attacked: Juniper, arborvitae, other cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, Chinese elm, honeylocust, primarily. Also on crabapple, maple, sycamore, box elder, willow, linden, poplar, and many others.

May 1, 2009 2808-1008
Balsam Woolly Adelgid Jun 16, 2010 3006-1452
Bark Beetles

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Cerambycidae

Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more.

Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray.

May 1, 2009 444-216
Biology and Management of Hessian Fly in the Southeast Feb 27, 2013 AREC-39P (ANR-1069)
Black Vine Weevil

Plants Attacked

The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.

Description of Damage

Two kinds of damage are conspicuous: Adults chew marginal notches in leaves, causing damage that quite often is confused with a disease or chemical injury. The adults feed from the outer margin of the leaf inward, creating characteristic notches, and these notches can be used as an early indicator of potential larvae in the soil. Adults cut notches on the margins only; they never create holes on the center of the leaf.
May 1, 2009 444-210
Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass

The bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus, is a weevil native to Virginia. Weevils belong to the family Curculionidae, which is contained within the order for beetles, Coleoptera. Like most weevils, the bluegrass billbug has a relatively narrow range of host plants, feeding on a handful of cool-season grass species.

Jul 1, 2010 444-040
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Homoptera: Penatomidae: Halyomorpha halys

Distribution and Hosts

The brown marmorated stink bug, (BMSB), is an invasive insect not native to North America. It was accidentally introduced near Allentown, PA in 1996 and has spread since that time. It was found in Virginia in 2004 and by 2010, it was found throughout most of the Commonwealth. The BMSB feeds on a wide range of tree fruits and seedpods as well as many vegetables including tomatoes, peppers, beans, cucurbits, and sweet corn. High densities of this pest species have also been seen in soybeans and corn. However, so far in Virginia, the most severely damaged crops have been tree fruit (apples and peaches). For homeowners, it is mainly a nuisance pest, as it invades houses in the winter looking for a place to over-winter. For businesses such as hotels and restaurants and other commercial settings with public interface, the presence of high numbers of these bugs in the fall can have economic consequences.

May 21, 2009 2902-1100
Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar

Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the
activity of parasites.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1421
Choosing Pesticides Wisely
Healthy plants are less susceptible to attack by pests, and good cultural practices can reduce pest outbreaks.

Do you really need a pesticide?

Before you purchase any pesticide, you should answer some important questions.
  • Is the damage actually caused by a pest? Could it be due to the weather or a cultural practice, such as overor underwatering, improper fertilization, or herbicide damage?
  • If it is a pest, what kind is it?
  • Are there nonchemical ways to control it? Is the damage severe enough to warrant chemical control?
  • Is pesticide use cost-effective? Or would the chemical treatment cost more than the plant is worth?
  • Can the pest be controlled by a chemical at this stage of its life cycle, or would application at a different time be more effective?
  • Do you have the equipment and skill to use the proper pesticide correctly?
May 1, 2009 426-706
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs

Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings (Figure 1). Heavy WG infestations can cause stand and yield losses of up to 20%. Because grubs occur in the soil, their presence in fields and subsequent damage to corn may go unnoticed until too late. Also, 30% overwintering mortality in WG densities is typical in VA. Insecticidal seed treatments such as clothianidin (PonchoTM) and thiamethoxam (CruiserTM) are the tools of choice for controlling soil insect pests. Growers typically must decide whether to purchase insecticide-treated seed well in advance of spring planting.

Jun 30, 2011 2802-7027
Cottony Maple Scale

Cottony Maple Scale (Homoptera: Coccidae), Pulvinaria innumerabilis

PLANTS ATTACKED: Maples and dogwood primarily, but also many woody ornamentals.

May 1, 2009 2808-1011
Cucumber Beetles

Plants Attacked: Cucumber, cantaloupe, winter squash, pumpkin, gourd, summer squash, and watermelon, as well as many other species of cucurbits. Cucumber beetles may also feed on beans, corn, peanuts, potatoes, and other crops.

May 1, 2009 2808-1009
Deer: A Garden Pest Sep 5, 2013 HORT-62NP
Diagnosing Plant Problems

Something is wrong with your plant. What’s the cause? You can begin to determine the cause of the problem by taking on the role of Sherlock Holmes – be a keen observer and ask many questions. Diagnosing plant problems is often a difficult task. There can be many different causes for a given symptom, not all of them related to insects or diseases. The health of a plant may be affected by soil nutrition and texture, weather conditions, quantity of light, other environmental and cultural conditions, and animals, including humans. Complicating this scenario is the fact that any two of the above factors can interact to give rise to a problem. For example, a prolonged period of drought may weaken plants so that they are more susceptible to pests; this is typically observed with boxwoods.

May 1, 2009 426-714
Dogwood Borer

Lepidoptera: Sesiidae, Synanthedon scitula

PLANTS ATTACKED: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow

May 1, 2009 2808-1010
Earwigs, Dermaptera: Forficulidae Jan 24, 2011 3101-1527
Eastern Tent Caterpillar

The larval or caterpillar stage is brown and is quite hairy. It has a white stripe running down the back that is bordered by yellow brown. In addition the caterpillar has a row of blue spots down each side. The adult moth is a dark tan color with two pale stripes on each of the front wings. Although similar they are not the same insect as a gypsy moth.

May 1, 2009 444-274
Emerald Ash Borer Feb 7, 2014 HORT-69NP
Euonymus Scale
Female scales have a pear-shaped, dark brown scale covering. Males are more slender than the females and are white with a yellow cap on one end. The male scale covering has three ridges running its length. Both sexes are easily observable on plants and are normally 1/16 inch long. All stages are yellow when observed beneath the scale covering.
May 1, 2009 444-277
European Hornet

The European hornet is a stout hornet approximately 1-inch long. The color of the head and thorax is dark reddish brown with deep yellow and brown black markings on the abdomen. The  markings on the abdomen are similar to the markings found on yellow jackets. The European hornet resembles the cicada killer wasp but is more robust and has more hair on the thorax and
abdomen (but is not as hairy as a bee).

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1422
Fall Webworm

Distribution and Hosts Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.

May 1, 2009 2808-1013
Field Guide to Stink Bugs Jul 29, 2009 444-356
Food Safety For School and Community Gardens May 29, 2013 FST-60P
For the Birds, Butterflies & Hummingbirds: Creating Inviting Habitats Aug 1, 2014 HORT-59P (HORT-74NP)
Gardening and Your Health: Ticks

During early spring and summer, as the weather warms up and the garden springs back to life from its winter dormancy, many gardeners -- and ticks -- eagerly return to their outdoor activities. Gardeners should be aware of the risks and know how to protect themselves from becoming hosts to disease-carrying ticks.

May 1, 2009 426-066
Gypsy Moth Management for Homeowners on Small Properties

The gypsy moth, native to Europe and Asia, is a major invasive pest of hardwood forests in the U. S. Introduced into Massachusetts in 1869, the gypsy moth has rapidly moved into other regions of the country and is responsible for large amounts of defoliation each year. Most of Virginia is generally infested by this pest. Visit http://fubyss.ento.vt.edu/vagm/ to read more about the gypsy moth biology and control.

May 1, 2009 2811-1021
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Jun 11, 2010 3006-1451
History, Distribution and Pest Status of the Mexican bean beetle Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-62NP
Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-041
Improving Pest Management with Farmscaping Dec 6, 2013 ENTO-52NP(ENTO-55NP)
Insect Identification Lab Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-45NP
Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show Oct 1, 2009 2909-1415
Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show Sep 25, 2009 2909-1414
Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-42NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module I: Integrated Pest Management Feb 21, 2013 PPWS-14NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module II: The Plant Disease Triangle Feb 21, 2013 PPWS-15NP
Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Gardens

Maintain a slightly acid soil (around pH 6.5). If in doubt, have a soil analysis done through your local Extension office, by a private lab, or with a commercial soil test kit. Lime can be used to increase soil pH and sulfur can lower it.

Maintain adequate levels of soil fertility through additions of potassium and phosphorus releasing materials, such as commercial fertilizers or animal manures. Soil testing should be done every three years to determine levels of these important nutrients.

Build a biologically active, healthy soil through regular addition of organic matter, such as yard waste, compost, and manure.

For planting areas not being cropped, grow annual cover crops, such as clover or rye grass, to provide additional organic matter.

Till the soil in the fall to expose pests living near the surface to natural enemies and weather, and to destroy insects overwintering in crop residues.

May 1, 2009 426-708
Japanese Beetle

Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Popillia japonica

Distribution:  The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United Stages. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.

May 1, 2009 2902-1101
Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries Sep 15, 2009 2909-1411
Leaf‐ Footed Bugs Dec 21, 2010 3012-1522
Leatherwing (Soldier) Beetles Dec 10, 2013 ENTO-53NP
Lilac Borer/Ash Borer

Life Cycle: As winter passes, the immature larvae is in the stem of lilac and ash near the surface of the soil. Feeding and continued development begins in early spring and is completed by early summer. It then pupates in the stems and in three weeks emerges as the adult (early May through early July). Oviposition occurs shortly after emergence and mating. The eggs are laid about the base of lilac canes or on ash stems. The hatching larvae bore into the host and become half grown by cold weather. There is one generation per year.

May 1, 2009 444-278
Locust Leafminer, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg) Jan 25, 2011 3101-1528
Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Cerambycidae

Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more.

Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray.

May 1, 2009 444-215
Mexican Bean Beetle Dec 13, 2013 ENTO-51NP
Millipedes Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-43NP
Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia

Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk.

May 1, 2009 444-275
Pepper Weevil Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-63NP
Periodical Cicada

In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.

May 1, 2009 444-276
Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2014 Jan 28, 2014 456-018 (ENTO-36P)
Pest Management for Water Quality

Research has shown that consumers find reading and understanding the label to be the most difficult aspect of applying pesticides. However, an understanding of the label information is essential before work begins. The label printed on or attached to a container of pesticide tells how to use it correctly and warns of any environmental or health safety measures to take. Read the label when you purchase a pesticide and again before mixing or applying it. If you are confused about any part of the label, consult your Extension agent or a representative of the company that makes the product. Many pesticides now list a toll-free number for consumers. The label includes specific information that you should be aware of and learn to understand.

May 1, 2009 426-615
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Pine Shoot Beetle

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Scolytidae

Species: Tomicus piniperda (Linnaeus)

Size: The adults are 1/8 to 1/4 inch long. The larvae are legless and can be up to 1/4 inch long.

Color: Pine shoot beetles are dark brown. The larvae have a dark brown head and creamy white body.

Description: Pine shoot beetles are in the same family as bark beetles and resemble bark beetles in appearance with their cylindrical shape.

May 1, 2009 444-291
Pine Tortoise Scale, Hemiptera: Coccidae, Toumeyella numismaticum Jan 25, 2011 3101-1529
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!

Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens), or poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.

May 1, 2009 426-109
Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA) Mar 5, 2010 444-284
Redheaded Pine Sawfly Jun 16, 2010 3006-1453
Scale Insects

Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.

May 1, 2009 2808-1012
Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains Oct 4, 2012 444-360
Spider Mites
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see.

Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands.

May 1, 2009 444-221
Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-73NP
Spruce Spider Mite

Distribution and Hosts

The spruce spider mite  (Acari: Tetranychidae, Oligonychus unuguis (Jacobi)) lives in all areas of Virginia and is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the United States and Canada. It attacks spruce, arborvitae, juniper, hemlock, pine, Douglas fir, Fraser fir, and larch, among others.
May 1, 2009 444-235
Squash Bug Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-64NP
Storing Pesticides Safely
Storage Tips
The proper storage of pesticides, both synthetic and botanical, in and around the home is important for many reasons, including protecting human health, preserving the environment, and maintaining chemical effectiveness. One way to minimize storage problems is through good planning.

Buy only the amount of pesticide that you need for a specific job or for the current growing season. The smaller-volume containers, even if more expensive ounce for ounce, may in fact be the "best buy" in the long run by eliminating waste and the need for storage space. If you need to store pesticides on your property, follow these guidelines - for safety's sake!

May 1, 2009 426-705
Striped Cucumber Beetle Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-61NP
The pest caterpillars of cole crops in Virginia

Caterpillars, or the larval stage of Lepidoptera, are probably the most damaging of insect groups that feed on cole crops, such as collard, kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, and Chinese cabbage. Caterpillars typically feed on foliage reducing marketability or outright killing plants. The most common and damaging caterpillars in Virginia cole crops are diamondback moth (DBM), cabbage looper (CL), and imported cabbageworm (ICW). In addition to these key species, there are several other species of caterpillars that will be observed feeding on cole crops that may or may not be a threat to yield of the crop. These species are summarized in Table 1. Normally pest management is meant to target all caterpillars, treating them as one pest “complex;” however, there are some noteworthy differences between the caterpillar species in their life histories and feeding behaviors where proper identification is sometimes necessary.

Mar 2, 2012 ENTO-2
Thrips
Adult thrips are small, pale-yellow insects (occasionally black) with elongated bodies, and fringed wings.

Life Cycle

Their life cycle consists of an egg, nymph, pre-pupa, pupa and an adult. The exact time required for thrips to complete their life cycle varies with species, temperature and the host plant. Western flower thrips complete their life cycle, from egg to adult, in approximately 10 days at 80° F. Adults insert eggs in leaf tissue which hatch in approximately three days. Nymphs feed for four to five days and then drop from the plant to pupate in the soil. Adults emerge after two days of pupation and begin feeding.
May 1, 2009 444-281
Tulip Tree Leaf Miner (Sassafras Weevil)

Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.

May 1, 2009 444-279
Turf and Garden Tips: What can be done about crayfish in lawns? Aug 16, 2013 CSES-64NP
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner

In the larval stage, both the twig girdler and twig pruner are creamy white in color and up to 2 inches in length. They look like typical roundheaded borers in that their heads and bodies are cylindrical in shape and they have legs that are reduced to very small claws. The adult twig girdler is about 5/8 inch long and has a pair of long antennae. The color is brown with irregular patches of fine gray hairs and the antennae are spines on the segments closest to the head.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1423
Understanding Pesticide Labels

Research has shown that consumers find reading and understanding the label to be the most difficult aspect of applying pesticides safely. However, it is essential that you understand the label information before you begin work. The label printed on or attached to a container of pesticide tells you how to use it correctly and warns of any environmental or health safety measures to take.

May 1, 2009 426-707
Urban Water-Quality Management Insect Pests of Water Garden Plants

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

(numerous aquatic plants)

Aphids are often called plant lice. Several species are troublesome pests on above-water leaves (a), stems, and flower buds of aquatic plants. These sucking insects distort succulent new leaves, causing them to curl, wilt, or turn yellow. Adults are 1/8 inch long and can be winged (c) or wingless (b) with soft pear-shaped bodies with two distinctive cornicles or "tailpipes" protruding from the backs of their abdomens. 

May 1, 2009 426-040
Weeds in the Home Vegetable Garden

The most common definition of a weed is a plant out of place. Many plants that are considered weeds in the vegetable garden are beneficial wildflowers in other settings. Some, such as the Venice mallow (or flower-of-an-hour), morning glory, and even thistles, have flowers that rival those intentionally planted in flower beds. Unfortunately, some of the plants, while attractive in the wild, are too aggressive for use in the home garden and can take over the landscape. Seeds of even very obnoxious wild flowers may be sold occasionally, so care must be used in the selection of wildflowers vs. weeds.

May 1, 2009 426-364
White Pine Weevil

Distribution and Hosts

The white pine weevil (WPW) is found throughout Virginia. Its preferred hosts are eastern white pine and Norway spruce, but it can attack Scotch and other pines as well.

Description of Damage

The WPW usually attacks only the upright terminal leader. The previous year¹s leader (first whorl) and the new growth both die from the attack. Damage is first evident in March or early April when overwintering females chew holes in the leader for feeding and egg laying. These holes, eight inches to ten inches below the terminal bud, produce resinous bleeding that eventually dries to a white crust. By late May or early June, the larval damage is evident as the current year¹s leader droops like a shepherds crook, turns pale yellow and then brown. In July, the attacked shoot will have 1/8-inch diameter exit holes and tunnels and sawdust under the bark. A lateral shoot will eventually take over as the terminal leader but may have to be trained and have competing shoots removed. Trees of medium size, four feet to 40 feet, are most commonly attacked. WPW is a serious pest of forest plantations, Christmas tree farms, yard plantings, and landscapes.
May 1, 2009 444-270
Whiteflies
Whiteflies are white insects with pale yellow bodies that are approximately 2 mm long. They belong to the order Homoptera and are close relatives of aphids, scales, mealybugs, hoppers and cicadas.

Life Cycle

The life cycle consists of an egg, 4 nymphal instars, a pupal and an adult stage. Depending on the species and environmental conditions, eggs require 10-12 days to hatch, and completion of life cycle from egg to adult takes 30-40 days. Nymphal instars behave in a manner similar to scale insects. The first nymphal instars are active and they are sometimes called crawlers. The remaining nymphal instars are sedentary and may mimic immature scales.
May 1, 2009 444-280
Widow Spiders Dec 18, 2012 444-422
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596
Yellowjackets Sep 26, 2013 ENTO-49NP